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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

  1. Turkey Earthquake


GS Paper2:

  1. Municipal Mess – From MCD to BMC, paralysis of urban local bodies undermines local governance and democracy
  2. Assam crackdown on child marriage: What does the law say?
  3. 30 years of Indo-Russian Friendship Treaty 1993


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

  1. Women-centric development
  2. G20 Stay Safe Online Campaign


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

  1. Existing limit to fix OBC non-creamy layer enough
  2. 3 months deadline for cases of Remission
  3. South India’s 1st Industrial Corridor Project
  4. The saga of a ‘Spy’ balloon in US airspace
  5. What is Bard, Google’s answer to ‘ChatGPT’
  6. Jupiter beats Saturn to become the planet with the most moons: 92
  7. Israeli scientists develop sniffing robot with locust antennae



Turkey Earthquake

GS Paper 1

Syllabus: Disaster Management/ Geography: Earthquake/ International Relations/ Disaster Relief


Source: IE, Th, DTE, TH

 Direction: This article is in continuation of yesterday’s article on the same issue. Here we will be covering other issues related to Earthquake


Context: South-eastern Turkey, near the Syrian border, was struck by a powerful Earthquake of 7.8 on the Richter Scale.


Why have the buildings collapsed in the “pancake mode” (like a pack of cards)?

  • Shallow Earthquake: The centre of the quake was just 11 miles ( around 18 Km) beneath the Earth’s surface, making it one of the most damaging earthquakes.
    • Shallower earthquakes can be more destructive.
  • Non-enforcement of safe building construction and non-adherence to seismic building codes: Many of the buildings are already built, and seismic retrofitting may be expensive or not considered a priority compared to other socio-economic challenges of Turkey and Syria


How do Satellites help in Rescue and Recovery efforts during an Earthquake?


  • Satellite imaging enables humanitarian aid to better deliver water and food by mapping the condition of roads, bridges, and buildings, and – most crucially – identifying populations trying to escape potential aftershocks.
  • Radar satellites will complement the imaging information, as they also operate at night and through clouds, image landslides and even very small changes in altitude.
  • Generating Maps: Images are transformed into impact or change maps for rescue workers, flood alert maps for the public, and mapping of burnt or flooded areas with damage estimates for decision-makers.
  • Reconstruction after disasters: Satellite technologies help residents benefit from earthquake-resistant construction, the creation of safe gathering places or relocating living areas to safe locations.
    • “Reconstruction observatories“, have been carried out after major disasters (e.g. Haiti in 2021 and in Beirut after the 2019 port explosion) to monitor reconstruction planning


India’s Proactiveness in Disaster Relief:

  • Turkey (2023): India is sending an Army medical team, National Disaster Relief Force (NDRF) personnel, and medical supplies
  • Nepal (2015): The NDRF deployed 16 of its urban search and rescue (USAR) teams, which comprised more than 700 rescuers in the country
  • Japan (2011):In the aftermath of the 2011 Tsunami, India also sent 46 members of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) to search and rescue in the town of Onagawa. It was their first overseas operation
  • Sri Lanka (2004, Operation Rainbow): Despite being the victim of the 2004 Tsunami itself, India sent its forces to carry out rescue operations, called “Operation Rainbow”, in Sri Lanka hours after the Tsunami struck the country.



It is not the disaster, but the lack of preparedness for the disaster that kills”. Thus, disaster preparedness is one of the most vital components of disaster management.

Related news:

Turkey invoked the International Charter on “Space and Major Disasters”, just after the Earthquake.


About the International Charter on “Space and Major Disasters”:


The charter was created by the National Space Research Centre and the European Space Agency in 1999, (now has 17-member space agencies). It aims to provide free satellite imagery as quickly as possible over the disaster area.


