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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

  1. Trans and gay people, women sex workers can’t donate blood: What the Centre said in SC
  2. A chance for India to shape a data governance regime
  3. IPES report highlights global hunger crisis amid high debt
  4. ‘Least Developed Country’ status and Doha Political Declaration


GS Paper 3:

  1. The significance of the rise in India’s petroleum product exports to the EU
  2. The government emphasizes a holistic approach to disaster management


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1. The Elephant Whisperers
  2. Hustle culture


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. IREDA 
  2. The Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH)
  3. Steps Taken for Sustainable Management of Water Resources
  4. Japanese encephalitis
  5. Scientists devise ‘glowscope’ to bring fluorescent microscopy to schools
  6. Smoke particles from wildfires can erode ozone layer: MIT study
  7. Operation Trishul
  8. Vayulink 


Trans and gay people, women sex workers can’t donate blood: What the Centre said in SC

GS Paper 2

Source: The Hindu, Indian Express


Direction: This is in continuation of yesterday’s article regarding legalising same-sex marriage.

Context: The Centre recently told the Supreme Court, that the exclusion of transgenders, gay people, and female sex workers as blood donors by including them in the “at risk” category for HIV, Hepatitis B, or C infections is based on due consideration of scientific evidence.


  • The Central government’s response came after Thangjam Singh, a member of the transgender community, moved the Supreme Court seeking to strike down the prohibition on gay and transgender people from donating blood under clauses 12 and 51 of the ‘Guidelines for Blood Donor Selection & Blood Donor Referral, 2017’ issued by the National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC) and the National Aids Control Organisation on October 11, 2017.

Petitioners’ argument:

  • Thangjam said that such exclusion based on one’s gender identity and sexual orientation is “completely arbitrary, unreasonable, and discriminatory and also unscientific.”
  • The plea adds that since the blood is tested for infectious diseases like AIDS/ HIV, Hepatitis C, and B; permanently excluding persons based on their sexual preference violates their right to equality.

What is the government’s argument for the exclusion?

  • In its affidavit, the government said that the exclusion of transgender and gays from blood donation is premised on scientific evidence. The affidavit cites research from a slew of local and international “reputed scientific journals” such as the International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health and the International Journal of STD & AIDS.
  • The Centre also referred to the Annual Report of the Department of Health and Family Welfare (2020-2021) pointing to a three to six times higher HIV prevalence among adults who are Hijras, Transgenders, MSM (Men who have sex with men), and female sex workers.

Related News:

Children of lesbian, gay parents do not necessarily become lesbians, gays: SC informs government

Context: Growing up with lesbian or gay parents will not necessarily make a child lesbian or gay, Supreme Court confronted the government’s concern about the “psychological” impact same-sex marriages may have on children.

  • The case involved an “interplay” between constitutional rights of life, liberty, dignity, and equal treatment of members of the LGBTQ+ community on one side and specific statutory enactments that consider only a married union between a biological man and woman on the other side.


Insta Links:

A chance for India to shape a data governance regime

GS Paper 2

 Syllabus: Important aspects of governance and accountability, e-governance (applications)


Source: TH

Context: India’s G-20 presidency has provided an opportunity for the country to ensure that its digital strategies and data governance are inclusive, transparent, secure and conducive to sustainable development.



  • In recent years, India has made great strides in its digital strategies/data governance → by embracing technology (say, UPI) and digitalisation → driving economic growth → improving the lives of citizens.
  • However, the issues of ownership and governance of data generated and collected and data sovereignty have become increasingly important.
    • Data sovereignty is the idea that data is subject to the laws and governance structures of the nation where they are collected.
  • Given this, it is unreasonable to deny people control over their data and India’s DEPA – a consent management tool, has generated both excitement and concern among stakeholders.


Data Empowerment and Protection Architecture (DEPA):

  • It was launched by the NITI Aayog in 2020 on the premise that individuals themselves are the best judges of the ‘right’ uses of their personal data.
  • It is designed as an evolvable/agile framework for good data governance that empowers people to seamlessly and securely access their data and share it with third-party institutions.


