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[Mission 2023] INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY 22 March 2023

InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

  1. National Security Act
  2. National Strategy and Roadmap for Medical and Wellness Tourism

 

GS Paper 3:

  1. House panel suggests prepaid cards for power to save groundwater
  2. India misses Renewable Energy: Parliamentary panel
  3. 14 guidelines to address Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC)

 

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1. “Stories of Change”

 

Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Indian New Year
  2. Speedy Trial of Legislators
  3. Reservation to those converted to SC
  4. World Happiness Report 2023
  5. City Finance Rankings, 2022
  6. AT1 Bond
  7. UIDAI’s initiatives for Aadhaar eco-system
  8. C-Veda
  9. Terminator Zone
  10. Hasdeo forest: Home to Lemru Elephant Reserve
  11. Protection of Loktak Lake and Keibul Lamjao National Park

 


 

14 guidelines to address Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC)

GS  Paper 3

 Syllabus: Environment Conservation

 

Source: PIB

 Context: Union Ministry for Environment, Forest and Climate Change released 14 guidelines to address Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC)

 

The objective of the guidelines:

  • To facilitate a common understanding of effective and efficient mitigation of HWC among key stakeholders
  • To facilitate the development of site-specific HWC mitigation measures

 

The guidelines:

  • 10 species-specific guidelines-Guidelines for Mitigating Human-Elephant, -Gaur, -Leopard, -Snake, -Crocodile, -Rhesus Macaque, -Wild Pig, -Bear, -Blue Bull and -Blackbuck Conflict; and
  • 4 guidelines on cross-cutting issues-
    • Guidelines for Cooperation between the Forest and Media sector in India: Towards effective communication on Human-Wildlife Conflict Mitigation
    • Occupational Health and Safety in the Context of Human-Wildlife Conflict Mitigation
    • Crowd Management in Human-Wildlife Conflict-Related Situations
    • Addressing Health Emergencies and Potential Health Risks Arising Out ofHuman—Wildlife Conflict Situations: Taking a One Health Approach.

 

About the guidelines:

The guidelines are developed under the Indo-German cooperation project on HWC Mitigation. The guidelines are advisory in nature. A review of these guidelines is planned to take place every five years from 2023 onwards.

 

About Human-Wildlife Conflict:

Description
DefinitionStruggles arising due to direct, recurring threats to human interests or needs posed by wildlife
CausesHabitat loss, growth of animal population, changing cropping patterns, movement of animals to human-dominated landscapes, movement of humans to forests, habitat degradation, etc.
ImpactsLoss of life, injury to both animals and humans, damage to crops and agricultural land, rise in violence against animals
Examples222 elephants killed by electrocution between 2018-19 and 2020-21; 29 tigers killed by poaching between 2019 and 2021; 1,579 humans killed by elephants between 2019-20 and 2021-22
InitiativesAdvisory for Management of Human-Wildlife Conflict; Empowering gram panchayats; Approach of coexistence between humans and wildlife; Involvement of local communities in conservation; Culture based conservation Model; providing insurance, augmenting fodder, taking proactive measures, providing instant relief
Wildlife Institute of India GuidelinesIt suggests modification in the designs of the linear infrastructures by way of providing an eco-friendly structure that will ensure the safe movement of wildlife across these linear infrastructures.
Case studyCultural Model of Conservation: Maldhari Tribe in Junagadh (Gujarat): The success of lion conservation in the Gir forest area is due to the peaceful coexistence of tribes with lions.

 

Insta Links

Human-animal conflict

 

Mains Links

Why is human-wildlife conflict on the rise? What solutions are there to help humans and wildlife coexist and how do they benefit all involved?

 

Prelims Links

Consider the following statements in respect of Trade Related Analysis of Fauna and Flora in Commerce (TRAFFIC): (UPSC 2017)

  1. TRAFFIC is a bureau under United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
  2. The mission of TRAFFIC is to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation of nature.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

 

Ans: B

India misses Renewable Energy: Parliamentary panel

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Infrastructure/Environment/Conservation

 

Source: TH

Context: A parliamentary panel has attributed the low installation of solar roof-top and wind energy projects as key reasons for the shortfall in achieving India’s renewable energy (RE) capacity target of 175 GW by 2022.