Insta Links

Know all the basics about Earthquake: Here


Insta Mains:

Q. Examine the vulnerability of India to earthquakes and propose short, medium and long-term actions to alleviate the risks associated. (250 words)

 Discuss the factors that cause earthquakes. Why are Earthquakes more common in certain parts of the world than others? Discuss the role of disaster planning in its management. (15M)


Prelims Links:

Turkey is located between

(a) Black Sea and Caspian Sea

(b) Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea

(c) Gulf of Suez and Mediterranean Sea

(d) Gulf of Aqaba and Dead Sea

Answer: B

Municipal Mess – From MCD to BMC, paralysis of urban local bodies undermines local governance and democracy

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Devolution of Powers and Finances up to Local Levels and Challenges Therein


Source: ToI 

Context: For the third time in a month the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) failed to elect its mayor after AAP and BJP councillors again engaged in a row over the election process.



  • This MCD conflict is an extension of the years-long tussle between the two parties over the administration of the national capital.
  • Given the complex governance system in place in Delhi, the state and the central governments ought to cooperate, but this goal has proven challenging in the era of intense political competition.


What’s the ongoing issue in the MCD?

  • The Presiding Officer (a BJP councillor) for the mayoral election said that aldermen (nominated members) are allowed to vote in the House and elect the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, and members of the Standing Committee.
  • However, the AAP had expressed apprehension, as they claim that aldermen do not have voting rights under the Delhi Municipal Corporation Act, 1957.
  • In the absence of a mayor, major decisions related to policy matters, development works and projects that require big financial investment are


Case of Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC): An astonishing 22 of 28 municipal corporations in Maharashtra (including the country’s richest civic body – BMC) have seen their terms expire with fresh polls nowhere in sight.


Examining urban local governance in India:

  • The Constitution (74th Amendment) Act, 1992 has introduced (Part IX A Article 243 P to ZG] and Schedule XII) in the Constitution, which provides for the establishment of urban local bodies (ULBs) as institutions of local self-government.
  • It has empowered state governments to devolve the responsibility of 18 functions including urban planning, regulation of land use, water supply, etc., and made periodic elections compulsory for them.
  • Urban governance is part of the state list under the Constitution. Thus, the administrative framework and regulation of ULBs vary across states.
  • Experts have highlighted that ULBs across India face similar challenges. For instance, lacking autonomy, city-level functions are managed by parastatals, devolution of powers is incomplete (lacks taxation powers – stressed municipal finances), irregular elections, etc.
  • These challenges have led to poor service delivery, severely curtailing urban governance at a time when 675 million Indians are slated to live in urban centres by 2035.


Key suggestions to improve urban local governance in India:

  • Constitutional amendments (for making devolution of powers mandatory and setting the accountability of state governments – ULBs) to achieve objectives of urban decentralisation.
  • Supporting reform-linked investments (on asset creation as well as management) is needed for different states based on the level of urbanisation.
  • Inter-government transfers should have in-built incentives to improve performance.
  • Integrate various urban development programs (including capacity building) at local, state and national levels to develop sustainable city or metropolitan regions.
  • Strengthen urban institutions and clarify the roles of different organisations.
  • The second generation of urban reforms should further focus on regulation, innovative financing and PPP, and climate change initiatives.


Conclusion: In order to establish smarter cities, empowered instead of stalled local bodies are needed. Therefore, Mumbai needs municipal elections, while Delhi needs a mayor.


Insta Links:

74th Constitutional Amendment


Mains Links:

Q. “The reservation of seats for women in the institution of local self-government has had a limited impact on the patriarchal character of the Indian political process”. Comment. (UPSC 2019)


Prelims Links: (UPSC 2015)

The fundamental object of the Panchayati Raj system is to ensure which among the following?

  1. People’s participation in development
  2. Political accountability
  3. Democratic decentralisation
  4. Financial mobilisation


Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 4 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4


Ans: 3

Assam crackdown on child marriage: What does the law say?

GS Paper  2

Syllabus: Social Justice: Issues related to Women


Source: Indian Express, Indian Express

 Context: More than 2,000 people have been arrested in a statewide crackdown on child marriages that have taken place in the state of Assam.


Data on child Marriage:

  • UN estimates suggest that 1.5 million girls get married before they turn 18 in India.
  • According to the 2011 census, 44 per cent of women in Assam were married before the age of 18. The figures for Rajasthan, Bihar, and Madhya Pradesh were 47 per cent, 46 per cent, and 43 per cent, respectively.