3 key building blocks of DEPA:

  • Enabling regulations,
  • Cutting-edge technology standards, and
  • New types of public and private organisations with incentives closely aligned to those of individuals.


Advantages of DEPA:

  • Potential to improve data protection and privacy for citizens
  • Allowing individuals to easily manage and control their data consent
  • Build trust in digital technologies and data governance.


Risks associated with DEPA:

  • Personal data could be misused or misappropriated if the consent management tool is not properly implemented.
  • An implementation may be inconsistent across different sectors and jurisdictions → undermine effectiveness, and create confusion among citizens.


Way ahead:

  • The DEPA must be implemented in a transparent, consistent and secure manner → requires close collaboration between all the stakeholders.
  • Clear, transparent and accountable data governance policies and regulations.
    • India Data Management Office (IDMO) proposed by MeitY will frame/manage review/revise the National Data Governance Framework Policy (NDGFP).
  • Investment in the necessary digital infrastructure and skills.
    • India Stack is a unified software platform that provides digital public goods, and application interfaces and facilitates digital inclusion.
  • Advances in financial inclusion (UPI) can be replicated successfully in other areas (health, agriculture).
  • International cooperation and collaboration in addressing risks posed by the rapid growth of data and digital technologies.


Conclusion: It is important for India to navigate a middle way between restrictive data sovereignty and limitless data flow for the development of ethical and responsible data governance practices.


Insta Links:

Public Consultation on Draft National Data Governance Framework Policy

IPES report highlights global hunger crisis amid high debt

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Issues relating to Poverty and Hunger


Source: DTE

Context: According to a special report by the IPES-Food, at least 21 countries were nearing catastrophic levels of both debt distress and rising hunger in 2022.

International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES-Food): Since 2015, this diverse and independent panel of experts has uniquely shaped the debate on global food systems reform, through policy-oriented research and direct engagement with policy processes.


Highlights of the report – ‘Breaking the cycle of unsustainable food systems, hunger and debt’:

  • Global public debt was at its highest levels in almost 60 years and countries were having to choose between repaying debts and feeding people.
    • 21 countries (including Afghanistan, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Haiti, and Sri Lanka) were nearing catastrophic levels of both debt distress and rising hunger.
    • This is even when record-high food prices have receded currently, a year after Russia’s war on Ukraine.
  • About 60% of low-income countries and 30% of middle-income countries were considered at high risk of debt distress.
  • The world’s poorest countries saw the costs of servicing their debt increase by 35% in 2022.
  • They paid 47% of external debt payments to private lenders, 12% to China, 14% to other governments and the remaining to multilateral institutions like the IMF.


On India:

  • Several countries are now stuck in what has been described as a ‘fertilizer trap’: India (with $26 billion budgeted in 2022), Kenya, and the Philippines are among a host of governments ramping up fertilizer subsidies in the face of the crisis, alongside rising fuel import costs.


Success case study: 

Natural farming (Andhra Pradesh): In contrast to Sri Lanka’s botched top-down organic transition, the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh has engaged some 620,000 farmers in a sequenced transition to chemical-free, ‘natural farming’, with initial data suggesting higher household incomes, yield increases, cost savings, improved quality of soils and crops, as well as reduced stress and better health.


Reasons behind this crisis:

  • Import dependencies (Africa’s food import dependency has tripled → food price spikes), extractive financial flows, boom-bust commodity cycles and unsustainable/climate-vulnerable food systems.
  • Higher costs for imports and debt repayments.
  • This required them to earn dollars via crop exports (to pay down their debts) rather than meeting local food needs.


How will this impact countries?

  • A debt crisis could plunge millions more into hunger, and poverty
  • Reversing decades of progress and sparking further instability and conflict


Way ahead:

  • The report called for urgent action to provide debt relief and development finance on a scale to meet the needs of
  • It also urged policymakers to repair historical injustices that have left countries funnelling profits and exports to the global North.
  • For this, windfall taxes on food profiteers and steps to achieve tax justice, and climate justice are needed as soon as possible.

