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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2

  1. Women’s Reservation Bill: History, politics behind long-pending law
  2. Sri Lanka’s recovery— The significance of India’s support


GS Paper 3

  1. Amendments to PMLA rules and its impact on ‘politically exposed persons’, NGOs
  2. Breaking barriers, building inclusion
  3. Call for a legally-binding treaty to protect Earth’s orbit


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1. Parental leave


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. ‘Safe harbor’ clause in IT law
  2. India, U.S. to launch a semiconductor sub-committee
  3. SEBI
  4. Modern and smart Power Transmission System
  5. “Reddmatter”: New superconductor Material
  6. Sodium intake
  7. Antibiotic drugs on livestock
  8. Hypersonic missiles
  9. Island effect


Women’s Reservation Bill: History, politics behind long-pending law

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Social justice (Issues related to women)


Source: IE

Context: Bharat Rashtra Samithi (BRS) leader K Kavitha began a day-long hunger strike in New Delhi, demanding passage of the Women’s Reservation Bill (WRB).



Women’s Reservation Bill (WRB)

  • The Bill will reserve one-third of the total number of seats in state Assemblies and Parliament for women.
  • It was first introduced in 1996 and was referred to a Joint Parliamentary Committee (chaired by Geeta Mukherjee), which recommended –
    • Reservation for a period of 15 years;
    • Including reservation in cases where the state has less than three seats in LS;
    • Including reservation for the Delhi assembly; and
    • Changing “not less than one-third” to “as nearly as may be, one-third”, etc.
  • Two recommendations, which became major sticking points
    • Regarding reservation for OBC women (quota within a quota)
    • Reservation for women in the Rajya Sabha and legislative council
  • The Constitution (108th Amendment) Bill, 2008, was introduced in Parliament.
  • The last attempt was made in 2010 when the WBR Bill was passed in the RS but the LS never voted on it.


The demand for reservation for women in legislative bodies:

  • It is seen as a logical extension of the 72nd and 73rd constitutional amendments (1992,1993), which reserved one-third of all seats and chairperson posts for women in rural and urban local governments.
  • However, there has never been a political consensus on the issue.


Women in Parliament: India and the rest of the world:

  • Just 14% of 17th LS MPs are women (78 in total). Women make up roughly 11% of the RS.
  • While the number has increased significantly since the 1st LS (5%), it is still far lower than in many countries.
  • According to PRS data, Rwanda (61%), South Africa (43%), and even Bangladesh (21%) are ahead of India.
  • According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union’s latest report, India ranks 144 out of 193 countries in the representation of women in Parliament.


Need for greater representation for women in legislative bodies:

Proponents Opponents
●        Affirmative action → reservation in panchayats → empowerment of women

●        Gender-sensitive laws increased responsiveness

●        Decriminalise politics – fewer criminal charges

●        Political participation is a human right regardless of its instrumental value

●        Perpetuate unequal status of women → would not be perceived to be competing on merit.

●        Diverts attention from the larger electoral reform such as the criminalization of politics, inner party democracy, etc.

●        Restricts choice of voters to women candidates.

●        Rotation of reserved constituencies may reduce the incentive for an MP to work.

Conclusion: Until consensus is reached on the Women’s Reservation Bill alternate methods such as reservation in political parties, and increasing women voters’ turnout, must be undertaken.


Insta Links:

Way forward for Women in the Indian political system


Mains Links:

“The reservation of seats for women in the institution of local self-government has had a limited impact on the patriarchal character of the Indian political process”. Comment. (UPSC 2019)

Sri Lanka’s recovery | The significance of India’s support

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: International Relations


Source: TH

Context: Sri Lankan President announced that the country had cleared the last hurdles to be approved for a $2.9 billion bailout from the IMF.


Background: The country has been reeling from the covid crisis, economic mismanagement by the Rajapakse regime, mounting debts → soaring inflation → GDP/ Exports collapse → Currency collapse.


What the IMF bailout would mean for Sri Lanka?

