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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

  1. What does the Ministry of Mines’ draft Geo-heritage Sites and Geo-relics Bill say?


GS Paper 2:

  1. The missing Deputy Speaker: the post, and what the Constitution says
  2. Competition law amendments: Of penalties and misses


GS Paper 3:

  1. How much do industrial aerosols contribute to global cooling? The new study offers clues
  2. Ayurveda: Regulation of this alternate system of medicine is urgently needed on many fronts; here is why
  3. Indian Air Force’s revised doctrine adopts a holistic approach to the country’s security imperatives


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1. Keyword: 4S framework for Reducing poverty
  2. Chennai couple is using NFTs to make their baby carbon-neutral
  3. Saudi Arabia to send its first woman astronaut into space


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Nominated members can’t vote in MCD mayoral polls: SC
  2. Digital lending
  3. Mutual Fund Trustee
  4. IFFCO Nano Urea Liquid Plants
  5. Driving Holistic Action for Urban Rivers (DHARA)
  6. A nationwide campaign to combat filariasis
  7. Agasthyarkoodam
  8. Black/Dark galaxy (Invisible galaxy)


What does the Ministry of Mines’ draft Geo-heritage Sites and Geo-relics Bill say?

GS Paper  1

 Syllabus: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times


Source: IE 

Context: The Union Ministry of Mines notified the draft Geo-heritage Sites and Geo-relics (Preservation and Maintenance) Bill, 2022, for public comments.



  • The Geological Survey of India (GSI, established in 1851, comes under the Ministry of Mines) investigates and assesses coal and other mineral resources of the country through regional-level exploration.
  • It declares geo-heritage sites/ national geological monuments and along with the respective state governments takes necessary measures to protect these sites.
  • The 32 geo-heritage sites are spread across 13 states and despite identifying these sites, there are concerns over their preservation, including Fossil Parks (e.g. Siwalik Fossil Park, Himachal Pradesh); Geological Marvels (e.g. Lonar Lake, Maharashtra), Rock Monuments (e.g. Peninsular Gneiss, Karnataka) etc


About the draft Bill and its salient provisions:

  • It is aimed at providing for the declaration, preservation, protection and maintenance of geo-heritage sites and geo-relics of national importance, for geological studies, education, research and awareness purposes.
  • It defines Geoheritage sites as sites containing geo-relics and phenomena, stratigraphic type sections, geological structures and geomorphic landforms including –
    • Caves, natural rock sculptures of national and international interest; and
    • Land adjoining the site is required for their conservation/ access.
  • It defines a Geo-relic as any relic or material of geological significance or interest like sediments, rocks, minerals, meteorites or fossils.
    • The GSI will have the power to acquire geo-relics for its preservation and maintenance.


What does the draft Bill say regarding preservation?

  • Authorise the Central Government to declare a geo-heritage site to be of national importance.
    • This would be under the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 (RFCTLARR Act).
  • Compensation to the owner of land in accordance with the RFCTLARR Act.
  • Prohibition on construction, reconstruction, repair or renovation of any building within the geo-heritage site area.
  • Penalties for destruction, removal, defacement or contravention of any direction issued by the Director General, GSI.


Criticisms of the draft Bill:

  • The GSI has been given sweeping powers.
  • The issue of land acquisition could also result in friction with local communities.


Way ahead: The experts call for the creation of a more inclusive body, akin to a National Geoheritage Authority, that can more democratically decide locations of “geohistorical” significance and how best to preserve them.


Insta Links:

Protecting India’s natural laboratories

The missing Deputy Speaker: the post, and what the Constitution says

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions, and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.


Source: Indian Express


Context: The Supreme Court has issued notices on a petition highlighting the vacant posts of Deputy Speakers in Lok Sabha and five state assemblies for years.

  • A Bench sought responses on a PIL that contends that not electing a Deputy Speaker to the 17th (present) Lok Sabha, is “against the letter and spirit of the Constitution”.


Constitutional provisions regarding Deputy Speaker:

  • Article 93 of the Constitution of India establishes the post of the Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha and Articles 94-96 detail their appointment, removal, and powers.
  • In the absence of the Speaker, the Deputy Speaker serves as the Speaker and wields the full powers of the Speaker.
  • Deputy Speaker is not subordinate to the Speaker and is directly responsible to the House.
  • Article 178 of the Constitution establishes the post of Deputy Speaker of assemblies and Articles 179-181 deal with their powers and appointment or resignation.