Insta Links:

World facing a worst global hunger crisis

‘Least Developed Country’ status

GS Paper 2

Syllabus:  Important International institutions.


Source: Indian Express

Context: Bhutan will become the seventh nation to graduate from the United Nations (UN) list of Least Developed Countries (LDC).

What is a Least Developed Country (LDC)?

According to the UN, an LDC is defined as “a country that exhibits the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with low levels of income, human capital and economic diversification, high levels of economic vulnerability, and a population that is disproportionately reliant on agriculture, natural resources, and primary commodities.”

The UN identifies three criteria for a country to be classified as an LDC:

  • It must have a gross national income (GNI) per capita below the threshold of USD 1,230 over a three-year average.
  • It must perform poorly on a composite human assets index based on indicators including nutrition, health and education.
  • The country must demonstrate economic vulnerability such as being prone to natural disasters and possessing structural economic constraints.

How does a country get off the LDC list?

  • A nation must have a GNI per capita of at least USD 1,242 for two consecutive triennial reviews in order to meet the income requirement.
  • By using measures like education, health, and nutrition, a nation must show that it has improved its human capital in order to achieve the human assets requirement.
  • A nation also must show that it has improved its ability to withstand external economic shocks like natural catastrophes or shifts in commodity prices in order to pass the economic vulnerability test.

Advantages of being an LDC

  • Being an LDC confers certain economic benefits to the listed country.
  • LDCs also enjoy duty-free and quota-free (DFQF) access to the markets of developed countries.
  • LDCs are also eligible for loans with special terms for development, which include loans with a lower interest rate and a longer repayment time than those given to other nations.

Related News:

Doha Political Declaration

Source: DTE                                                                                                           

Context:  The Fifth United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries (LDC5) concluded with the adoption of the ‘Doha Political Declaration’ by world leaders.

With just under eight years left to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, the declaration focuses on implementing the Doha Programme of Action (DPoA) — the 10-year plan to put the world’s 46 most vulnerable countries back on track to achieving the UN-mandated Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). 

DPoA (2022-2031) consisted of six key focus areas including eradicating poverty, leveraging the potential of science and technology to fight against multidimensional vulnerabilities and to achieve the SDGs, addressing climate change, and environmental degradation, recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic and building resilience against future shocks for risk-informed sustainable development.


Insta Links:

China’s status as a ‘developing country’ at the World Trade Organization (WTO)

The significance of the rise in India’s petroleum product exports to the EU

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources


Source: IE

 Context: India’s petroleum product exports to the EU have increased considerably over the past months as the region reduces imports of refined products from Russia, due to the war in Ukraine.



  • India is a major refiner with an annual refining capacity of about 250 million tonnes.
  • While it is also one of the top consumers of crude oil, India’s refining capacity is higher than its domestic demand.


What does the data show?

  • India’s petroleum product exports to the EU rose 20.4% year on year in April-January to 6 million tonnes, with the region climbing to the top 20 regions importing refined products from India.
  • According to the Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics (DGCIS) data, Indian refiners (particularly private) are rushing to partly fill the supply gap for the region.


Why does the rise matter? From the global oil markets perspective, suppliers like India are helping maintain a demand-supply balance, while preventing extreme price shocks.


Benefits for India:

  • Indian refiners, particularly export-oriented private sector players (Reliance Industries and Nayara Energy), stand to gain (purchase Russian oil at a discount).
  • India now finds itself playing an increasingly prominent role in the global crude oil and refined products supply map.


What is the West’s view on rising Indian exports to the EU?

  • While the West was irked at India’s rising purchases of Russian oil, countries like the US are comfortable with the rising supply of Indian refined products to the EU.
  • They see it as critical for the success of the price caps on Russian oil and refined products (imposed by G7 countries) without causing a global supply shock.