  • Brings a lot of creditworthiness to the entire system and confidence.
  • A lot of other agencies like the World Bank, AIIB, and ADB, have lined up funds to come in.
  • Debt becomes more sustainable → access to the capital market → stabilizing the economy.


How India supported its neighbor?

  • Contrary to China, India’s support has come unconditionally, and more promptly.
  • India’s support to Sri Lanka (worth a combined $4 bn) includes –
    • Shipments of grain, fuel, essentials, medicines
    • Credit lines
    • Debt repayment relief
    • Support at the IMF to work on the bailout package
    • Support at the G20 and BIMSTEC


How did Sri Lanka respond to India’s support?

  • “India had really come to our rescue, India had provided us with a lifeline which allowed us to stay afloat during a very difficult time,” Minister of Foreign Affairs of Sri Lanka.
  • In a speech on Women’s day, Sri Lankan President thanked 3 women – Nirmala Sitharaman, Janet Yellen, and Kristalina Georgieva for helping Sri Lanka.
  • Sri Lanka is looking for more investments from India in IT, pharmaceuticals, the energy sector, education, etc.


Challenges ahead:

  • For India:
    • The controversy over Adani projects in Sri Lanka (2 wind power plants in Mannar and Pooneryn areas of [northern] Sri Lanka, West Container Terminal at Colombo Port, etc).
    • The opposition had raised issues over the manner of choosing the company.
  • For Sri Lanka: How can Sri Lanka balance its ties with China and India?
    • Sri Lanka has been a very close friend of India and doesn’t want to hurt India’s security concerns.
    • Despite all the problems China is also India’s biggest [trading] partner.
    • Similarly, Sri Lanka also wants to work with Indians and the Chinese, and the rest.

Conclusion: Sri Lankan crisis and reversal is a good example for the region – it is about being more sensitive to a neighbor’s needs rather than outspending rivals.


Insta Links:

The many ways of helping Sri Lanka


Mains Links:

In respect of India — Sri Lanka relations, discuss how domestic factors influence foreign policy. (UPSC 2013)

Breaking barriers, building inclusion

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Economy – Inclusive growth and associated issues/challenges

Source: Business Standard

Context: According to the latest Findex Report – 2021 by the World Bank, around one-third of adults still lack access to formal financial services.


About financial inclusion:

  • Financial inclusion means that individuals and businesses have access to useful and affordable financial products and services that meet their needs – transactions, payments, savings, credit, and insurance – delivered in a responsible and sustainable way.


Importance of financial inclusion:

  • Financial inclusion has been identified as an enabler for 7 of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals.  
  • The G20 committed to advancing financial inclusion worldwide and reaffirmed its commitment to implement the G20 High-Level Principles for Digital Financial Inclusion. 
  • The World Bank Group considers financial inclusion a key enabler to reduce extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity.
  • Financial inclusion has been linked to up to 14% growth in the gross domestic product in developing economies.

Challenges in achieving financial inclusion:

  • Lack of access to basic infrastructure
  • Low financial literacy
  • Limited trust in formal financial institutions
  • Insufficient regulatory framework
  • High transaction costs
  • Lack of diversity in financial services


How India’s G-20 presidency helps in improving financial inclusion:

  • The theme of India’s G20 Presidency, “Vasudhaiv Kutumbakam,” underlines the message of equitable growth and a shared future for all.
  • The G20 Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion working group met under the grouping’s Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion (GPFI) initiative.
  • The G20 Financial Inclusion Action Plan (FIAP)aims to prevent future economic crises by encouraging conditions that promote its objectives of financial inclusion and stability.
  • Four major drivers have been highlighted in the new G20 FIAP to lay the groundwork for further progress toward financial inclusion.
    • the acceptance of the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development as a worldwide framework for sustainable development
    • rapid development and penetration of digital breakthroughs,
    • greater emphasis on underprivileged populations,
    • mainstreaming financial inclusion.