 

Background:

  • India set an ambitious target (in 2014) of installing 175 GW of RE capacity by the year 2022, which included 100 GW (solar), 60 GW (wind), 10 GW (bio-power), and 5 GW (small hydropower).
  • While India has enhanced its promises to RE in the “Long-Term Low-Carbon Development Plan” presented at the UNFCCC COP27, it appears that the nation will fall short of one of its initial pledges in the RE sector.

 

Findings of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Energy:

  • A RE capacity of90 GW (69% of the overall target) has been installed in the country as of December 31, 2022.
  • This is a commendable achievement, as the RE installed capacity has increased by more than 236% since 2014.
  • Whatever shortfall has occurred in achieving the target is because of the low installation of solar roof-tops and wind energy projects.
    • Against 40 GW, only 7.40 GW of rooftop solar projects could be installed in the country.
    • Against 60 GW, the cumulative installed capacity of wind power is 41.93 GW.

 

Issues responsible for deficient performance under the solar rooftop programme:

  • Non-availability of information at the grass root level,
  • Lack of awareness about this scheme amongst the masses,
  • The apathy of discoms, etc.

 

Recommendations:

  • Keeping in view India’s commitment to increase its non-fossil fuel-based energy capacity to 500 GW by 2030, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) must ramp up its pace for the timely achievement of targets.
  • A strict timeline should be imposed for approvals/rejection of applications, installation of net-metre, an inspection of the system, etc., by the discoms.
    • As of Feb 2023, out of 43,171 applications received on the National Portal, 18437 – were approved by DISCOMs, 3031 – were rejected on technical grounds and the rest are pending.
  • Discoms may be incentivised to allay their concerns about losing their high-paying customers as a result of the installation of solar rooftops.
  • The MNRE should increase its fund absorption capacity and focus on exhaustive utilization of the budgetary allocation.
    • In the Union Budget 2023-24, Rs 10,222 crore has been allocated to MNRE with an increase of 45% against the Revised Estimates of 2022.

 

Insta Links:

Solar energy is not the best option for India

 

Mains Links:

Give an account of the current status and the targets to be achieved pertaining to renewable energy sources in the country. Discuss in brief the importance of the National Programme on Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). (UPSC 2016)

National Strategy and Roadmap for Medical and Wellness Tourism

GS Paper 2/3

Syllabus: Government policies/Issues Relating to Health/Economy

 

Source: PIB

 Context: With an aim to improve medical tourism in the country, the Ministry of Tourism has formulated a National Strategy and Roadmap for Medical and Wellness Tourism (2022).

 

Background: India has been ranked 10th in the Medical Tourism Index (MTI) for 2020-2021 out of 46 destinations in the world by the Medical Tourism Association.

 

Medical vs wellness tourism:

  • Medical tourism (valued at $60-80 billion globally) primarily addresses the “poor health” end of the market, with patients travelling to another place for specific medical treatments.
  • Wellness tourism (~$639 billion), on the other hand, attracts those seeking destinations that extend their wellness lifestyle and help them proactively maintain and improve their health and well-being.
  • As far as medical tourism is concerned, India currently has a $5-6 billion market (2019 figure) that may rise to $13 billion by 2026.

 

Govt. efforts to boost the medical tourism sector in India:

 

Streamlining Medical Value Travel (MVT): A segment that attracted 0.7 million foreign tourists in pre-pandemic 2019.

  • MVT is a specialised service by Hospitals and Wellness centres including both modern as well as traditional systems of medicine.
  • It involves healthcare service providers, VISA requirements, insurance, MVT facilitators, etc.