Historical Perspective on Child Marriage:

  • Ancient India
    • Manusmritis: It says that if the father fails to marry off his daughter within three years of her attaining puberty, she can find a spouse on her own.
      • Medhatithi, one of the oldest and earliest commentators on the Manusmriti, eight years is the right age for a girl to be given in marriage
    • The Rig Veda mentions garbhadhan– attaining the wealth of the womb. It is the first of the 16 samskaras a Hindu is expected to perform.
    • The Greek traveller Megasthenes (350-290 BC) has written that he was told that the women of the Pandian kingdom in South India bear children at six years of age. About seven centuries later, the Persian polymath, Al Biruni, wrote that child marriages were rampant in India.
  • Modern India:
    • The colonial state: The Age of Consent Acts of 1861 and 1891 brought in reform in conjugal rights. The 1861 Act laid down 10 years as the minimum age for sexual intercourse. The Hindu intelligentsia opposed raising this age to 12 on the grounds that it violated norms related to garbhadhan.
    • Rukmabai case gave new impetus to the campaign of social reformers like M G Ranade and Behramji Merwanji Malabari. Rukmabai had refused to solemnize her marriage, which had taken place when she was 11.
  • Post-Independence:
    • At the time of India’s independence, the minimum marriageable age stood at 15 years for females and 18 years for men.
    • In 1978, the government increased it to 18 for girls and 21 for men.
    • Years later, in 2008, the Law Commission came out with a report which stated that the minimum marriageable age for both men and women should be 18 years of age, as both are considered eligible to vote as citizens at the time.


Laws present to prevent Child Marriage:

  • The POCSO Act, of 2012 criminalizes sex between a minor and an adult. The law does not recognize a minor’s consent as valid. Sexual assault under POCSO is a non-bailable, cognizable offence.
    • Section 19 of, the POCSO Act imposes a “mandatory reporting obligation” which requires every person who suspects or has knowledge of a sexual offence being committed against a child must report it to the police or the Special Juvenile Police Unit.
  • The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006, says that child marriages are illegal but not void. Instead, they are voidable at the option of the minor party, in the scenario that the minor petitions the court to declare the marriage void. The Act stipulates 18 years as the minimum marriageable age for women, while for men it is 21 years.
    • The punishment also extends to anyone who performs, conducts, directs, or abets any child marriage.


Central government’s stand:

  • In 2021, the Central government sought to introduce the Prevention of Child Marriage (Amendment) Bill 2021, to raise the manageable age for women across all religions, from 18 to 21 years. However, the Parliament panel examining this is yet to submit its report.
  • The establishment of the Jaya Jaitly Committee in June 2020, by the Ministry of Women & Child Development, submitted a report stating that the marriageable age for women should be increased from 18 to 21 years of age, in light of factors like reproductive health, education, etc.


Modern international laws and conventions on Child Marriage:

  • The UN Convention on Consent to Marriage,
  • Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages (1962),
  • The UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979)
  • Beijing Declaration (1995)


Insta Links:

How is India planning to end child marriage


Prelims Link: UPSC 2020

In the context of Indian history, the Rakhmabai case of (1884) revolved around?

  1. Women’s right to gain education
  2. Age of consent
  3. Restitution of conjugal rights

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3


Answer: b


Mains Link:

Examine the causes leading to the menace of child marriage in India. How can child marriage be prevented through a combination of Legislation, education, and government action?

