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[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 February 2023

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

1. Caste discrimination has a long and complex history, with roots in the country’s traditional social hierarchy. Addressing this issue requires a multi-pronged approach that involves educating people, enforcing laws that prohibit caste discrimination, and creating opportunities for people from lower castes to improve their economic and social status. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian ExpressInsights on India

Why the question:

Last month, in Seattle, co-author Kshama Sawant, a socialist Council member, introduced the first US legislation to ban caste discrimination alongside a united movement of Dalits, dominant-caste Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims, socialists, and union members. The City Council is scheduled to vote on February 21. If passed, the law will prohibit caste discrimination in employment and housing, retail, public accommodation, and transportation.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the ill effects of caste discrimination, reasons for its prevalence and ways to overcome it.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving background about the caste discrimination in modern India.

Body:

First, write about the reasons for the prevalence of caste discrimination in India and factors behind it.

Next, mention the impact of caste discrimination and how it is affecting contemporary society. Substantiate with facts and examples.

Next, write about the steps that are needed to overcome the above issues and empower weaker sections.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Caste system refers to a broad hierarchical institutional arrangement along which basic social factors like birth, marriage, food-sharing etc are arranged in a hierarchy of rank and status. These sub-divisions are traditionally linked to occupations and decide the social relations with respect to other upper and lower castes.

Indian society has been bearing the brunt of this social evil since the post-Vedic times and continues to bear despite Constitutional and Legal measures.

Body

Caste system is the bane for the Indian society:

  • Segmental division of society:It means that social stratification is largely based on caste. Membership to a caste group is acquired by birth, on the basis of which people are ranked in relative to other caste groups.
  • Hierarchy:It indicates that various castes are categorized according to their purity and impurity of occupations.
  • Civil and religious disabilities:Example, lower caste groups had no access to wells, they were restricted from entering temples etc.
  • Endogamy: Members of a particular caste have to marry within their caste only. Inter caste marriages are prohibited.
  • Untouchability: It is the practice of ostracizing a group by segregating them from the mainstream by social custom.
  • Hindered national unity:The caste system and religion developed a parochial feeling and made the people unduly conscious of their own castes/religion.
    • Many a time caste/communal interests were given priority over national interest.
    • Thus the whole system stood against the very concept of national unity.
  • Hinders democracy:Democracy presupposes human equality, but the caste system believed in inequality and there was a hierarchical arrangement.
    • Today caste has manifested into a subject to gain political benefits, like reservation in educational colleges, government jobs etc.
  • Lowered women’s status: The practice of Sati, child marriage etc  were result of caste system. Women were treated as second-class citizens. This patriarchal behaviour is still prevalent today.
  • Violence and conflict: Dalit atrocities, sexual assault on lower caste women etc are result of such discrimination and exploitation which are in turn a result of caste and communal identities deeply entrenched in Indian society

 

How casteism can be removed?

  • Emotional and intellectual appeal to economic determinism, as was advocated by Karl Marx
  • Awareness about Constitutional values, ethics, ill effects of castiesm etc. by debates, nukkad natak, puppetry,
  • Promote and incentivise inter caste marriages as is already done for marrying a SC ST women in some parts of India.
  • Evaluate the existing customs, rituals etc. on thetouchstone of Human Rights. Here judiciary can play a positive role but with due respect to religious feelings.
  • Implement laws and agreements like ICCPR, Protection of human rights, Prevention of atrocities against SC ST etc. with full letter and spirit.
  • Dalit capitalism, check on extra judicial bodies like Khaps etc.
  • Economic empowerment of Dalit through education and ownership of land and capital.

Conclusion

caste system is a terrible anomaly of society which became more prevalent over time. It is the strong enemy of the concept of social justice mentioned in the Indian Constitution and causes economic, social damage to the country from time to time. Undoubtedly, along with the government, it is the responsibility of the common man, religious leaders, politicians, and civil society to resolve this discrepancy as soon as possible.

 

Topic: urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

2.  Green spaces in urban areas play an important role in creating sustainable and liveable communities, and are essential for promoting the health and well-being of both humans and the environment. Elaborate. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

Over the past two years, Hyderabad, which has emerged as a powerhouse of infrastructure growth in Telangana, has won multiple awards for being a green city with an improving forest cover. Speaking on the floor of the Assembly last Monday while presenting the annual Budget, Finance Minister T. Harish Rao listed these awards and achievements.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about green spaces in urban areas and the benefits associated with them.