 

National Strategy and Roadmap for Medical and Wellness Tourism (2022): Key pillars for the development of MVT in the country:

  • Develop a brand for India as a wellness destination
  • Strengthen the ecosystem for medical and wellness tourism
  • Enable digitalization by setting up an Online Medical Value Travel (MVT) Portal
  • Enhancement of accessibility for Medical Value Travel
  • Promoting Wellness Tourism
  • Governance and Institutional Framework

 

Heal in India Initiative: The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and the Ministry of Ayush have been working with C-DAC and the Services Export Promotion Council for developing a One Step Heal in India portal for the Promotion of MVT.

 

Champion Service Sector Scheme: The Ministry of Ayush developed a Central Sector Scheme for MVT to incentivise private investors for the establishment of Super Specialty Hospitals, etc.

 

e-Tourist Visa scheme: It was liberalised and renamed as an e-Visa scheme and at present, it has e-Medical Visa and e-Medical Attendant Visa as sub-categories of e-visa.

 

National Medical & Wellness Tourism Board (NMWTB): The Ministry of Tourism constituted the Board in 2015 to provide a dedicated institutional framework to take forward the cause of promotion of Medical and Wellness Tourism.

OpportunitiesChallengesWay ahead
A huge demand – an ageing population, long waiting periods in developed countries, etc●       Regional competition (Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia)

●       Lack of international accreditation (limited awareness about NABH)

●       Overseas medical care not covered by the insurer

●       Exploitation by middlemen

●       India is currently promoted as a destination under the “Incredible India” umbrella.

●       There is an urgent need to highlight the wellness/medical tourism offerings for patients seeking such services.

●       Establish linkages between stakeholders

●       Digitalisation

 

Insta Links: Heal in India

House panel suggests prepaid cards for power to save groundwater

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

 

Source: IE

Context: In order to prevent excessive exploitation of groundwater (GW), a Parliamentary Standing Committee report recommends discouraging the use of electric pumps by introducing measures such as pre-paid cards, etc.

 

Highlights of the report – “Groundwater: A Valuable but Diminishing Resource”:

  • Over-extraction of GW for meeting irrigation needs is prevalent in Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan, meeting 97%, 90%, and 86% of their irrigation needs from GW extraction.
  • Others such as Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and UP are also significant users of GW for irrigation.

 

The main reason for such overexploitation of GW:

  • Wide cultivation of water guzzler paddy and sugarcane crops which are heavily incentivised by way of highly subsidised pricing of water, etc.
  • For example, states like Punjab, Haryana, Telangana and Tamil Nadu offer completely free power, while others collect token charges.

 

Challenges: The central government’s inability to persuade states to reduce/stop subsidies for the power given in agriculture as –

  • Water being a State subject
  • Electricity is a concurrent subject, and
  • State Electricity Regulatory Commissions determine the electricity tariff for retail supply to end consumers under the extant provisions of the Electricity Act, 2003.

 

Recommendations:

  • Devising integrated measures for adoption in agriculture.
  • Introduction of pre-paid cards for power supply, restricting it for a few hours in the day, etc.
  • A need for a shift in focus from ‘land productivity’ to ‘water productivity’ (production per cubic meter of water).
  • The Ministry of Jal Shakti to work out a policy to ensure judicious water use not only to reduce dependence on GW but to reduce its footprint in agriculture by engaging the Agriculture Ministry.
  • The Jal Shakti Ministry should urge both the Power Ministry and the Agriculture Ministry along with state governments to take measures on the suggested lines.

 

Steps taken by the Indian government:

  • Atal Bhujal Yojana is a groundwater management scheme launched in 2019.
  • Jal Shakti Abhiyan (JSA) (2019): It was launched in 256 water-stressed districts in the country to improve water availability including groundwater conditions in these areas.
  • Aquifer Mapping and Management Programme, etc.

 

Best practice:

  • The Punjab govt. introduced a scheme to refund money to the farmers if they consume less electricity.
  • Deendayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana of the Ministry of Power has a separate component of agriculture and non-agriculture feeders, facilitating judicious rostering of supply to agriculture & non-agriculture consumers in rural areas.