30 years of Indo-Russian Friendship Treaty 1993

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: International Relations


Source: HT


Direction: The article highlights the major dimensions of India-Russia relations to mark the 30th anniversary of the Indo-Russian Friendship Treaty of 1993


Context: The Russian ambassador expressed doubt about the US’s reliability as a partner for India and emphasized the trusted relationship between Russia and India at an event marking the 30th anniversary of the Indo-Russian Friendship Treaty 1993


Highlights of the Russian ambassador’s speech:

  • India and Russia had “always been on the same page”, which contrasted with the US approach to India (during the Cold war era)
  • Russia has very close cooperation with China, but this will never overshadow the close ties that India-Russia enjoys.
  • Russia would like to see the normalisation of India-China relations as this will benefit global and Asian security.
  • Russia wants to expand its economic presence in Pakistan, however, it will never do anything detrimental to India.
    • Russia has a limited defence relationship with Pakistan that is directed towards counter-terrorism. A weak Pakistan would not be a better choice for the region, for India or for Afghanistan.


Important dimensions of India-Russia relations
Political Relations The Annual Summit meeting between the PM of India and the Russian President is the highest institutionalised dialogue mechanism in the strategic partnership.
International/Multilateral Organisations and Connectivity Projects ●        BRICS, SCO, NSG, UNSG

●        International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC) – the key connectivity link between Russia and India via Iran

Defence and Security Cooperation ●        India-Russia military-technical cooperation has evolved from a buyer-seller framework to one involving joint research, development and production of advanced defence technologies and systems.

●        For example, the BrahMos Missile System licensed the production of SU-30 aircraft and T-90 tanks.

●        Both signed the $5.4-billion deal for five S-400 batteries in 2018, and all deliveries were to be completed in a five-year period.

●        Tri-Services exercise – INDRA’

Trade and Economic Relations A key priority, as is clear by the revised targets of increasing bilateral investment to US $ 50 billion and bilateral trade to US $ 30 billion by 2025.
Nuclear Energy  In 2014, both signed the Strategic Vision for strengthening cooperation in peaceful uses of atomic energy. Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP) is being built in India with Russian cooperation.
Space Cooperation Both sides cooperate in the peaceful uses of outer space. An MoU ISRO and ROSCOSMOS on Joint Activities in the field of Human Spaceflight Programme (Gaganyaan) was signed
Science & Technology  ●        The Working Group on S&T functioning under IRIGC-TEC, the Integrated Long Term Programme (ILTP) and the Basic Science Cooperation Programme are the three main institutional mechanisms.

●        Initiatives Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL), GIAN, and the Russia-India Network (RIN) of Universities.

Cultural Cooperation  There is a strong tradition of Indian studies in Russia. There is strong interest among Russian people in Indian dance, music, yoga and Ayurveda.


Timeline of India-Russia Relations:



Insta Links: India-Russia relations




Mains Links:

  1. What is the significance of Indo-US defence deals over Indo-Russian defence deals? Discuss with reference to stability in the Indo-Pacific region. (UPSC 2020)



Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

Women-centric development

 Source: LM

The concept of Women-centric development is based on a recognition of the importance of the roles and status of women in the development process

  • Ela Ramesh Bhatt: She was an Indian cooperative organiser, activist and Gandhian, who founded the Self-Employed Women’s Association of India in 1972, and served as its general secretary from 1972 to 1996.
    • She was involved in The Elders’ work on gender equality, including on the issue of ending child marriage.
  • Rosa Parks (US Civil Rights activist): Called “the mother of the civil rights movement,” Rosa Parks invigorated the struggle for racial equality when she refused to give up her bus seat to a white man in Montgomery, Alabama.
  • In the Film-making: Recent successful examples are: Puja Banerji (Conditions Apply), Kartiki Gonsalves (The Elephant Whisperers), Vijayeta Kumar (Sunny Side Upar: An episode in the show Zindagi in short), or Zoya Parvin (Clean)Gender-Equality Index in the Corporate world
  • Bloomberg announced that 484 companies are included in the 2023 Bloomberg Gender-Equality Index (GEI).
    • GEI tracks the company’s progress in gender inclusion and how the implementation of diversity policies shapes company performance.


Significance of women-centric development:

  • By offering equal opportunity to women, the country could add an estimated $770 billion to its GDP by 2025
  • The literacy rate of women has been rising steadily since independence & India is bridging the gender literacy gap
  • Ethical Perspective: Promoting women’s development ensures social justice and human rights. It is a critical aspect of creating a more equitable and just world


Related News:

Global Climate Resilience Fund (GCRF)

Former U.S. Secretary of States Hillary Clinton announced the world’s first global climate resilience fund (GCRF) in partnership with Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA)

 Aim: It will work to tackle challenges faced due to rising temperatures on account of climate change.