Directive word:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by explaining the concept of green spaces.

Body:

In the first part, write about the ecological benefits of green spaces – Green spaces provide a number of environmental benefits, such as reducing the urban heat island effect, improving air quality, and mitigating the impacts of climate change.

Next, write about the social benefits of green spaces – recreation, exercise, and relaxation, and can help to improve mental health and reduce stress levels.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Green spaces are important components of the green infrastructure of cities and provide a range of ecosystem services, as well as cultural services such as recreation and restoration. It includes parks and sports fields as well as woods and natural meadows, wetlands or other ecosystems, represent a fundamental component of any urban ecosystem.

Body

Background

  • Over the past two years, Hyderabad, which has emerged as a powerhouse of infrastructure growth in Telangana, has won multiple awards for being a green city with an improving forest cover.
  • Speaking on the floor of the Assembly last Monday while presenting the annual Budget, Finance Minister T. Harish Rao listed these awards and achievements.

Significance of Green Spaces:

Environmental Benefits:

  • Green spaces, from large parks to trees and grass, can reduce local temperatures by 1–6°C during the day, in both the sun and shade, through albedo change, reduced surface heat storage, and increased evapotranspiration.
  • Trees, plants, and green spaces can also reduce local air pollution, improve human well-being in dense urban areas and increase property values.
  • They assure regulation of the carbon cycle and attenuating climate change.
  • They constitute infiltration zones for water (and thus help prevent flooding and soil erosion) and alimentation of groundwater and contribute to a better water quality.
  • They are an essential support for biodiversity.

Economic and Aesthetic Benefits:

  • Energy savings:using vegetation to reduce the energy costs of cooling buildings has been increasingly recognized as a cost-effective reason for increasing green space and tree planting. Plants improve air circulation and provide shade.
  • This provides a cooling effect and help to lower air temperature.
  • Property value:areas of the city with enough greenery are aesthetically pleasing and attractive to residents, visitors and investors.
  • Urban green spaces can be one of the factors that attract significant foreign investments that assist in rapid economic growth.

Social and Psychological Benefits:

  • Recreation and wellbeing: Green urban areas facilitate physical activity and relaxation, and form a refuge from noise. Trees produce oxygen, and help filter out harmful air pollution, including airborne particulate matter. Water spots, from lakes to rivers and fountains, moderate temperatures.
  • Urban parks and gardens provide safe routes for walking and cycling for transport purposes as well as sites for physical activity, social interaction and for recreation.
  • Recent estimates show that physical inactivity, linked to poor walkability and lack of access to recreational areas, accounts for 3.3% of global deaths.
  • Green spaces also are important to mental health. Having access to green spaces can reduce health inequalities, improve well-being, and aid in treatment of mental illness.
  • Some analysis suggests that physical activity in a natural environment can help remedy mild depression and reduce physiological stress indicators.

Challenges in creating urban green spaces:

  • Increased migration has led to rampant urbanization and extreme pressures on the land leading to destruction of the forests, woods area around the cities.
  • Cost of land has increased manifold and high rise buildings are coming up, people are getting hardly any area for the greenery.
  • Steadily growing traffic and urban heat, especially in the developing countries is not only damaging the environment but also incur social and economic costs.
  • Insufficient Operation of Urban Planning Regulations has led to poor urban planning and reduction in the green spaces.

Way forward:

  • Urban green spaces, especially public parks and gardens provide resources for relaxation and recreation.
  • Green spaces need to be uniformly distributed throughout the city area, and the total area occupied by green spaces in the city should be large enough to accommodate the city population needs.
  • Cities are responsible for most of the consumption of the world’s resources and are home to most of the world’s citizens as well.
  • Bringing green space to the urban landscape can promote and inspire a better relationship with the environmentwhile supporting important services.
  • The promotion and conservation of green space in cities is in the hands of local and regional authorities. Effective urban planning can make green spaces a reality.
  • Innovative measures like Vertical gardens, roof-top gardens can be incorporated into green building codes.
  • Plantation, greenery and other environment friendly applications should be planned around the buildings by way of dwarf trees, small shrubs, ground covers, hanging baskets, creepers, etc.
  • Promotingurban forest areas as seen in Chattisgarh can be emulated across cities.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

3. What is the rationale behind delimitation of electoral constituencies? Explain the functions of delimitation commission. What are the issues associated with delimitation exercise? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Insights on IndiaInsights on India 

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about delimitation, functions of delimitation commission and problems associated with it.

