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COP-28 (Dubai) must focus on adaptation instead of mitigation, says India

GS Paper 3

 Syllabus: Environment Conservation/ Disaster Management


Source: The Hindu


The concepts of mitigation and adaptation are at the heart of international climate discourse.

Adaptation measures for climate change


Adaptation refers to adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their effects or impacts. It focuses on assisting countries that are most vulnerable to the effects of climate change (coastal states, island nations) with finance and infrastructural assistance


Reason for Focusing on the adaptation of climate Change

  • Can help manage the risks from climate disasters such as floods and droughts
  • Sponge cities concept to increase storing of water in city spaces to adapt to urban floods
  • Protection of ecosystems
  • Protecting agriculture and food security
  • Can allow populations to benefit from opportunities for climatic change.


Mitigation measures for climate change

 Mitigation refers to actions taken to lower the concentration of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere and thereby reduce the extent to which the global climate system changes


Reason for Focusing on Mitigation of Climate Change

  • To stabilize greenhouse gas levels in a sufficient time frame
  • Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+)
  • Avoid significant human interference with the earth’s climate
  • Enable economic development


Why India is pushing to focus on Adaptation:

  • Timeframe: Mitigation measures can take decades to have a significant impact but the impacts of climate change are already being felt and will continue to worsen in the short to medium term, making adaptation measures more urgent.
  • The scale of impact: Adaptation measures can help reduce vulnerability and minimize the negative impacts of climate change.
  • Political will: Adaptation measures, can be implemented at a local level and may be more feasible to achieve.
  • Co-benefits: improving public health, enhancing ecosystem services, and increasing resilience to other natural disasters.



While adaptation is important, it should not be seen as a substitute for mitigation. Both strategies are needed to address the challenges of climate change and ensure a sustainable future for our planet.


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