Financial Inclusion Schemes in India

  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY)
  • Atal Pension Yojana (APY)
  • Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana (PMVVY)
  • Stand Up India Scheme
  • Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY)
  • Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY)
  • Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
  • Jeevan Suraksha Bandhan Yojana
  • Credit Enhancement Guarantee Scheme (CEGS) for Scheduled Castes (SCs)
  • Venture Capital Fund for Scheduled Castes under the Social Sector Initiatives
  • Varishtha Pension Bima Yojana (VPBY)


Insta Links:

Financial Inclusion


Mains Link: UPSC 2016

Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is necessary for bringing the unbanked to the institutional finance fold. Do you agree with this for the financial inclusion of the poor section of Indian society? Give arguments to justify your opinion.


Prelims Link: UPSC 2015

Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana’ has been launched for

(a) providing housing loans to poor people at cheaper interest rates

(b) promoting women’s Self-Help Groups in backward areas

(c) promoting financial inclusion in the country

(d) providing financial help to the marginalized communities

Answer: C

Amendments to PMLA rules and its impact on ‘politically exposed persons’, NGOs

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Money laundering-related issues


Source: IE

Context: The Finance Ministry has amended the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) and rules in line with the recommendations of the FATF – the global money laundering and terrorist financing watchdog.



  • The government has been struggling to deal with the pandemic-era upsurge in advertisements soliciting investment in virtual assets.
  • A 2021 report estimated India with the highest number of ‘crypto owners’ (10.07 crore), more than threefold than the 2nd-ranked U.S.
  • ED was investigating several cases related to cryptocurrency frauds wherein crypto exchanges were involved in money laundering.


Why these amendments?

  • To incorporate more disclosures for NGOs by reporting entities like financial institutions (FIs), banking companies, or intermediaries.
  • To define “politically exposed persons” (PEPs).
●        Defines PEPs: As individuals who have been entrusted with prominent public functions by a foreign country, including the

○        Heads of State/Governments,

○        Senior politicians,

○        Senior government/judicial/military officers,

○        Senior executives of state-owned corporations and

○        Important political party officials

●        The amendment is in relation to foreign PEPs and not domestic ones

●        The move brings legal uniformity and removes ambiguities (in line with FATF norms) before India’s proposed FATF assessment.

●        This will help India tackle illicit financial flows (that fuel crime and terrorism)

●        ‘Beneficial Owners’: Lowered the threshold for identifying beneficial owners by reporting entities, where the client is acting on behalf of its beneficial owner.

○        The term ‘beneficial owner’ are those with the entitlement of more than 25% of shares or capital or profit of the company, which has now been reduced to 10%.

●        In line with the Companies Act (2013) and Income-tax Act (1961).

●        Bringing more indirect participants within the reporting net

●        NPOs: Reporting entities are now required to register details of the client if it’s a non-profit organization (NPO) on the DARPAN portal of NITI Aayog.

○        The definition of an NPO includes any entity or organization, constituted for religious or charitable purposes under I-T Act

●        Due diligence documentation requirements: It has now been extended.

○        It now includes the submission of details such as names of persons holding senior management positions, names of partners, etc.

●        Until now limited to obtaining the basic KYCs of clients such as registration certificates, PAN copies, etc.
●        For Cryptocurrencies: Virtual digital assets (VDA) trade has been brought under PMLA.

○        New rules mandate crypto exchanges and intermediaries dealing in virtual assets to maintain the KYCs of their clients and report suspicious transactions to financial intelligence units.

●        It will prevent the misuse of crypto, and NFTs through money laundering and other illegal activities.


Conclusion: The decision to mandatorily bring all trade in virtual digital assets under the PMLA now lays the onus of ascertaining the place of origin of all activities in such assets upon individuals and businesses.


Insta Links:

By upholding PMLA, SC puts its stamp on Kafka’s law


Mains Links:

Money laundering poses a serious security threat to a country’s economic sovereignty. What is its significance for India and what steps are required to be taken to control this menace? (UPSC 2013)

Call for a legally-binding treaty to protect Earth’s orbit

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Science and Technology: Space Awareness

Source: DTE, Business Standard

Context: Scientists have called for a legally binding treaty to ensure Earth’s orbit isn’t irreparably harmed by the future expansion of the global space industry.


