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Groundwater plays an important role in providing water supply for various purposes, including domestic, agricultural, and industrial. However, the overexploitation of groundwater and other factors pose a threat to its sustainability. Evaluate.

Topic: geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

1. Groundwater plays an important role in providing water supply for various purposes, including domestic, agricultural, and industrial. However, the overexploitation of groundwater and other factors pose a threat to its sustainability. Evaluate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Down to Earth , Insights on India

Why the question:

Over the last decade, groundwater plunged by 0.59 m from 6.27 metres below ground level (mbgl) to 6.86 mbgl. According to the latest Central Groundwater Board report, in 2013 the occurrence of fluoride in groundwater was as high as 4.95 milligrams per litre. This is almost four times higher than the permissible limit of fluoride in drinking water as prescribed by the World Health Organization.

Key Demand of the question:

To write importance of ground water, the limitations in the present approach of its utilisation and changes required to it.

Directive word: 

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidence.  You must appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming an opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving statistic related to the status of ground water in the county.

Body:

First, write about the importance of groundwater.

Next, write about the issues in the present approach towards utilisation of ground water – Overexploitation of groundwater and intensive irrigation in major canal commands has posed serious problems for groundwater managers in India. Depletion of water tables, saltwater encroachment, drying of aquifers, groundwater pollution, water logging and salinity, etc. are major consequences of overexploitation and intensive irrigation.

Next, write about the changes that are needed to be taken in the new approach in order to ensure sustainable use of groundwater.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.