Is it mandatory to have a Deputy Speaker?

  • Constitutional experts point out that both Articles 93 and 178 use the word “shall”, indicating that the election of Speaker and Deputy Speaker is mandatory under the Constitution.


Do the powers of the Speaker extend to the Deputy Speaker as well?

  • Article 95(1) says: “While the office of Speaker is vacant, the duties of the office shall be performed by the Deputy Speaker”.
  • The Deputy Speaker has the same powers as the Speaker when presiding over a sitting of the House. All references to the Speaker in the Rules are deemed to be references to the Deputy Speaker when he presides.


What is the position of the Union government on the current vacancy in the post of Deputy Speaker?

  • The Treasury benches have maintained there is no “immediate requirement” for a Deputy Speaker as “bills are being passed and discussions are being held” as normal in the House. A Minister argued that “there is a panel of nine members — senior, experienced and selected from different parties — who can act as chairpersons to assist the Speaker to run the House”.


Can the courts intervene in cases of a delay in electing the Deputy Speaker?

  • Article 122(1) says: “The validity of any proceedings in Parliament shall not be called in question on the ground of any alleged irregularity of procedure.”
  • However, experts said that the courts do have jurisdiction to at least inquire into why there has been no election to the post of Deputy Speaker since the Constitution does envisage an election “as soon as may be”.


Insta Links:

Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha


Prelims Link: UPSC 2022

With reference to the Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha, consider the following statements:

  1. As per the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha, the election of the Deputy Speaker shall be held on such date as the Speaker may fix.
  2. There is a mandatory provision that the election of a candidate, as Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha, shall be from either the principal opposition party or the ruling party.
  3. The Deputy Speaker has the same power as of the Speaker when presiding over the sitting of the House and no appeal lies against his rulings.
  4. The well-established parliamentary practice regarding the appointment of Deputy Speaker is that the motion is moved by the Speaker and duly seconded by the Prime Minister.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 1, 2 and 3

(c) 3 and 4 only

(d) 2 and 4 only


Answer – A

Mains Link:

What are the roles and responsibilities of the speaker of Lok Sabha? How is the Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha elected? The office of the Deputy Speaker is not a ceremonious post but a constitutionally mandated one. Comment on its importance.

Competition law amendments: Of penalties and misses

GS Paper 2/3

Syllabus: Statutory, Regulatory & Quasi-Judicial Bodies/ Effects of Liberalisation on the Economy


Source: LM

 Context: The government is set to introduce the Competition (Amendment) Bill (2023 Bill) in Parliament.



  • The Bill, which seeks to amend the Competition Act, 2002, was first introduced in Lok Sabha by the Finance Ministry in 2022 and referred to the Standing Committee, which submitted its report in December 2022.
  • The 2002 Act seeks to promote and sustain competition in markets, protect the interest of consumers, and ensure freedom of trade for market participants.


The Competition (Amendment) Bill, 2022 2023 Bill
Salient features:

●        Expands the definition of combinations to include transactions with a value above Rs 2,000 crore.

●        Earlier, it was mandatory for CCI to give approval of combinations within 210 days (now reduced to 150 days).

●        Modifies the definition of control as the ability to exercise material influence over the management, affairs or strategic commercial decisions.

●        Changes the nature of punishment for certain offences from imposition of fine to penalty.

○        This includes failure to comply with orders of CCI with regard to anti-competitive agreements, etc.


Concerns: Acquisitions in the digital markets are valued based on data or certain business innovation of the company being acquired.

Probable changes:

●        The CCI can now impose penalties up to 10% of the total global turnover of enterprises.

○        Currently, penalties are calculated as a percentage of only ‘relevant turnover’ in India.

●        Expansion of the scope of liability of cartel facilitators. The amendments proposed to codify the liability of cartel facilitators which ‘actively participate’, surprisingly, the 2023 Bill has removed the word ‘active’.



●        Deviation from committee’s recommendations.

●        In 2017, the SC clarified that turnover for imposing penalty should mean ‘relevant turnover’.

●        The change may have far-reaching consequences, especially for big-tech companies (like Amazon).

●        Such a broad provision raises over-enforcement risks.