 

Insta Links:

UN Groundwater Summit 2022 to help raise awareness on aquifer protection, sustainable use

National Security Act

GS Paper 2

Source: Indian Express

 

Context: National Security Act has been invoked in the case of self-styled Sikh preacher and on-the-run Waris Punjab De chief Amritpal Singh.

 

About National Security Act, 1980:

  • NSA “empowers the state to detain a person without a formal charge and without trial”.
  • Under the Act, a person is taken into custody to prevent them from acting in any manner prejudicial to “the security of the state” or for “maintenance of the public order”.
  • It is an administrative order passed either by the Divisional Commissioner or the District Magistrate (DM).
  • Even if a person is in police custody, the District Magistrate can slap NSA against them. Or, if a person has been granted bail by a trial court, they can be immediately detained under the NS If the person has been acquitted by the court, the same person can be detained under the NSA.
  • The law takes away an individual’s constitutional right to be produced before the magistrate within 24 hours, as is the case when the accused is in police custody. The detained person also does not have the right to move a bail application before a criminal court.

 

What are the grounds for detention?

  • NSA can be invoked to prevent a person from acting in any manner prejudicial to the defence of India, relations of India with foreign powers or the security of India. Among others, it can also be applied to prevent a person from acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of supplies and services essential to the community.
  • An individual can be detained without a charge for a maximum period of 12 months.

 

What is the protection available under the Act?

  • The Indian Constitution allows both preventive detention and the right of protection against arrest and detention in certain cases, enshrined under Article 22 of the Constitution.
  • However, Article 22(3) provides that the rights available to an arrested person will not be applicable in case of preventive detention, thus an exception is carved out.
  • One crucial procedural safeguard under the NSA is granted under Article 22(5), where all the detained persons have the right to make an effective representation before an independent advisory board, which consists of three members; and the board is chaired by a member who is, or has been, a judge of a high court.

 

Insta Links:

National Security Act, 1980

 

Mains Link: UPSC 2017

The scourge of terrorism is a grave challenge to national security. What solutions do you suggest to curb this growing menace? What are the major sources of terrorist funding?

 

Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)


“Stories of Change”

 Source: PIB

Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) has launched a series called “Stories of Change,” which features 15 change-makers from the grassroots.

Aim: To inspire people to become entrepreneurs and showcase the potential of Indian villages for problem-solving capabilities.

AIM has established 15 Atal Community Innovation Centers in 9 states of India and plans to establish 50 such centres soon to serve unserved areas.

 

Usage: You can cite this initiative for showing government initiative for encouraging innovations among children at the grassroots level

 


Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Indian New Year

 Source: PIB

 

Related News:

Global CelebrationIndian Celebration
NavrozCelebrated on 21st March, marks the Persian new year.Celebrated in India in July-August (as per Shahenshahi Calendar)
Celebrated by Parsis and Muslims worldwide.Celebrated by Parsis in India
Introduced in 1079 AD by Persian King Jalaluddin to generate revenue and collect taxes from people.Known as Jamshed-i-Navroz after Persian King Jamshed who started the Shahenshahi Calendar.
Navroz is included in UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List

The equinoxes are the only time when both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere experience roughly equal amounts of daytime and nighttime.

 

Consider the following pairs: (2018)

Tradition                                 State

  1. Chapchar Kut festival — Mizoram
  2. Khongjom Parba ballad — Manipur
  3. Thang-Ta dance — Sikkim

Which of the pairs given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 2 and 3 only

 

Ans: B

 

Speedy Trial of Legislators

Source: Th

Context: SC has suggested a State-specific approach (and not a “one-size-fits-all” approach)  to setting up special courts for the speedy trial of legislators.

 

Data:

  • Criminal cases against legislators are 5097, with 400 of them concerning heinous offences.
  • Around a third of the criminal cases against elected representatives in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies have been pending for at least five years
  • 30% of criminal cases against MPs, and MLAs pending trial

 

Background:

In 2017, the Supreme Court ordered that special courts be set up across the country to fast-track the long-pending trials of lawmakers.

  • Following this, 12 special courts were set up across 11 States exclusively to try sitting MPs and MLAs.

