InstaLinks : help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 1:
- Why Turkey is prone to devastating earthquakes?
- Decoding India’s population conundrum
- NCST functioning with less than 50% of sanctioned strength
- Kerala has a drug problem: 300% jump in cases over six years; arrests increase 90%
GS Paper 3:
- Long-term groundwater storage in Ganga basin declining at 2.6 cm per year: Study
GS Paper 4:
- What are voice deepfakes and how are they used?
Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)
- Prison Reforms
Facts for Prelims (FFP)
- Stone-age carvings found in Aravalis in Gurugram
- EU sets up Trade & Technology Council with India
- Various types of bonds
- Primary steel producers
- What is NISAR and its mission?
- Save Wetlands Campaign
- Rajasthan plans zoo for dolphins, rhinos inside Bharatpur sanctuary
- PM rolls out 20% ethanol-blended petrol in 11 States/UTs
Why Turkey is prone to devastating earthquakes?
Syllabus: Disaster Management
Source: The Hindu, Indian Express
Context: Three earthquakes measuring — 7.8, 7.6, and 6.0 — magnitude on the Richter scale have devastated Turkey and Syria, while impacting regions as far away as Cyprus, Lebanon, Israel, and Egypt.
Turkey has announced a Level 4 alert calling for international aid; U.S., European Union, Russia, and Azerbaijan have reportedly dispatched aid.
Why is Turkey prone to Earthquakes?
- In the region of Turkey, Syria, and Jordan, tectonics are dominated by complex interactions between the African, Arabian, and Eurasian tectonic plates, and the Anatolian tectonic block.
- Other factors:
- Red Sea Rift, the spreading centre between the African and Arabian plates;
- Dead Sea Transform, a major strike-slip fault that also accommodates Africa-Arabia relative motions;
- North Anatolia Fault, a right-lateral strike-slip structure in northern Turkey accommodating much of the translational motion of the Anatolia block westwards with respect to Eurasia and Africa;
- Cyprian Arc, a convergent boundary between the African plate and the Anatolia block.
What are aftershocks and why do they occur?
- Aftershocks are a sequence of earthquakes that happen after a larger main shock on a fault. They occur near the fault zone where the main shock rupture occurred and are part of the “readjustment process” after the main slip on the fault.
- While they become less frequent with time, they can continue for days, weeks, months, or even years for a very large main shock.
Q. Discuss about the vulnerability of India to earthquake-related hazards. Give examples including the salient features of major disasters caused by earthquakes in different parts of India during the last three decades. – UPSC 2021
Q. The frequency of earthquakes appears to have increased in the Indian subcontinent. However, India’s preparedness for mitigating its impact has significant gaps. Discuss various aspects. – UPSC 2015
Consider the following (UPSC 2013)
- Electromagnetic radiation
- Geothermal energy
- Gravitational force
- Plate movements
- Rotation of the earth
- Revolution of the earth
Which of the above is responsible for bringing dynamic changes on the surface of the earth?
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
(b) 1, 3, 5 and 6 only
(c) 2, 4, 5 and 6 only
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6
Decoding India’s population conundrum
GS Paper 1
Syllabus: Population and Associated Issues
Direction: This is from ‘The Hindu Podcast’, it discusses the advantages and disadvantages of India becoming the world’s most populous nation in 2023.
Context: 2023 is set to be a landmark year for India’s population trajectory, as the country is predicted to overtake China to become the world’s most populous nation.
- According to the UN World Population Prospects 2022, India is projected to overtake China as the world’s most populous country in
- India’s population stands at 412 billion in 2022 and is projected to have a population of 1.668 billion in 2050.
- India is expected to reach 1,428.6 million in 2023. On the other hand, China’s population fell to 1,411.8 million in 2022 (from 1,412.6 million in 2021).
Implications for India:
|● India will continue to have one of the world’s youngest populations until 2030.
● Currently, in a demographic window of opportunity – a “youth bulge,” that will last until 2025 (median age in India – 28.7 years, 38.4 – in China, 48.6 – in Japan).