Directive word:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining delimitation under Article 82.

Body:

In the first part, write about rationale behind the delimitation – follow the principle of “One Vote One Value”, equality, Fair division of geographical areas etc.

Next, write in detail about the functions of delimitation commission.

Next, write about the various issues associated with delimitation and ways that it can be addressed.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Delimitation literally means the act or process of fixing limits or boundaries of territorial constituencies in a country or a province having a legislative body. A four-member Delimitation Commission, including a member of the EC, carries out this task. In India, such Delimitation commissions have been set up four times in the past under ‘Delimitation Commission Acts’ of 1952, 1962, 1972 and 2002.

Body:

Background

  • The Supreme Court recently dismissed a plea challenging the delimitation exerciseto redraw Lok Sabha and Assembly constituencies in the Union Territory of J&K.
  • challenge to the J&K Reorganisation Act, 2019, is pending before the apex court, along with other petitions challenging the abrogation of Article 370of the Indian Constitution.
  • Delimitationis the act of redrawing boundaries of an Assembly or LS seat to represent changes in population over time.
  • A commissionset up by the Central government submitted its final report for delimitation in J&K last year.
  • It has been recommended that the number of seats in the J&K Assembly should be raised from 83 to 90.

Objectives:

  • Under Article 82of the Constitution, Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act after every Census which establishes a delimitation commission.
  • The main task of the commission is redrawing the boundaries of the various assembly and Lok Sabha constituencies to ensure an equitable population distribution

Delimitation and RPA:

  • The provisions of Delimitation Act, 2002, says that as of date, all Assembly and Parliamentary constituencies are to be delimited on the basis of the 2001 Census.
  • According to the guidelines of the EC and the 84th and 87th amendments to the Constitution, the “state average per assembly constituency” is obtained by dividing the total number of the state population (as per 2001 census) by the total number of constituencies in the state.
  • This method is aimed at having an equal population in each constituency.
  • However, a deviation of plus-minus 10 per cent is acceptable if the geographical features, means of communication, public convenience, contiguity of the areas, and necessity to avoid breaking of administrative units so demand.
  • As per the guidelines, seats have to be reserved for the SCs and STsin the proportion of their population separately both for the Assembly and Parliamentary constituencies in each state.
  • The commission, after completing the process from its end, puts out papers and draft proposals for discussions and holds public meetings on the same.
  • These proposals are notified in the Gazette of India and the state’s gazette after the President’s approval.
  • The commission’s order cannot be challenged in any courtas it has the force of law.
  • The copies of orders are also presented before the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assembly concerned, but both these houses are not allowed to make modifications in that.

Conclusion:

While 2026 is still a few years away, if we do not start a debate now on how to deal with the problems that are likely to arise, we will be forced to postpone the lifting of the freeze to a future date as was done in 2001. This will only postpone the problem for which we must find a solution sooner or later. Even the various proposals for electoral reforms which have been recommended by various Commissions over the past decade do not address these issues. These are challenges which our political leaders have to address in the immediate future.

 

Topic: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

4. The Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) is considered one of the most important institutions in the Indian government and plays a crucial role in promoting good governance and ensuring the proper utilization of public resources. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the powers, functions and responsibilities of Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) in India.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by stating that the Constitution of India provides for an independent office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) and relevant articles mentioned in the constitution.

Body:

In the first part, write about the major functions of CAG – responsible for auditing and accounting of all receipts and expenditures of the Government of India and the state governments.

Next, write about its audit functions – performance audits, compliance audits, and financial reviews of various government programs and initiatives.

Next, write about its reports to uphold transparency and accountability – reports prepared by the CAG are presented in the Parliament, and the findings are discussed and debated by the Members of Parliament.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

The Constitution of India provides for an independent office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) in chapter V under Part V. The CAG is mentioned in the Constitution of India under Article 148 – 151. He is the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department. He is the guardian of the public purse and controls the entire financial system of the country at both the levels- the centre and state. His duty is to uphold the Constitution of India and the laws of Parliament in the field of financial administration.