 

Other observations by SC:

The court is also considering a plea for a lifetime ban on people convicted of offences from contesting elections and becoming Members of Parliament and State Legislative Assemblies. However, the government had opposed it in 2020.

 

  • Currently, legislators face disqualification under the Representation of the People Act of 1951 for the period of the prison sentence and six years thereafter

 

Reservation to those converted to SC

 Source: IE

 Context: The Kerala HC declared the election of a legislator (A Raja) as null and void, holding that as a baptised Christian, he is ineligible to contest from a seat reserved for members of the SC.

 

Issue of the reservation to Christians/Muslims converted to SC:

  • The Constitution (Scheduled Caste) Order, 1950 challenged in the present case was based on historical data which established that “no backwardness or oppression was ever faced by members of Christian or Islamic Society.”
    • It allowed only Hindus to be classified as SCs and was later amended to include Sikhs in 1956, and Buddhists in 1990.
  • The Centre had established a commission, under former CJI KG Balakrishnan, to examine the grant of SC status to persons converted to religions other than in the Presidential Orders issued under Article 341 of the Constitution.
  • Under Article 341 –
    • The President may with respect to any State (after consultation with the Governor) or UT, may notify the SCs in relation to that State/UT.
    • The Parliament may by law include or exclude from the list of SCs specified in a notification issued.

 

Other recommendations:

  • The National Commission for Religious and Linguistic Minorities, headed by erstwhile CJI Ranganath Misra, recommended a complete delinking of religion from the classification of SCs in 2007.
    • However, Parliament rejected these recommendations on account of inadequate field data.
  • The Sachar Committee, to examine the socio-economic conditions of Indian Muslims, 2006 observed that the situation of Dalit Muslims did not improve even after conversion.
    • The report placed Muslims below SCs and STs in backwardness.

 

World Happiness Report 2023

 Source: The Hindu, WHR

 Context: For the sixth year running, Finland was named the world’s happiest country in an annual U.N.-sponsored index that saw acts of kindness grow in Ukraine despite the Russian invasion.

  • India was ranked 126 of the 137 countries on the list.

 

Key Highlights of the report:

  • Northern Europe once again dominated the top spots — with Denmark in second place followed by Iceland.
  • While the same countries typically top the list each year, Baltic countries are rising rapidly towards Western European levels.
  • War-scarred Afghanistan, which has occupied the bottom spot on the table since 2020, saw its humanitarian crisis deepen since the Taliban government took power in 2021 following the US-led military pull-out.

About World Happiness Report:

  • The World Happiness Report, first published in 2012, is based on people’s own assessment of their happiness, as well as economic and social data.
  • The report considers six key factors: social support, income, health, freedom, generosity, and absence of corruption.
  • It assigns a happiness score based on an average of data over a three-year period.

AT1 Bond

 Source: IE

 Context: Recently, the Swiss government-brokered takeover of Credit Suisse by its larger rival UBS has wiped out the investment of bondholders and created fear for AT1 bondholders

 

What is a Bond?

Bonds are a type of security instrument, issued by governments and corporations when they want to raise money.

 

What is an AT1 bond?

AT1 bonds – sometimes known as contingent convertible bonds, or CoCos – are a type of debt issued by a bank that can be converted into equity if its capital levels fall below requirements.

 

Why AT1 Bond?

 It was introduced after the global financial crisis of 2007-08, banks were asked to operate using their own permanent capital as opposed to borrowed capital. This permanent capital is termed Tier 1 capital

Now, to shore up their Tier 1 capital, banks were allowed to raise a special class of bonds known as AT1 bonds from investors. AT1 bonds, like other bonds, pay regular interest. But they do not have a maturity date, as they are a permanent part of the bank’s capital, akin to equity.

AT1 bonds are the riskiest bond as the issuing bank can skip premium and interest payout if it is falling short of capital

 

UIDAI’s initiatives for Aadhaar eco-system

 Source: PIB

 Context: 1670 Central and State social welfare (DBT) and good governance schemes have been notified for use of the Aadhaar.