About Space debris:

  • Space debris includes non-functional spacecraft, abandoned launch vehicle stages, mission-related debris, and fragmentation debris.
  • Space debris can also be generated when two satellites collide, releasing thousands of new pieces.
  • Anti-satellite tests also result in debris. In 2019, India tested an anti-satellite missile targeting a satellite in Low Earth Orbit (LEO).
  • Space debris could trigger a chain reaction, where too many objects collide with each other and create new space junk in the process (known as Kessler Syndrome)
  • Space debris encompasses both natural (meteoroid) and artificial (man-made) particles.


Present scenario to protect Earth’s orbit:

  • Companies are not incentivized to clean up orbits or to include de-orbiting functions in satellites.
  • De-orbiting means bringing dead satellites back to Earth.
  • There is no international treaty that seeks to minimize orbital debris. But the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space has laid out guidelines to mitigate space debris.
  • Operators are expected to clear the orbit within 25 years after the satellite’s mission ends. Still, most states have neglected to implement the necessary local space regulations, according to the letter.


Way forward:

  • Any agreement should include measures to implement producer and user responsibility for satellites and debris, from the time they launch onward.
  • Minimizing the pollution of the lower Earth orbit will allow continued space exploration, satellite continuity, and the growth of life-changing space technology.

Related News:

ISRO brings down decommissioned weather satellite

Source: Indian Express

 Context: For the first time the Indian Space Research Organisation brought down a satellite in a controlled manner after its end of life.

  • The weather satellite Megha Tropiques-1, which was developed as a joint mission by Indian and French space agencies, entered the atmosphere after the final two maneuvers and burnt up over the Pacific Ocean.


How was the satellite brought down?

  • The Megha Tropiques satellite was launched aboard a PSLV by the space agency in 2011.
  • Although the planned mission life of the satellite was only three years, it continued providing data on the water cycle and energy exchanges in the tropics for nearly a decade.
  • As some fuel was left – it was maneuvered and brought back to earth.

Usually, satellites are left in their orbit and because of the gravitational pull of the earth, they come down to the atmosphere over years and years. When the satellites re-enter the atmosphere, the friction causes them to heat up to extremely high temperatures of thousands of degrees Celsius. Without a heat shield, 99% of a satellite gets burnt up whether in a controlled re-entry or an uncontrolled one.

Initiatives taken by ISRO for space debris mitigation

  • Project NETRA – to provide information on the status of debris.
  • ISRO System for Safe and Sustainable Space Operations Management (IS4OM) for tracking and monitoring space objects.


Insta Links:

Space Debris


Mains Link: UPSC 2019

What is India’s plan to have its own space station and how will it benefit our space program?


Prelims Link: UPSC 2022

Which one of the following statements best reflects the idea behind the “Fractional Orbital Bombardment System” often talked about in media?
(a) A hypersonic missile is launched into space to counter the asteroid approaching the Earth and explode it in space.
(b) A spacecraft lands on another planet, after making several orbital motions.
(c) A missile is put into a stable orbit around the Earth and deorbits over a target on the Earth.
(d) A spacecraft moves along a comet at the same speed and places a probe on its surface.

Answer (c)


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Parental leave

Source: TH

Spain became the first country in the world to give mothers and fathers the same parental leave: 16 weeks, non-transferable and fully paid, in January 2021.

New research suggests that most men are taking their paternity leave, which could boost shared responsibility for childcare.

Some companies are introducing measures to encourage male employees to take care of their children, such as offering workshops on co-responsibility and changing business and family dynamics.


Usage: The above example shows values of Gender equality, Cultural change in the perception of men’s role in childcare, Work-life balance, Changing traditional gender roles and stereotypes, etc.


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

‘Safe harbor’ clause in IT law

Source: IE

Context: The government is reconsidering a key aspect of cyberspace – ‘safe harbor’, which is the principle that allows social media platforms to avoid liability for posts made by users.