Insta Links:


Mains Links:

Account for the failure of the manufacturing sector in achieving the goal of labour-intensive exports rather than capital-intensive exports. Suggest measures for more labour-intensive rather than capital-intensive exports. (UPSC 2017)

The government emphasizes a holistic approach to disaster management

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Disaster Management


Source: PIB

Context: The 3rd Session of the National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (NPDRR) has concluded in New Delhi.


About the Session:

  • The session deliberated on 10-point agenda on Disaster Risk Reduction given by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi and the Sendai Framework apart from other issues.
  • Organized by: Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA)+ National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)+ National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)+ National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM)
  • Theme: “Building Local Resilience in a Changing Climate


PM’s 10-Point Agenda:

  • Importance of Local Resilience in Disaster Risk Reduction E.g.
    • Prime Minister’s 10-Point Agenda: Building local capacities and initiatives
    • Kutch (Gujarat): Bhunga houses of Kutch survived the earthquake to a large extent
    • Kerala: Traditional houses known as “Nalukettu,” are built with sloping roofs to prevent waterlogging during floods.
    • Local Disaster volunteers:g. Apada Mitra, Yuvak Mandal and Sakhi Mandal
  • Need for Development Sectors to Imbibe Principles of Disaster Risk Management
  • Importance of Risk Coverage for All
  • Women’s Leadership and Greater Involvement in Disaster Risk Management
  • Investment in Global Risk Mapping
  • Leveraging Technology for Disaster Risk Reduction
  • Developing a Network of Universities to Work on Disaster-Related Issues
  • Utilizing Social Media and Mobile Technologies for Disaster Risk Reduction
  • Learning from Disasters through Post-Disaster Studies
  • Need for Greater Cohesion in International Response to Disasters E.g. in wake of the recent Earthquake in Syria and Turkey, United Nations Satellite Centre (UNOSAT) activated its emergency GIS mapping service


What is Disaster Risk Reduction?

Disaster risk reduction is aimed at preventing new and reducing existing disaster risks and managing residual risk, all of which contribute to strengthening resilience and therefore to the achievement of sustainable development.

Initiatives for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)

  • Global:
  • India’s Initiatives:
    • Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure Society (CDRIS): To increase the resilience of infrastructure systems to climate and disaster risks
    • National Disaster Management Plan 2016 (NDMP): To coordinate response to natural or man-made disasters and for capacity-building in disaster resiliency and crisis response.
    • India aims to achieve zero mortality in all disasters in collaboration with state governments and response agencies
    • The Disaster Management Act, 2005, seeks to mainstream disaster risk reduction into development planning


It is a National Platform (est. 2013, HQ: New Delhi), which helps in the formulation of future National Action Plan on DRR


Related news

Government schemes to safeguard farmers vis-à-vis disasters and climate change

Source: PIB


  • Gramin Krishi Mausam Sewa scheme: Under it, Agrometeorological Advisory Services (AAS) being rendered for the benefit of farmers
  • Implementing the Per Drop More Crop scheme
  • Focusing on Integrated Farming System (IFS) for enhancing productivity and minimizing risks associated with climatic variability under the Rainfed Area Development (RAD)
  • The National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) project has been launched to develop and promote climate-resilient agriculture in vulnerable areas of the country.
  • The Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project (ICZMP) has been implemented to assist in disaster management for the coastal environment.


Insta Links


Mains Links

Discuss the need for Disaster risk reduction in India. What are the challenges involved and explain the global efforts in this direction? (250 words) 


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

The Elephant Whisperers

Source: DTE, TH

About Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is located in the Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu state at the tri-junction of three states, viz, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is a part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (1st Biosphere Reserve in India). The Reserve has tall grasses, commonly referred to as ‘Elephant Grass’

Hustle culture

Source: IE

Usage: The word ‘Hustle Culture’ can be used to denote modern-day lifestyle and work culture and issues related to it in the Essay/Ethics and Society papers


Facts for Prelims (FFP)


Source: PIB

Context: RBI has granted an ‘Infrastructure Finance Company (IFC)’ status to Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA).