‘G20 Stay Safe Online Campaign’

Source: TOI

Meta (parent company of Facebook) together with the IT Ministry has launched the DigitalSuraksha campaign and G20 Stay Safe Online Campaign to educate the youth about misinformation.

  • The campaign is aimed at offering a safer and more inclusive internet to Indians.


Under the program:

  • Meta will create and distribute resources in multiple Indian languages via various channels to raise awareness about how to stay safe online.
  • Digital literacy will be provided to 10,000 students across various Delhi schools and colleges on topics such as cyberbullying, sextortion, trolling, identity theft and how to safely browse the internet.


Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Existing limit to fix OBC non-creamy layer enough

 Source: TH


Context: According to the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, the existing income limit for determining the non-creamy layer among OBC “is considered sufficient” and there is no proposal to revise the said income limit.



  • Currently, an annual income of both parents of ₹8 lakh or more excludes OBCs from availing reservation, putting them in the creamy layer category, leaving benefits only for those earning less than that.
  • Several Backward Class associations and the NCBC have consistently demanded/recommended that the income limit should be raised to at least ₹10 lakh, so that more can avail of the quota system benefits.
  • Ever since the OBC quota was introduced, the Union government has asked the NCBC to evaluate the need to raise this income limit based on current circumstances.
  • The first time the limit was revised in 2004 (raised to ₹2.5 lakh in 2004, ₹4.5 lakh in 2008, ₹6 lakh in 2013, and ₹8 lakh in 2017), following which the NCBC would be entrusted to do the same every three years.
  • An internal government task force (headed by B.P. Sharma – former DoPT Secy) had also concluded in its 2019 report that the income limit for determining the creamy layer among OBCs should be raised to ₹12 lakh.


The Creamy Layer: It is a concept that sets a threshold within which OBC reservation benefits are applicable.


Genesis of the concept:

  • The 2nd Backward Classes Commission/Mandal Commission report: The government provided 27% reservation in central government jobs for OBCs in 1990. This was challenged in the SC by several writ petitions.
  • Indira Sawhney Case (1992): A nine-judge bench of the SC had upheld reservations for OBCs, but ruled that the creamy layer (to be decided by the central government) among the backward class of citizens must be excluded.

Image Credit: Hindustan Times


3 months deadline for cases of Remission

 Source: HT

 Context: Supreme Court has dismissed a plea by the Uttar Pradesh government to not bind the governor with a three months deadline to decide on remission pleas of convicts serving a life term

  • Previously, SC had directed the state government to decide on 2,248 cases of remission within three months.

SC observation:

  • Even a constitutional authority cannot say that she or he is above the law
  • The law obligates each and every authority equally, and the Constitution ascertains there is no vacuum even at the level of constitutional functionaries.


About Remission:

Remission is releasing a convicted prisoner before the expiry of their sentence. The concept of remission was introduced through the Prisons Act, 1894.



  • Article 72: The President of India has the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment.
  • Article 161: It empowers the Governor of the state to grant remission
  • Prisons Act: Under this act, only state governments can frame rules for granting remission.



South India’s 1st Industrial Corridor Project

Source: PIB

Context: Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone of South India’s 1st Industrial Corridor Project to be implemented at Tumakuru under the Chennai Bengaluru Industrial Corridor (CBIC)


  • CBIC project includes the development of industrial townships at three nodes: Krishnapatnam (Andhra Pradesh), Tumakuru (Karnataka), and Ponneri (Tamil Nadu)


About Tumakuru Industrial Township 

It has been planned with a holistic and integrated approach in line with the principles of PM-GatiShakti to address the issue of last-mile multi-modal connectivity to the economic zone