  • The Union government formally outlined the Digital India Bill, 2023 which is a broad overhaul of the decades-old IT Act, 2000.
  • This Safe harbor has been reined in the IT (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021.

What is a ‘safe harbor’?

  • Safe harbor (originally from the US’s Communications Decency Act) – as prescribed under Section 79 of the IT Act, 2000 – is legal immunity that online intermediaries enjoy against content posted by users on their platforms.
  • This is available as long as these platforms abide by certain due diligence requirements, such as censoring content when asked by the government or courts.
  • It is a crucial tenet for ensuring free speech on the Internet since platforms only have to act on speech that is deemed illegal.

Then, why revisit the norm?

Intermediaries were synonymous with the safe harbor in the 2000s, but they have since evolved into a variety of internet participants with very varied functional needs.

The core objectives of the new Digital India Bill:

  • To ensure an open and safe Internet in the country to ensure users’ rights and reduce risks for them online; accelerate the growth of technology innovation.
  • It will also regulate a range of crimes that the government thinks are unique to the online space.


India, U.S. to launch a semiconductor sub-committee

Source: The Hindu

Context: A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on establishing a semiconductor supply chain and innovation partnership under the framework of India – US Commercial Dialogue was signed between the two countries.

  • The MoU seeks to establish a collaborative mechanism between the two governments on Semiconductor Supply chain resiliency and diversification in view of the US’s CHIPS and Science Act and India’s Semiconductor Mission. 



  • It aims to leverage the complementary strengths of both countries and facilitate commercial opportunities and the development of semiconductor innovation ecosystems through discussions on various aspects of the semiconductor value chain.
  • The MoU envisages mutually beneficial R&D, talent, and skill development.

This is part of the U.S.-India initiative of Critical and Emerging Technology (iCET) that will broaden the “strategic technology partnership”.


About iCET:

  • It was established to elevate and expand our strategic technology partnership and defense industrial cooperation between the country’s governments, businesses, and academic institutions.



Source: HBL

Context: SEBI has increased its authority in the appointment of directors to stock exchanges and clearing corporations (CC).


New Rules:

  • SEBI can now appoint three public interest directors (PIDs) to the board without requiring shareholder approval.
  • Exchanges and CCs are required to follow a “Chinese Wall” policy to separate functions and appoint a chief risk officer to mitigate risks.


What are PIDs?

They are responsible for safeguarding the public interest and have a tenure of three years. PIDs will have regular oversight over issues such as governance standards and technology.


What is the Chinese wall policy?

It is a virtual information barrier erected between those having insider information about the company and those who do not, in order to prevent misuse of inside information in securities trading.


What are clearing houses (or CCs)?

A clearinghouse is a financial institution formed to facilitate the exchange of payments, securities, or derivatives transactions.

About SEBI

The Securities and Exchange Board of India (non-statutory, est. 1988, HQ: Mumbai) is the regulatory body for the securities and commodity market in India under the ownership of the Ministry of Finance.


Modern and smart Power Transmission System

Source: LM

Context: India will soon have a modern and smart power transmission system.

  • The recommendations of a task force (2021) have been accepted by the Power Ministry.


What are transmission Networks?

Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation. The interconnected lines that facilitate this movement form a transmission network.


Issues with the transmission network: India faces high aggregate technical and commercial losses (AT&C) (around 17%, China’s is low at 5%), which causes power shortages for consumers. Additionally, low tariffs and cross-subsidization lead to a significant difference between the average cost of supply and the average revenue generated.


The features of smart power transmission will include:

  • Real-time monitoring and automated operation of the grid
  • Operation of Substations by using modern systems like SCADA, Flexible AC Transmission devices (FACTs)
  • Predictive maintenance using AI/ML algorithms
  • Use of Robots & Drones in the construction and inspection of transmission assets
  • Better situational assessment
  • Capability to have an increased share of renewable capacity in the power-mix
  • Greater resilience against cyber-attacks as well as natural disasters
  • Centralized and data-driven decision-making
  • Reduction in forced outages through self-correcting systems


Significance: It will reduce operations and management costs for utilities and ultimately lower power costs for consumers. It will help meet the government’s vision of providing 24×7 reliable and affordable power and meeting sustainability goals.