 

Biometrics-based de-duplication:

  • Facial image+ 10 fingerprints and two IRIS
  • Capability to detect attempted enrolment by using wrong fingers, non-human fingers, gummy fingers, inverted IRIS images, the closing of eyes, etc.
  • Liveliness check of fingerprints: Liveness detection detects a spoof attempt by determining whether the source of a biometric sample is a live human being or a fake representation.
  • Face authentication with liveliness check

 

Strengthening the Aadhaar Enrolment ecosystem

  • GPS fencing has been embedded in the Enrolment machines: An operator is required to verify the credentials of the Enrolment machine regularly with the UIDAI data centre and only a limited number of enrolments are allowed per day per machine.
  • Quality check: State governments have been roped in for a quality check of all new adult enrolments.

Related news:

ABPS (Aadhar-based payment system) and NACH (national automated clearing house) will continue to be used for MGNREGA payment of wages.

About ABPS:

It has been developed by the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI). It enables payment to Aadhar-linked bank accounts in a transparent manner.

About NACH:

It is a web-based solution to facilitate interbank, high-volume, electronic transactions of repetitive and periodic nature. It is being used for MGNREGS payments when the beneficiary account is not linked with ABPS.

 

About UIDAI:

The UIDAI is a statutory authority established under the provisions of the Aadhaar Act, 2016 by the Government of India. It was founded in 2009 (through executive order).

 

C-Veda

 Source: TH

 Context: A recent study, under the C-Veda project, has evaluated and compared neurological development and generated brain-development charts across ages, similar to charts for physical growth.

C-Veda is an India-UK project (jointly funded by ICMR and UK’s Newton Grant from Medical Research Council (MRC))

Objective: It aims to investigate if environmental and genetic risk factors in industrialised countries and emerging societies distinctly shape brain function and behaviour. It has now established the largest neurodevelopmental database in India.

 

Terminator Zone

Context: In a recent study, astronomers from the University of California explained the possibility of extra-terrestrial life on far-off exoplanets within a special region known as the “terminator zone”

What is Terminator Zone?

A terminator or twilight zone is a moving line that divides the daylit side and the dark night side of a planetary body.

  • So, one side is always facing its star and one side that is always dark. It could exist in a “just right” temperature zone between too hot and too cold. Terminator zone planet can retain liquid water.

Exoplanet: An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside the Solar System.

 

Hasdeo forest: Home to Lemru Elephant Reserve

 Source: BBC

 Context: Tribal villagers near Hasdeo forest in the state of Chhattisgarh, India, have been protesting against the proposed opening of a new coal mine by the Adani Group.

 

About Hasdeo forest:

The Hasdeo forest (spanning over 170 sq km) and is often called the “lungs of Chhattisgarh“, is said to be the largest contiguous stretch of dense forestland in central India.

 

About Lemru Elephant Reserve:

  • Location: Korba district of Chhattisgarh.
  • The state government notified the reserve (Conservation Reserve) in October 2020 under Section 36A of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972(WLPA).

In India, elephant reserves and corridors have no legal sanctity under any law, including the Wildlife Protection Act (WLPA), 1972. The act mentions only national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, conservation and community reserves (collectively called Protected Areas).

 

Protection of Loktak Lake and Keibul Lamjao National Park

 Source: India Today

 Context: Centre advises the state government to take steps for the protection of Loktak Lake and Keibul Lamjao National Park.

 About Loktak lake:

  • Located in the state of Manipur, it’s the largest freshwater lake in Northeast India.
  • Known for its floating circular swamps, which are called phumdis in the local tongue.
  • The lake houses the only floating national park in the world, the Keibul Lamjao National Park, which is the last refuge of the endangered brow-antlered deer or sangai, Manipur’s state animal.
  • Loktak lake was initially designated as a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention in 1990.
  • Later it was also listed under the Montreux Record in 1993.

 

Optional:

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Agriculture:

 

Economy

 

Law:

 

PSIR

 

Sociology

 

West Bengal PSC:

 

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