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14 guidelines to address Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC)

GS  Paper 3

 Syllabus: Environment Conservation


Source: PIB

 Context: Union Ministry for Environment, Forest and Climate Change released 14 guidelines to address Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC)


The objective of the guidelines:

  • To facilitate a common understanding of effective and efficient mitigation of HWC among key stakeholders
  • To facilitate the development of site-specific HWC mitigation measures


The guidelines:

  • 10 species-specific guidelines-Guidelines for Mitigating Human-Elephant, -Gaur, -Leopard, -Snake, -Crocodile, -Rhesus Macaque, -Wild Pig, -Bear, -Blue Bull and -Blackbuck Conflict; and
  • 4 guidelines on cross-cutting issues-
    • Guidelines for Cooperation between the Forest and Media sector in India: Towards effective communication on Human-Wildlife Conflict Mitigation
    • Occupational Health and Safety in the Context of Human-Wildlife Conflict Mitigation
    • Crowd Management in Human-Wildlife Conflict-Related Situations
    • Addressing Health Emergencies and Potential Health Risks Arising Out ofHuman—Wildlife Conflict Situations: Taking a One Health Approach.


About the guidelines:

The guidelines are developed under the Indo-German cooperation project on HWC Mitigation. The guidelines are advisory in nature. A review of these guidelines is planned to take place every five years from 2023 onwards.


About Human-Wildlife Conflict:

DefinitionStruggles arising due to direct, recurring threats to human interests or needs posed by wildlife
CausesHabitat loss, growth of animal population, changing cropping patterns, movement of animals to human-dominated landscapes, movement of humans to forests, habitat degradation, etc.
ImpactsLoss of life, injury to both animals and humans, damage to crops and agricultural land, rise in violence against animals
Examples222 elephants killed by electrocution between 2018-19 and 2020-21; 29 tigers killed by poaching between 2019 and 2021; 1,579 humans killed by elephants between 2019-20 and 2021-22
InitiativesAdvisory for Management of Human-Wildlife Conflict; Empowering gram panchayats; Approach of coexistence between humans and wildlife; Involvement of local communities in conservation; Culture based conservation Model; providing insurance, augmenting fodder, taking proactive measures, providing instant relief
Wildlife Institute of India GuidelinesIt suggests modification in the designs of the linear infrastructures by way of providing an eco-friendly structure that will ensure the safe movement of wildlife across these linear infrastructures.
Case studyCultural Model of Conservation: Maldhari Tribe in Junagadh (Gujarat): The success of lion conservation in the Gir forest area is due to the peaceful coexistence of tribes with lions.


Insta Links

Human-animal conflict


Mains Links

Why is human-wildlife conflict on the rise? What solutions are there to help humans and wildlife coexist and how do they benefit all involved?


Prelims Links

Consider the following statements in respect of Trade Related Analysis of Fauna and Flora in Commerce (TRAFFIC): (UPSC 2017)

  1. TRAFFIC is a bureau under United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
  2. The mission of TRAFFIC is to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation of nature.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2


Ans: B