Central Electricity Authority (CEA, a statutory body under the Ministry of Power) will formulate standards and guidelines as per the recommendation.


“Reddmatter”: New superconductor Material

Source: WSJ

About the New Superconductor Material

  • Operating range: Can operate at room temperature (21 degrees C) and much lower pressure (10,000 atmospheric pressure) than previously discovered superconducting materials.
  • Naming: They named the resulting material “reddmatter,” after observing how the material’s hue changed from blue to pink to red as it got compressed.
  • Material: It is formed by combining lutetium (a rare earth metal) with hydrogen and nitrogen
  • Applications: The new superconductor could help create lossless electrical grids, and better and cheaper magnets for use in future nuclear fusion reactors, among other things.


Sodium intake

Source: LM


Antibiotic drugs on livestock

Source: The Hindu

Context: Researchers at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), have found that grazing by livestock leads to lower carbon storage in soil compared to grazing by wild herbivores.

  • Researchers found that this difference appears to be due to the use of veterinary antibiotics such as tetracycline on livestock.


More about the study:

  • The researchers said that when released into the soil through dung and urine, these antibiotics alter the microbial communities in the soil in ways that are detrimental to sequestering carbon.
  • The study states that although soils from the wild and livestock areas had many similarities, they differed in one key parameter called carbon use efficiency (CUE), which determines the ability of microbes to store carbon in the soil. The soil in the livestock areas had 19% lower CUE.


About Tetracycline:

  • Antibiotics such as tetracycline are long-lived and can linger in the soil for decades.
  • Its use in cats, dogs, small mammals, horses, or birds to treat bacterial infections or other conditions is ‘off label’ or ‘extra label’.


Hypersonic missiles

Source: Indian Express

Context: Russia unleashed its biggest aerial strike against Ukraine, hitting critical infrastructure. Among a varied range of powerful missiles launched by Moscow, there were six hypersonic missiles, known as Kinzhals, or Daggers.


What is a hypersonic missile?

  • A hypersonic missile, such as Kinzhal, is capable of flying at least at the speed of Mach 5, i.e. five times the speed of sound, and is maneuverable.
  • The maneuverability of the hypersonic missile is what differentiates it from a ballistic missile, as the latter follows a set course or a ballistic trajectory.
  • This makes them extremely lethal because, by the time they are detected by ground-based radars, they are already quite near to their target.
  • There are two types of hypersonic weapons systems: Hypersonic Glide Vehicles (HGV) and Hypersonic Cruise Missiles. The HGVs are fired from a rocket before gliding to the intended target while the hypersonic cruise missile is powered by air-breathing high-speed engines or ‘scramjets’ after acquiring their target.


About Kinzhal:

  • Kinzhal, is capable of reaching speeds of Mach 10 and greater, with a range of about 1,250 miles. The missile is also believed to be nuclear-capable and is usually launched by MiG-31 warplanes.
  • Apart from Kinzal, Moscow reportedly has two other types of hypersonic missile systems. One is the Avangard hypersonic glide vehicle, which can fly at speeds as high as Mach 27. And the other is the Zircon anti-ship missile.


Island effect

Source: IE

Foster’s Rule (or Island Effect) is a rule in evolutionary biology describing how large-bodied species tend to downsize on islands while small-bodied species upsize.

  • Members of a species get smaller or bigger depending on the resources available in the environment.

Example: A dwarf elephant the size of a Shetland pony once roamed the Mediterranean island of Cyprus. In the West Indies, a giant rat-like rodent tipped the scales at more than 400 pounds (180 kg), rivaling an American black bear.

A new study has found that the arrival of people on the islands raised extinction rates more than tenfold.


Islands account for up to 20% of land species and are biodiversity hotspots, but they are under threat from hunting, habitat destruction, and the introduction of diseases and invasive predators by humans.



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Sociology (women-related issues)/ Society





IE: Property tax in J&K: Why it has been proposed, and how it will work


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