  • It was earlier classified as an ‘Investment and Credit Company (ICC)’

Benefits of the IFC status:

  • Now IREDA will be able to take higher exposure to RE (Renewable Energy) financing
  • It will be able to access a wider investor base for fund mobilisation, resulting in competitive rates for fundraising.
  • It will increase the investors’ confidence, enhance the brand value, and generate a positive outlook in the market.


The grant of IFC status is a recognition of IREDA’s 36 years of infrastructure financing and development with focused development of Renewable Energy.


IREDA (est. 1987, HQ: New Delhi) has been promoting, developing and financing new and renewable sources of energy with the motto: “Energy for Ever”.It finances all RE technologies and value chains such as solar, wind, hydro, bio-energy, waste to energy, energy efficiency, e-mobility, battery storage, biofuel and new and emerging technologies. It is an important agency for the implementation of  India’s target of 500 GW installed capacity of non-fossil fuels by 2030


The Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH)

Source: Newsonair

Context: MIDH under the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare has approved three new Centers of Excellence (CoEs) for horticultural crops:

  • CoE for Kamlam (Dragon Fruit) in Bengaluru
  • CoE for Mango and Vegetables in Jajpur, Odisha
  • CoE for Vegetables and Flowers in South Goa


  • Serve as demonstration and training centres
  • CoEs will be used as a source of planting material for fruits and vegetable seedlings for protected cultivation
  • It will facilitate the transfer of technology and know-how in diverse areas, including post-harvest management, irrigation and fertigation.

About MIDH:

  • It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (Centre (60%) States (40%)) for holistic growth of the horticulture sector covering fruits, vegetables, root & tuber crops, mushrooms, etc.
  • Implementing Agency: National Horticulture Board (NHB)
  • Schemes under MIDH
    • National Horticulture Mission (NHM)
    • Horticulture Mission for North East & Himalayan States (HMNEH)
    • National Bamboo Mission (NBM)
    • Coconut Development Board (CDB)
    • Central Institute for Horticulture (CIH)


About Horticulture crops:

They are characterised by high-value crops, higher productivity per unit of area and lower requirement of irrigation and input cost.

  • India is the second-largest producer of horticulture, producing about 12 per cent of the global fruit and vegetable production.
  • In India, 10% of land in horticulture contributes to 33% of Agricultural Value.
  • Uttar Pradesh produced the largest share of horticultural crops in India


Steps Taken for Sustainable Management of Water Resources

Source: PIB

Context: Data given by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) (which monitors groundwater levels throughout the Country) shows about 60% of the wells monitored have registered a rise in groundwater levels.

  • However, the groundwater levels in some parts of the country are declining continuously.
Steps Taken by Central governmentDescription
National Water Policy 2012It advocates conservation, promotion, and protection of water, augmenting the availability of water through rainwater harvesting, direct use of rainfall, water demand management, increasing water use efficiency, water pricing including incentivisation of recycling & reuse of water etc.
Jal Shakti Abhiyan (JSA) (launched in 2019)Implemented by the Government of India to effectively harvest the monsoon rainfall through the creation of artificial recharge structures, watershed management, recharge and reuse structures, intensive afforestation and awareness generation etc.
Amrit Sarovar Mission (2022)It is aimed at developing and rejuvenating 75 water bodies in each district of the country as a part of the celebration of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav.
Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA)Constituted under the “Environment (Protection) Act, 1986” for the purpose of regulation and control of groundwater by industries, mining projects, infrastructure projects etc in the country.
Atal Bhujal Yojana (2019)Implemented by the Central Government with an outlay of Rs. 6,000 crores, in collaboration with States, in certain water-stressed areas of Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
National Aquifer Mapping Program (NAQUIM) (2012)Implemented by CGWB to cover an area of over 25 lakh sq km and share the NAQUIM study report along with management plans with States/UTs for suitable interventions.
Master Plan for Artificial Recharge to Groundwater- 2020Prepared by the CGWB with States/UTs providing a broad outline of the project and expected investments. The Master Plan envisages the construction of over 1 crore Rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge structures in the Country to harness 185 Billion Cubic Metres (BCM) of water.