● Thus, prospects to reap the demographic dividend – share of the working-age population will peak at 57% towards the mid-2030s.
● More working-age population → more tax revenues → savings potential will increase → high growth rate.
● A relatively lower number of those needing care such as the elderly and young children.
|● Lack of policies for education, skilling and health in place.
● Vast underemployment among educated youths.
● In the absence of meaningful opportunities for the youth, the demographic dividend → demographic nightmare.
● Uneven population growth. For example, some Southern states have populations that age faster than some northern States.
- India must shift its lens from ‘population control’ to ‘population development’.
- For this, India must frame policies and strategies to effectively unleash the full potential of its young people.
Conclusion: India is not fully utilizing its demographic dividend, which refers to the economic advantage of having a large working-age population. To fully reap the benefits, India must create high-quality jobs and equip its young, skilled workforce to fill them.
China’s population drops for the first time in 60 years: How this happened, road ahead
NCST functioning with less than 50% of sanctioned strength
GS Paper 2
Syllabus: Constitutional and Statutory bodies
Context: Data from the Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA) revealed that the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) is currently functioning with less than 50% of its sanctioned strength
Issues with the staffing in the commission:
- The sanctioned strength of the ST panel is one Chairperson+ one Vice-Chairperson+ three Members= total of Five members (two among V-C and Members must be from the ST community and one member must be a woman).
- However, currently, it just has a Chairperson (Harsh Chouhan) and one Member (Ananta Nayak) with all other positions, including that of the mandatory ST Member, vacant for the last three years
- Posts under Group A, B and C: Against total sanctioned posts of 124; 70 posts are vacant
- Among the group A posts: Sanctioned posts of one Superintendent of Police, one Law Officer and one Accounts Officer are vacant since 2004.
- While Group A posts in the NCST are filled by the Ministry, Groups B and C posts are the NCST’s responsibility
- The recruitment rules for the posts are yet to be framed
- Among the group A posts: Sanctioned posts of one Superintendent of Police, one Law Officer and one Accounts Officer are vacant since 2004.
- Posts of Research Officers, Investigators and Directors are vacant
- Lack of applicants: The Ministry claimed that the eligibility bar was set too high for the entry of applicants
- Fewer meetings: In the financial year 2021-22, it has met only four times.
- High rate of pendency of cases: Its rate of pendency of resolution of complaints and cases that it receives is also close to 50%
NCST is a constitutional body set up by amending Article 338 and by inserting a new article 338A in the Constitution (89th Constitution Amendment Act, 2003) in 2004.
Erstwhile National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was replaced by two separate Commissions namely:
- The National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC)
- The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST)
For Composition, power, and Reporting: Click on this link
For the process of inclusion or exclusion from the Scheduled Tribes list: Click on this link
About Scheduled Tribes:
Schedule tribes are termed “backward tribes” living in the “Excluded” and “Partially Excluded” areas (as per Census-1931).
- Article 366of the Constitution only provides a process to define Scheduled Tribes: Tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342
- 342(1): The President may specify the tribe as Scheduled Tribe in relation to that State or Union Territory.
- Among the 700 tribes notified, the largest number of tribal communities (62) are found in Odisha and no Tribe was identified in Haryana, Punjab, Chandigarh, Delhi, and Pondicherry.
Few Related Committees
- Lokur Committee (1965): It set the criteria for defining Schedule Tribes
- Bhuria Commission (2002-2004): It focused on issues such as the 5th Schedule to tribal land, forests, health and education, the working of Panchayats and the status of tribal women.
- Xaxa Committee (2013): To study 5 critical issues related to tribal communities: (1) livelihood and employment, (2) education, (3) health, (4) involuntary displacement and migration, (5) and legal and constitutional matters.