Insta Links:

Parliamentary Panel on Competition Amendment bill 2022


Mains Links:

Examine the impact of liberalisation on companies owned by Indians. Are they competing with the MNCs satisfactorily? Discuss. (UPSC 2013)

How much do industrial aerosols contribute to global cooling? New study offers clues

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Environment


Source: DTE

 Context: A new study found that inactive volcanoes contributed 66 percent of preindustrial era sulphate emissions, which are known to have a cooling effect on the planet. This suggests that there are more inactive or non-eruptive volcanoes emitting sulphates than previously estimated, potentially leading to inaccuracies in future climate projections


Key findings of the study:

  • By studying the ice core layers, the team calculated the levels of sulphate aerosols between 1200 and 1850. Their analysis showed inactive volcanoes release up to three times the rate of sulphate emissions than previously believed. 
  • Climate models do not consider hydrogen sulphide, which escapes from inactive volcanoes. These gases react with oxygen to produce sulphur dioxide within three days, forming sulphate aerosols.
  • Sulphur dioxide, released from natural as well as anthropogenic sources, reacts with water vapour and other gases in the atmosphere to create sulphate aerosols. They can cool the planet by reflecting sunlight into space. They also form clouds, which also tend to have a cooling effect.
  • It argues that underestimating emissions from the preindustrial era leads to overestimating the cooling effect of aerosols seen by global models.
  • It is estimated that anthropogenic aerosols have nullified 60 percent of human-induced warming in the Arctic, which is warming at a rate almost four times higher than the global rate.


About aerosols:

  • Aerosol is a system of liquid or solid particles uniformly distributed in a finely divided state through a gas, usually air.
  • Aerosol particles, such as dust, play an important role in the precipitation process, providing the nuclei upon which condensation and freezing take place.
  • They affect climate by reflecting or absorbing incoming solar radiation and enhancing the brightness, and thus reflectivity, of clouds. They also participate in chemical processes and influence the electrical properties of the atmosphere.


Insta Links:

South Asian black carbon aerosols increase glacial mass loss over the Tibetan plateau


Prelims Link: UPSC 2019

Q . In the context of which of the following do some scientists suggest the use of the cirrus cloud thinning technique and the injection of sulphate aerosol into the stratosphere?

(a) Creating the artificial rains in some regions

(b) Reducing the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones

(c) Reducing the adverse effects of solar wind on the Earth

(d) Reducing the global warming


Answer: D

Ayurveda: Regulation of this alternate system of medicine is urgently needed on many fronts; here is why

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Issues related to health sector


Source: DTE

 Context: The article highlights the need to regulate the CAM (complementary and alternative medicine) system of medicine in India.


Alternative medicine in India:

  • AYUSH – Ayurveda, yoga, naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and homeopathy – is now seeing a surge in demand as a result of growing public awareness, usefulness, effectiveness, increased government backing and expanding R&D.
  • AYUSH is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 8.6% during the forecast period of 2022–2027.
  • India is currently one of the top exporters (US, Germany and France are major export destinations) of alternative medicines worldwide.


Necessity of CAM:


Issues associated with CAM:

  • A dramatic increase in the use since Covid-19, as a result of unprecedented interest in ‘immunity boosters’ as a protective measure.
  • Contrary to popular belief, Ayurvedic medicines can have side effects, as all ‘natural substances’ are not safe for consumption.
  • Use of non-plant materials and illegal addition of allopathic medicines.
  • Lack of regulatory mechanism and rising number of quacks.
  • Absence of a standard composition of AYUSH medicines.


What needs to be done?

  • Regulation to ensure safety and efficacy
  • Checking therapeutic claims
  • Proper labelling of ingredients


Steps taken by the government:

  • A dedicated – Ministry of AYUSH – created in 2014
  • A scheme for Voluntary Certification of Yoga Professionals
  • A Centrally Sponsored Scheme of National AYUSH Mission (NAM)
  • A Central Sector Scheme for promotion of Information, Education and Communication (IEC) in AYUSH
  • A Central Sector Scheme for promotion of International Cooperation


Conclusion: Unless and until these drugs are investigated on scientific lines, control is not feasible. The need of the hour is to build on different systems that allow people informed choices and a level playing field.