Water is a State subject and the construction of large reservoirs for storage of water to meet the water requirement falls under the purview of the States.


Japanese encephalitis

Source: The Hindu

Context: A small study revealed that children who had received two doses of a live, attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine found very low levels of neutralising antibodies IgG.


About Japanese encephalitis:

  • Japanese encephalitis is a disease caused by a flavivirus that affects the membranes around the brain.
  • Transmission: The disease is transmitted to humans through bites from infected mosquitoes of the Culex species.
  • Symptoms:  a small percentage of infected people develop inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), with symptoms including sudden onset of headache, high fever, disorientation, coma, tremors and convulsions.
  • Treatment: There is no antiviral treatment for patients with JE.


Scientists devise ‘glowscope’ to bring fluorescent microscopy to schools

Source: The Hindu

Context: Researchers at Winona State University, Minnesota, have created a design for a ‘glowscope’, a device that could democratise access to fluorescence microscopy.


What is fluorescence microscopy?

  • A fluorescence microscope views an object by studying how it reemits light that it has absorbed, i.e. how it fluoresces.
  • The object is illuminated with light of a specific wavelength. Particles in the object absorb this light and reemit it at a higher wavelength (i.e. different colour). These particles are called fluorophores; the object is infused with them before being placed under the microscope.


Smoke particles from wildfires can erode ozone layer: MIT study

Source: The Hindu

Context: According to a new study the smoke from recent wildfires is threatening to slow and even reverse the recovery of Earth’s ozone layer.

About the Ozone layer:

  • The ozone layer is the protective cover shielding the Earth from the Sun’s damaging ultraviolet radiation.

More about the study:

  • Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US noted that a wildfire can pump smoke up into the stratosphere, where the particles drift for over a year.
  • The researchers identified a new chemical reaction by which smoke particles from the Australian wildfires made ozone depletion worse.
  • By triggering this reaction, the fires likely contributed to a 3-5% depletion of total ozone at mid-latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere, in regions overlying Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Africa and South America.


Operation Trishul

Source: LM

Context: Under its ‘Operation Trishul,’ the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) has extradited 33 fugitives involved in various criminal activities in the past year.

Process: CBI raises requests through Interpol channels and seeks their deportation or extradition through a formal route.

  • CBI uses Interpol’s Star Global Focal Point Network and analysis of financial crime files to not only trace suspects but also the proceeds of financial crimes.

Also, recently, India has called upon G20 countries to adopt multilateral action for faster extradition of ‘fugitive economic offenders’.

Who are ‘fugitive economic offenders’ (FEO)?

FEO is defined as an individual against whom a warrant of arrest in relation to a scheduled offence has been issued by any court in India and the value of the offence is at least Rs. 100 crore.

Fugitive economic offenders act, 2018 aims to seize the property of economic offenders who have fled the nation to avoid being prosecuted or who refuse to come back to face charges.



Source: IE

Context: The Indian armed forces are set to deploy a new homegrown system called Vayulink, which will help commanders identify friendly forces in a joint battlespace.

  • Vayulink can avert Budgam-like fratricide, give real-time data

Working: It will connect all entities, combat and non-combat, through a single link and help identify friendly forces in a combat situation whether airborne or on the ground through secure, jammer-proof communication.

  • It will also arm pilots with accurate weather data before they fly.
  • It helps in improving situational awareness and consequently aiding in effective decision-making.



Pub Ad

IE: In politics and bureaucracy, women are severely under-represented (Civil Services)


Pub Ad/ Economy

IE: Reimagining the urban­rural dichotomy (Governance)

IE: Powering the Amrit Kaal (by Union minister Hardeep S Puri)


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