Eklavya Model Schools, TRIFED, Pradhan Mantri Van Dhan Yojana
Development of PVTGs, Pradhan Mantri PVTG Development Mission (announced in the recent budget) (check yesterday’s CA FFP)
Q. What are the two major legal initiatives by the State since Independence addressing discrimination against Scheduled Tribes (STs)? (UPSC 2017)
At the national level, which ministry is the nodal agency to ensure effective implementation of the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006? (UPSC 2021)
(a) Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change
(b) Ministry of Panchayati Raj
(c) Ministry of Rural Development
(d) Ministry of Tribal Affairs
Kerala has a drug problem: 300% jump in cases over six years; arrests increased by 90%
GS Paper 2
Syllabus: Health and related issues
Direction: The article highlights the drug menace in India, its impact and steps taken by the government of India.
Context: In 2022, Kerala saw a high increase in cases involving drugs, liquor, and prohibited tobacco items, suggesting that drugs have become a new problem for the state.
- Data show that the police registered 26,629 cases under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act in 2022 – a jump of over 300% when compared to 2016.
- While there was a fall in the quantity of ganja seized in 2022 over the previous year, seizures of heroin, charas and hashish have gone up.
- Bengaluru and Goa remain major hubs from where the drugs are sourced and cannabis is the main drug used by teenagers.
- The steady rise in drug-related cases in Kerala is a factor of both strict enforcement and raids and easier access to contraband.
- Youngsters are now aware of the availability of synthetic/recreational drugs (MDMA and LSD). There is also peer pressure to explore these drugs.
Scale of the Drug Addiction problem in India:
- The UNODC’s World Drug Report 2022 estimates that around 284 million people use drugs worldwide.
- The report also claims India is one of the world’s single-largest opiate markets and most addicts are between the age group of 15 and 35 and many are unemployed.
- More than 60% of all illicit drugs seized in India are from Punjab.
Impact on individual, economy, society and national security:
- Drug addiction poses a high risk of unintentional injuries, accidents, domestic violence incidents, medical problems and death.
- Impacts on Mental Health: Drug dependence leads to low self-esteem, and hopelessness and can lead to criminal activities/law and order challenges and even suicidal tendencies.
- Drug abusers’ economic potential gets severely impacted. For example, they fail to become part of the workforce.
- Money earned from the illegal drug trade is used to aid terrorist organisations, which threatens the defence and security of many countries.
Measures taken by the government:
- The NDPS Act, 1985: Under the act, the Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) was constituted in 1986 with the prime responsibility of fighting drug trafficking and drug abuse.
- Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan (NMBA): In 2020, the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment launched NMBA in 272 most vulnerable districts of India to address the problem.
- The MoSJ&E has begun the implementation of a National Action Plan for Drug Demand Reduction (NAPDDR) for 2018-2025.
- The government constituted the Narco-Coordination Centre (NCORD) in 2016.
- The government has constituted a fund called the “National Fund for Control of Drug Abuse” to meet the expenditure incurred in combating illicit traffic in Narcotic Drugs, rehabilitating addicts, educating the public against drug abuse, etc.
The Portuguese model:
- In 2001, Portugal became the first country in the world to decriminalise the possession and use of all illegal drugs.
- Instead of sending people to court for drug possession, its model focuses on education, treatment and harm reduction.
Operation “Gear Box” was started by the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) to combat the smuggling of heroin by detecting the hidden drugs in the gearboxes.
Q. India’s proximity to two of the world’s biggest illicit opium-growing states has enhanced her internal security concerns. Explain the linkages between drug trafficking and other illicit activities such as gunrunning, money laundering and human trafficking. What countermeasures should be taken to prevent the same? (UPSC 2018)
Long-term groundwater storage in Ganga basin declining at 2.6 cm per year: Study
GS Paper 3
Syllabus: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation
Direction: The article highlights that groundwater in the Ganga basin has been declining. The article includes a best practice (infographics) of groundwater conservation in India.
- According to new estimates, groundwater storage levels have been declining by 2.6 centimetres per year in the Ganga basin.
- The impacts were more pronounced in Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi, with average storage declines of roughly 14 cm/year, 1, 7.5 cm/year and 7.2 cm year−1, respectively.
- A recent Central Groundwater Board yearbook, which monitors groundwater levels four times a year, found that the water levels in 2021-2022 rose compared to the 2011-2020 average.