About National Industrial Corridor Development Programme:
  • National Industrial Corridor Programme (NICP) (started in 2007) is an infrastructure programme of the Government of India aiming to develop industrial cities in the country
  • Objective: Enhance India’s competitiveness in manufacturing through the creation of world-class infrastructure and reduced logistics costs
  • Implementation: 32 greenfield industrial smart cities under 11 industrial corridors are being developed with world-class Plug-n-Play infrastructure.
  • Mantra: “Reform, Perform and Transform”
  • Progress: Four such smart industrial cities have already been completed at Dholera in Gujarat, Shendra Bidkin in Maharashtra, Vikram Udyogpuri in Madhya Pradesh, Integrated Industrial Township at Greater Noida in Uttar Pradesh
  • Nodal Agency: DPIIT (Ministry of Commerce)


The saga of a ‘Spy’ balloon in US airspace

 Source: TH

 Context: The US shot down a Chinese ‘spy’ balloon, days after the surveillance device was first spotted over American airspace.


What are spy balloons?

  • Spy balloons are high-altitude surveillance tools that usually operate at 80,000-120,000 feet – well above the cruising altitude of commercial aircraft – to gather intelligence and carry out other military missions.
  • During the cold war, the U.S. military used high-altitude balloons (Project Genetrix, Project Mogul) to spy on the Soviet Union.
  • Economically viable unlike satellites
  • Due to their proximity to Earth’s surface, they can take high-resolution images of the target.
  • Disadvantage: Not directly steered, but roughly guided.



What is Bard, Google’s answer to ‘ChatGPT’

 Source: Indian Express

 Context: Google has finally decided to start public testing for a new AI chatbot of its own called Bard.


What is Bard:

  • Bard is based on Language Model for Dialogue Application or LaMDA and Google’s own conversational AI chatbot. It is termed an “experimental conversational AI service.”
  • The model is currently a “lightweight” version of LaMDA, and the one being “requires significantly less computing power, enabling us to scale to more users, allowing for more feedback.”
  • ChatGPT is powered by Microsoft’s Azure Cloud services.


Jupiter beats Saturn to become the planet with the most moons: 92

 Source: The Hindu


Context: Astronomers have discovered 12 new moons around Jupiter, putting the total count at a record-breaking 92.

  • Jupiter and Saturn are loaded with small moons, believed to be fragments of once bigger moons that collided with one another or with comets or asteroids. The same goes for Uranus and Neptune, but they’re so distant that it makes moon-spotting even harder.
  • Uranus has 27 confirmed moons, Neptune 14, Mars two, and Earth one. Venus and Mercury come up empty.
  • Jupiter’s newly discovered moons have yet to be named.


Image Credit: Vector Stock (Number of moons shown in fig has not increased to 92)


Israeli scientists develop sniffing robot with locust antennae

Source: The Hindu

 Context: A new sniffing robot equipped with a biological sensor that uses the antennae of locusts could help advance disease diagnosis and improve security checks.

Locusts have an acute sense of smell, which the researchers have managed to harness into their bio-hybrid robot, making it far more sensitive than existing electronic sniffers.

On the four-wheeled robot, the researchers placed the insect’s antenna between two electrodes that send electrical signals as a response to a nearby odour. Each scent has a unique signature which, with machine learning, the robot’s electronic system can identify.

 About Bio-Hybrid Robots:

  • Bio-hybrid robots refer to robots that integrate biological components with artificial components, such as electronics and mechanics.
  • These robots may use biological materials such as cells, tissues, or muscles as actuators, sensors, or energy sources.
  • The use of biological components can provide advantages such as greater dexterity, adaptability, and energy efficiency compared to traditional robotic systems.





Law/Sociology/ PSIR:

TH: The freedom of speech and an ‘adolescent India’ (We already covered it in our editorials: Here)



TH: A poly-crisis that is depleting Pakistan’s resilience


Pub Ad:

TOI: Municipal Mess – From MCD to BMC, paralysis of urban local bodies undermines local governance and democracy+ IE: Why the MCD House elections have been stalled for the third time



Th: Fiscal consolidation in the context of the Budget


State PSC:

Th: Why Kerala’s tax rate hikes appear compelling


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