Insta Links:

Ayush System – Way Forward


Mains Links:

Q. Public health system has limitations in providing universal health coverage. Do you think that the private sector could help in bridging the gap? What other viable alternatives would you suggest? (UPSC 2020)

Indian Air Force’s revised doctrine adopts a holistic approach to the country’s security imperatives

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Various Security Forces and Agencies and their Mandate


Source: IE

 Context: AeroIndia 2023 is not just the biggest exhibition of India’s air power push for Indian defence manufacturing, it also displays IAF’s revised doctrine.



  • Despite the commitment of the IAF to national security, the history of India’s use of air power is one of restraint (except during the 1971 war).
  • This is because –
    • The lack of understanding of the rapid technological changes in the features of air power on a global scale.
    • India’s traditional surface-dominant security outlook and viewing air power as a support service.


Need for a revised doctrine:

  • Addressing India’s security concerns will require a multidisciplinary approach (rather two-dimensional) due to the fact that –
    • Asia is the focal point of the geopolitical turmoil and
    • India’s two adversaries have capable air forces.
  • External (terrorism, border stand-offs) and internal security, Sovereignty protection, deterrence, air diplomacy and nation-building remain peace-time imperatives.
  • To ensure SAGAR, as well as the Indo-Pacific construct.


The IAF’s revised doctrine:

  • Focus on the criticality of controlling the skies to
    • Provides a clearer understanding of the redefined characteristics of aerospace power and its expanded capabilities.
    • Address contemporary and future warfare.
  • Acknowledges that future aerospace and defence capabilities are national force multipliers.
  • Offensive air operations and air defence.
  • Holistic application of combat power, comprising the IAF’s coordinated operations along with army-naval operations, civil aviation and space agencies.
    • The recent test landing of the naval variant of the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) on board INS Vikrant is a good example.


Way ahead:

  • A novel air strategy covers the entire spectrum from peace and war to the unique no-war-no-peace condition confronting the country.
  • Concepts of human resources, training and operational testing and evaluation remains a priority.
  • The expansion of battle spaces (cyber and electronic warfare, information warfare), the necessity of India’s future joint military strategy, constitute the foundation of IAF’s future air strategy.


Conclusion: Since national security is every citizen’s concern and given the efforts underway to evolve national defence and security strategies, the doctrine credibly conveys what aerospace power can and will do for the nation.

This is box title

Highlights of Aero India 2023:

  • A series of strategic meetings to boost self-reliance, joint production of advanced technologies and increasing defence exports, will have immediate implications for India’s strategic security.
  • The defence exports stood at a record Rs 14,000 crore in 2021-22, up from just Rs 1,520 crore in 2017.
  • The PM has announced a hugely ambitious target of $5 billion annual exports by 2024-25. For this to happen,
    • India’s defence exports have to focus not only on low- to medium-tech items but also on high-tech items (like BrahMos missile to the Philippines).
    • Advanced platforms like LCA need to be produced at a fast pace.
    • Different arms of the defence industry – private and government – need to work together.

Insta Links:

Indian Air Force needs a new doctrine


Mains Links:

The terms ‘Hot Pursuit’ and ‘Surgical Strikes’ are often used in connection with armed action against terrorist attacks. Discuss the strategic impact of such actions. (UPSC 2016)


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Keyword: 4S framework for Reducing poverty

 Source: TOI

 Context: Currently, about one-third of the Indian population is estimated to have entered the middle class, with poverty declining to about 16%.

The government’s effort to increase middle-class well-being and reduce poverty can be articulated through the 4S framework: Sampannata, Surakshit Bhavishya, Shreshtha Jeevan and Saralta.

  1. Sampannata (Enrichment) through inflation control and loans e.g. more liquidity in the market for growth, lower EMIs
  2. Surakshit Bhavishya (Securing a healthy future) through affordable healthcare and quality education e.g. affordable generic medicine, Ayushman Bharat
  3. Shreshtha Jeevan (A better life) through improved infrastructure and connectivity e.g. increase in road connectivity, CapEx expenditure, lower mobile data rates
  4. Saralta (Hassle-free existence) through a cashless digital payment ecosystem and paperless certificate authentication with DigiLocker.

 Usage: You can use this acronym in Essay, Economy (inclusive growth), governance as well as social justice paper


Chennai couple is using NFTs to make their baby carbon-neutral

 Source: TH

Chennai couple Dinesh Kshatriyan and Janaganandhini Ramaswamy are using using Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) to make their baby carbon-neutral. They acquired two acres of land in their village and have planted a thousand trees, to offset their baby’s future carbon emissions with a food forest, which will continue to grow with their child, providing a constant reminder of love and hope.