Body:

CAG and financial administration:

  • The existence and mandate of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India emanates from Articles 148 to 151 of the Constitution. Article 149 stipulates the Duties and Powers of the Comptroller and Auditor General.
  • DPC Act, 1971 (Duties, Powers and Conditions of Service Act)lays down the general principles of Government accounting and the broad principles in regard to audit of receipts and expenditure
  • CAG audits the accounts related to all expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India, Consolidated Fund of each state and UT having a legislative assembly.
  • CAG audits all expenditure from the Contingency Fund of India and the Public Account of India as well as the Contingency Fund and Public Account of each state.
  • CAG audits all trading, manufacturing, profit and loss accounts, balance sheets and other subsidiary accounts kept by any department of the Central Government and the state governments.
  • CAG audits the receipts and expenditure of all bodies and authorities substantially financed from the Central or State revenues; government companies; other corporations and bodies, when so required by related laws.
  • He submits his audit reports relating to the accounts of the Centre and State to the President and Governor, who shall, in turn, place them before both the houses of Parliament and the state legislature respectively.
  • He submits 3 audit reports to the President: audit report on appropriation accounts, audit report on finance accounts and audit report on public undertakings.
  • He ascertains and certifies the net proceeds of any tax or duty and his certificate is final on the matter.
  • He acts as a guide, friend and philosopher of the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament.
  • The Public Accounts Committee examines public expenditure not only from legal and formal point of view to discover technical irregularities but also from the point of view of economy, prudence, wisdom and propriety to bring out the cases of waste, loss, corruption, extravagance, inefficiency and nugatory expenses.
  • CAG along with its mandatory regulatory and compliance audit performs the performance as well as efficiency audit to question executive’s wisdom and economy in order to identify cases of improper expenditure and waste of public money.

Constitutional provisions which ensure the independence of CAG are:

  • CAG is provided with the security of tenure. He can be removed by the president only in accordance with the procedure mentioned in the Constitution. Thus, he does not hold his office till the pleasure of the president, though fie is appointed by him.
  • He is not eligible for further office, either under the Government of India or of any state, after he ceases to hold his office.
  • His salary and other service conditions are determined by the Parliament. His salary is equal to that of a judge of the Supreme Court.
  • Neither his salary nor his rights in respect of leave of absence, pension or age of retirement can be altered to his disadvantage after his appointment.
  • The conditions of service of persons serving in the Indian Audit and Accounts Department and the administrative powers of the CAG are prescribed by the president after consultation with the CAG.
  • The administrative expenses of the office of the CAG, including all salaries, allowances and pensions of persons serving in that office are charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India. Thus, they are not subject to the vote of Parliament.
  • Further, no minister can represent the CAG in Parliament (both Houses) and no minister can be called upon to take any responsibility for any actions done by him.
  • Appointment and Term to Constitutionals Posts:
    • The CAG is appointed by the President of India by a warrant under his hand and seal.
    • The CAG, before taking over his office, makes and subscribes before the president an oath or affirmation: to bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India; to uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India; to duly and faithfully and to the best of his ability, knowledge and judgement perform the duties of his office without fear or favour, affection or ill-will; and to uphold the Constitution and the laws.
    • He holds office for a period of six years or upto the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier

Conclusion:

CAG helps the parliament/state legislatures hold their respective governments accountable. He is one of the bulwarks of the democratic system of government in India. It is for these reasons Dr. B R Ambedkar said that the CAG shall be the most important Officer under the Constitution of India and his duties are far more important than the duties of even the judiciary.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

5. What are the objectives of Chandrayaan-3 mission? How is the third lunar mission of ISRO different from Chandrayaan-2? (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hinduen.wikipedia.org

Why the question:

The Chandrayaan-3 lander has successfully completed the crucial EMI-EMC (Electro – Magnetic Interference/ Electro – Magnetic Compatibility) test at the U.R. Rao Satellite Centre in Bengaluru.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the objectives of Chandrayaan-3 and its differences with of Chandrayaan-2

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context.

Body:

First, write about the major objectives of Chandrayaan-3 – conduct scientific studies of the Moon’s surface and sub-surface using a lander and rover. The mission will also aim to study the lunar atmosphere and determine the presence of water and other minerals on the Moon etc.

Next, write about the how the differences between Chandrayaan-3 and Chandrayaan-2.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing about the importance of space missions to moon.

Introduction

Chandrayaan-3 is the successor to the Chandrayaan-2 mission and it will likely attempt another soft-landing on the lunar surface. It will be a mission repeat of Chandrayaan-2 but will only include a lander and rover similar to that of Chandrayaan-2. It will not have an orbiter. As per ISRO, the total cost of Chandrayaan-3 mission will be over Rs 600 crores. In comparison, the total cost of the Chandrayaan-2 mission was Rs 960 crores.