  • This will be made possible through a soon-to-be-minted NFT, called NOVA, which will symbolize the couple’s initiative. NOVA will also be the “digital name” of their baby.
  • Last February, the couple made news as they married in a Harry Potter-themed Metaverse.

Usage: This can be used as an example in Essay/Ethics as well as Indian Society showing how “Technology is changing tradition of Marriage” and as an example of efforts towards carbon mitigation.


Saudi Arabia to send its first woman astronaut into space

 Source: IE

Saudi Arabia is set to send its first woman astronaut, Rayyana Barnawi, on a 10-day mission to the International Space Station (ISS) later this year, aboard a SpaceX Dragon.

Usage: This example shows progressive gender reforms even in one of the most conservative countries


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Nominated members can’t vote in MCD mayoral polls: SC

Source: TOI

Context: The Supreme Court has said that the aldermen — who are nominated members of the Delhi Municipal Corporation cannot vote in the election of Delhi’s Mayor.


Who are Aldermen?

Municipal Corporation constitutes of elected representatives called Councillors. Councillors can nominate eminent personalities of the city to become members of this body. These nominated members are called ‘Aldermen’.

Article 243R of the Constitution says that “all the seats in a Municipality shall be filled by persons chosen by direct election from the territorial constituencies in the Municipal area and for this purpose, each Municipal area shall be divided into territorial constituencies to be known as wards”.


Digital lending

 Source: BS

 Context: Loans offered on debit cards, including equated monthly instalment (EMI) programmes, will be governed under the Reserve Bank of India´s (RBI´s) digital lending guidelines.

  • EMI programmes on credit cards would continue to be governed by the guidelines under “master direction on credit card and debit card issuance (2022)”

What is digital lending?

It consists of lending through web platforms or mobile apps, by taking advantage of technology for authentication and credit assessment.


  • Financial Inclusion by meeting the huge unmet credit need
  • It helps in reducing informal borrowingsas it simplifies the process of borrowing.
  • Digital lending platforms have also been known to cut time and overhead costs by 30-50%.

For guidelines on Digital Lending: Click here


Mutual Fund Trustee

Source: IE

Context: SEBI has proposed to review the role and accountability of trustees of mutual funds as well as put in recommendations to enhance the accountability of the board of asset management companies (AMC).

Recommendations given by SEBI:

  • Trustees should take the help of audits, legal firms and merchant bankers for carrying out due diligence on their behalf.
  • It has proposed the constitution of a ‘Unit Holder Protection Committee’ (UHPC) by the board of AMC.


What is Mutual Fund? 

A mutual fund is a pool of money managed by a professional Fund Manager to be invested for making a profit.

What is Mutual Fund Trustee?

  • Mutual funds in India have a three-tiered structure – mutual fund, the trustees and the AMC.
  • The Board of trustees holds the property of the mutual fund in trust for the benefit of the unit holders.
  • They appoint an Asset Management Company (AMC) to float schemes for the mutual fund and manage the funds mobilized under various schemes.


IFFCO Nano Urea Liquid Plants

Source: PIB

Context: Union Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers has launched the IFFCO Nano Urea Liquid Plants at Aonla and Phulpur in Uttar Pradesh


What is liquid nano urea?

Urea is a chemical nitrogen fertilizer, white in colour, which artificially provides nitrogen, a major nutrient required by plants.

  • Liquid nano urea is essentially urea in the form of a nanoparticle. 


  • Cost: liquid nano urea is cheaper than Urea
  • The efficiency of liquid nano urea can be as high as 85-90 per cent (Conventional urea has an efficiency of about 25 per cent).
  • Liquid nano urea has a shelf life of a year, and farmers need not be worried about “caking” when it comes in contact with moisture
  • Nano form provides a targeted supply of nutrients to crops
  • Reduces fertilizer subsidy bill of the government. 


About Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited (IIFCO)

IIFCO (est. 1967) is one of India’s biggest cooperative societies which is wholly owned by Indian Cooperatives. Its objective is to provide a timely supply of reliable, high-quality agricultural inputs and services in an environmentally sustainable manner.


Related News:

 ource: DST

An immunosensor developed with fluorescent nanomaterial can help detect the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), a signalling protein that promotes the growth of new blood vessels and is considered cancerous if found in elevated levels in the blood.