In a boost to India’s moon mission, Chandrayaan-3 successfully underwent EMI/EMC (Electro – Magnetic Interference/ Electro-Magnetic Compatibility) at U R Rao Satellite Centre, Bengaluru.

Body

Objectives of Chandrayaan – 3 mission

  • The mission is aimed at better understanding the Moon’s composition.
  • Isro has laid out three main objectives for the mission, which include
  • demonstrating a safe and soft landing on the lunar surface
  • demonstrating the rover’s roving capabilities on the moon
  • performing in-situ scientific observations.

Chandrayaan – 3 vis-à-vis Chandrayaan 2

  • Chandrayaan 3 is an ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) mission with the primary objective of putting a lander and rover in the highlands near the south pole of the Moon in 2023.
  • According to ISRO, the Chandrayaan-3 mission will cost more than Rs 600 crores in total. In contrast, the Chandrayaan-2 mission cost a total of Rs 960 crores.
  • Chandrayaan-3 will be a mission repeat of Chandrayaan-2 but will only include a lander and rover similar to that of Chandrayaan-2. It will not have an orbiter, but its propulsion module will behave like a communications relay satellite.
  • But unlike Chandrayaan-2, this orbiter won’t be equipped with a research payload.
  • India aims to examine the Moon’s surface, especially areas that have not been receiving sunlight in some billion years.
  • Scientists and astronomers are suspecting the presence of ice and abundant mineral stocks in these darker parts of the lunar surface.
  • In addition, this exploration will not limit to the surface but aim to study the sub-surface and exosphere.
  • The rover of this spacecraft will communicate to earth via an orbiter taken from Chandrayaan 2.
  • It will study the surface by taking images at a distance of 100km from the lunar orbit.

Conclusion

Chandrayaan 3, if successful, will make India the fourth country to soft-land a spacecraft on the Moon after the United States, USSR and China.

 

Topic:Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

6. What is Solar Radiation Management (SRM)? While SRM techniques have the potential to reduce global warming, they also carry significant risks and uncertainties. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

A sufficiently powerful volcanic eruption can spew sulphates and other aerosols into the stratosphere, cooling the air there. This fact has motivated human efforts to artificially spray aerosols into the stratosphere to slow global-warming, with occasional support from the U.S. government, among others. The U.S. government is currently officially supporting research on solar radiation management (SRM).

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the SRM, its potential to reduce global warming and risks associated with it.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by defining SRM.

Body:

First, in brief, explain the concept of SRM and various techniques aimed at do so – stratospheric aerosol injection, Marine cloud brightening, Surface albedo modification.

Next, write about the role SRM techniques can play in preventing global warming.

Next, write about concerns and risks associated with SRM techniques – could disrupt weather patterns or cause unintended consequences for ecosystems.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a balanced opinion on the above.

Introduction

Geoengineering interventions are large-scale attempts to purposefully alter the climate system in order to offset the effects of global warming. Most geoengineering proposals can be divided into two types: solar radiation management (SRM) and carbon dioxide removal (CDR). Geoengineering offers the hope of temporarily reversing some aspects of global warming and allowing the natural climate to be substantially preserved whilst greenhouse gas emissions are brought under control and removed from the atmosphere by natural or artificial processes.

Solar Radiation Management aims to cool the Earth by artificially reflecting more of the Sun’s energy into space. There are different ways of doing this: on the ground, in the atmosphere, or out in space. It is also called solar geo-engineering.

Body

Solar radiation management

  • This process does not affect atmospheric greenhouse gases but aims to reflect the solar radiation coming to the earth.
  • The science of the method is, however, largely model-based, and the impacts of deflecting the solar radiations could be unpredictable.
  • Additionally, due to the thermal inertia of the climate system, removal of the radiation modification could result in the escalation of temperature very quickly, giving significantly less time to adapt.
  • Another side effect of the radiation modification process could be natural vegetation.
  • Since solar radiation is responsible for photosynthesis, sudden masking of solar radiation could significantly affect the process.
  • While these questions remain unanswered, the futures of these technologies remain uncertain.