Prelims Links:

With reference to chemical fertilizers in India, consider the following statements: (UPSC 2020)

  1. At present, the retail price of chemical fertilizers is market-driven and not administered by the Government.
  2. Ammonia, which is an input of urea, is produced from natural gas.
  3. Sulphur, which is a raw material for phosphoric acid fertilizer, is a by-product of oil refineries.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3


Ans: B

The Government of India provides subsidies for chemical fertilizers. Ammonia (NH3) has been synthesized from natural gas. Sulphur is a major by-product of oil refining and gas processing.


Driving Holistic Action for Urban Rivers (DHARA)

Source: PIB

 Context: DHARA the annual meeting of the members of the River Cities Alliance (RCA), is being organised by the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) in association with the National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA)


About DHARA:

It provides a platform to co-learn and discuss solutions for managing local water resources.


About River Cities Alliance:

  • RCA is a dedicated platform for river cities to ideate, discuss and exchange information for sustainable management of urban rivers.
  • It includes cities from both the Ganga basin and non-Ganga basin states.
  • It is being implemented by a partnership of the Ministry of Jal Shakti and the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs
  • River Cities Alliance (RCA) started with 30 cities in 2021 and currently has 95 cities as members across India
  • It has strong synergies with the Urban20 (U20) initiative (under India’s G20 Presidency) to promulgate urban water security.


A nationwide campaign to combat filariasis

 Source: TH

 Context: Union Health Ministry has launched a nationwide mass drug administration (MDA) campaign aimed at ending filariasis disease, by 2027, three years ahead of the global target.


What is Filariasis?

Lymphatic filariasis commonly known as elephantiasis is a neglected tropical disease, which causes tissue or limb swelling.

  • Transmission: Filarial parasites (nematodes (roundworms)) are transmitted to humans through mosquitoes.
    • One of the three parasites, Wuchereria bancrofti, is responsible for 90% of the cases
  • Treatment: WHO recommended strategy for lymphatic filariasis elimination is mass drug administration (MDA).   

Government Initiatives:

  • Nationwide mass drug administration (MDA) campaign aimed at ending filariasis disease transmission through door-to-door administration of anti-filarial drugs, especially in 10 affected states such as Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, etc.
  • Accelerated Plan for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (APELF) was launched in 2018
  • January 30: World Neglected Tropical Diseases Day
  • London Declaration on NTDs: It was adopted on 30th January 2012 to recognise the global burden of NTDs



 Source: Th

Context: Research sheds light on the Agasthiyar Observatory which was one of the few magnetic observatories in the world during the 19th century


What are Magnetic Observatories?

Magnetic observatories are permanent measuring stations that monitor the geomagnetic field to very high accuracy over time scales ranging from seconds to decades and beyond.

  • Agasthyarkoodam is situated on 2nd highest peak of Kerala, to maintain the environments that remain free from significant cultural (magnetic) interference.


Agasthyarkoodam is part of Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO’s World Network of Biosphere Reserves) which lies conjointly in the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

  • Agasthyarkoodam got its name from the sage Agasthya (a pioneer of Tamil Siddha Ayurveda)


Black/Dark galaxy (Invisible galaxy)

 Context: A research team from Italy has detected an elusive black galaxy, dubbed ‘invisible galaxy’ using ALMA.


What is Dark Galaxy? 

A dark galaxy is a hypothesized galaxy with no, or very few, stars. They received their name because they have no visible stars, but may be detectable if they contain significant amounts of gas.



What is ALMA?

ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) is a state-of-the-art telescope to study light from some of the coldest objects in the Universe.

  • The telescope can catch the millimetre or submillimeter-sized wavelengths emitted by Cold objects (earliest and most distant galaxies in the Universe)
  • The telescope (situated in the Atacama desert, Chile, South America) is an international collaboration including teams from Europe, Japan, the US, Canada, Chile



Japan and the global south (by C RajaMohan)+ ET: Japan and India will bridge ‘Global South’, G7 countries, and IPEF countries: Key negotiator



DTE: How much do industrial aerosols contribute to global cooling? The new study offers clues (also covered in today’s CA)

DTE: Himalayan plunder: Ecology changing for the worse due to loss of forest cover, drying springs

 Sociology/ Social Justice:

TH: Shaping a more disabled-friendly digital ecosystem

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