Risks of solar radiation management

  • A recent study shows that rapid application, followed by abrupt termination of this temporary tech-fix can in fact accelerate climate change.
  • The increase in temperature from the abrupt termination is so quick that most species, terrestrial or marine, may not be able to keep up with it and eventually perish.
  • The increase in temperature is two to four times more rapid than climate change without geoengineering. This increase would be dangerous for biodiversity and ecosystems.
  • Reptiles, mammals, fish and birds that have been moving at 1.7 km/year on average will now have to move faster than 10 km/year to remain in their preferred climatic zones. This raises serious concerns, especially for less-mobile animals like amphibians and corals.
  • Not just species but entire ecosystems could collapse by suddenly hitting the stop button on geoengineering.
    • For example, temperate grassland and savannahs, which are maintained by specific combinations of temperature and rainfall, may experience increasing rates of temperatures, but an opposing trend in rainfall, after 2070.
  • Ineffectiveness
    • The effectiveness of the techniques proposed may fall short of predictions.
    • In ocean iron fertilization, for example, the amount of carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere may be much lower than predicted, as carbon taken up by plankton may be released back into the atmosphere from dead plankton, rather than being carried to the bottom of the sea and sequestered.
  • Model results from a 2016 study, suggest that blooming algae could even accelerate Arctic warming.
  • Moral hazard or risk compensation
    • The existence of such techniques may reduce the political and social impetus to reduce carbon emissions
  • Albedo modification strategies could rapidly cool the planet’s surface but pose environmental and other risksthat are not well understood and therefore should not be deployed at climate-altering scales.
  • In the case of environmental risks, the offsetting of greenhouse gases by increasing the reflection of sunlight is not going to be perfect. Some people, potentially a small minority, will get less rainfall. There is concern about what particles might do to the ozone layer.
  • The drop off of tropical storms in one area would actually lead to a spike in drought in parts of Africa, according to the data.

Conclusion

In any case in the meantime, two aspects are certain: under no scenario could climate engineering serve as a substitute to reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and it would be better to implement such technologies with more nuanced research.


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7.Do you agree with Rousseau’s view that society and its institutions were responsible for corrupting individuals and that social inequality was the result of a flawed system of government?  (150 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Philosophical Mondays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about Rousseau’s view on corruption and social inequality.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining Rousseau’s views

Body:

First, explain in detail, the impact of society on corrupting individuals. Evaluate to what extent this holds true and cite examples to substantiate.

Next, write to causes for inequality in the society and role play by the government in creation and sustaining inequalities. Evaluate to what extent this holds true and cite examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a balanced opinion on the above issue.

Conclude by giving a balanced opinion on sting operations.

Introduction

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a French political theorist and philosopher. He is regarded to be very influential because of his impact on the leaders of the French Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment. One of his most notable works is his theory surrounding inequality, as put forth in his book Discourse on Inequality. This book is a criticism of the modern world and provides insights into how society could have evolved. Through the course of this article, we shall seek to understand Rousseau’s thoughts on inequality.

Body

Social inequality discourse

Rousseau wrote, “The first person who, having enclosed a plot of land, took it into his head to say, ‘This is mine,’ and found people simple enough to believe him, was the true founder of civil society. What crimes, wars, murders, what miseries and horrors would the human race have been spared, had someone pulled up the stakes or filled in the ditch and cried out to his fellowmen, ‘Do not listen to this imposter.’” He also adds, the most appropriate thing to do in such a circumstance was to transform the degrading society into a purely democratic one, which has the power to ‘force people to be free’ and ensure there are no inequalities.

With the concept of property theft coming into place, inequalities among people rose. This also brought into the picture the issue of poverty – since not everyone could possess the limited property. Moral inequality was then introduced, due to the fact that anyone could own property, irrespective of their physical characteristics. Due to the invention of societies and property, the labor necessary was divided amongst the different individuals who owned land. This division of labor and the concept of property allowed property owners to dominate and exploit the poor. This led to conflicts amongst the rich and the poor – which could not otherwise have happened had man not left the state of nature.

He was essentially an advocate of approximate social equality and not total equality. He rejected the idea that social inequalities reflected natural inequalities of talents. For instance, a rich man would not be called rich if he is rich in talents (the word rich here, is a reflection of only his wealth) and a person who is said to be poor is essentially not poor in talents (here, poor only refers to the wealth he possesses). So, when a man talks about social equality, he refers to equality of opportunity, which cannot be provided in capitalist or communist societies.

Conclusion

Rousseau, in brief, propounded that inequality comes from property, but the increase in inequality is caused by the development of the human spirit. Further, he said that vanity among human beings and differences in property led to inequality – the rich became richer and the poor became poorer. Laws were enacted to protect rights and civil society eventually degenerated into extreme enslavement, inequality and ambition. The natural man loses his ferocity to live in society as his desires grip him and he loses his independence. He understood that no one could be free without a majority believing in popular sovereignty as the only legitimate way of organizing the state


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