- The Brahmaputra basin, which was not a part of the study, shows more groundwater level reduction than the Ganga and Indus basins.
Findings of the study:
- The Ganga Basin’s aquifers are one of the largest reservoirs of groundwater in the world.
- Researchers used three different methods to study long-term groundwater storage across six states.
- Data between 1996 and 2017 from the Central Groundwater Board.
- Data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) – satellites launched in 2002 to assess Earth’s water reservoirs over land, ice and ocean.
- A model to study groundwater dynamics and storage
- All three analyses depicted that groundwater in the Ganga basin is declining. The new study included western Delhi, Haryana and Rajasthan under the Ganga basin.
- Rajasthan, whose groundwater reserves contribute about 90% of the drinking water and 60% of the irrigation, is showing an improvement in groundwater levels in the recent past.
- Agriculturally intensive regions and urban areas (like Delhi and Agra) took the biggest hit.
- Delhi and Haryana have high groundwater abstraction rates (Groundwater abstraction refers to the process of removing water from underground aquifers for various purposes such as irrigation, drinking water supply, industrial use, or for recharging depleted aquifers.)
Reasons highlighted by the WMO’s – first State of Global Water Resources 2021:
- The worsening impact of climate change/global warming – more water flowing in the river channels due to glacial melt, however, total water storage declined in 2021.
- Over-abstraction of groundwater for irrigation.
- UN Groundwater Summit 2022 to help raise awareness on aquifer protection, sustainable use
- Dynamic Ground Water Resource Assessment 2022 Report
Q. What are the salient features of the Jal Shakti Abhiyan launched by the Government of India for water conservation and water security? (UPSC 2020)
What are voice deepfakes and how are they used?
GS Paper 4
Syllabus: Ethics/ Science and Technology
Context: Recently several users of ElevenLabs (“speech synthesis” and “voice cloning” service provider) made voice deepfakes of celebrities like Emma Watson, Joe Rogan, and Ben Shapiro.
- Those deepfake audios made racist, abusive, and violent comments without consent.
Ethical concerns related to the use of voice deepfakes:
- Deception: Using false or misleading audio recordings
- Privacy invasion: Making deepfake voices to impersonate others without their consent
- Damage to reputation and credibility
- Lack of regulation: Currently no law regulates it
- Impact on public trust: It may lead to misinformation.
- Discriminatory uses: It can be used to create fake recordings of marginalized communities, amplifying harmful stereotypes and perpetuating discrimination.
- Cases of defrauding users:g. In 2020, a manager from a bank in the U.A.E., received a phone call from someone he believed was a company director to transfer $35 million.
- Identity Theft: Morgan Neville’s documentary film on the well-known late chef Anthony Bourdain used voice-cloning software to make Bourdain say words he never spoke. This sparked criticism.
- Phone scams
- Posting fake videos on social media platforms: To blackmail the target
To know about what countries are doing and what should be the solution for deepfakes: Refer to our last month’s article on deepfakes
Q. Use of the internet and social media by non-state actors for subversive activities is a major security concern. How have these been misused in the recent past? Suggest effective guidelines to curb the above threat. (UPSC 2016)
Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)
Rajasthan Model of Open Prison: The open prison model adopted in Rajasthan, with convicts staying on community land without high walls or strict surveillance, has promoted a reformative form of punishment and succeeded in transforming the lives of inmates.
- Reformative form of punishment: It is premised on the humane concept that a wrongdoer does not simply cease to be a living human being just because he commits crimes. In contrast, Retributive justice focuses on punishing an offender
- Lower expenses: As minimum security facilities, the open prisons need 92% less staff than closed jails, and incur monthly costs of only ₹500 per prisoner; no reports of prisoner escapes or repeat offences
- Rajasthan has now proved the concept with 40 such open camps.
Overall, open prisons can offer a more ethical approach to imprisonment by promoting rehabilitation, reducing overcrowding, improving human rights, and potentially reducing costs.
Usage: These examples can be used as an example of prison reforms/way forward in Ethics/Governance/Internal Security Questions
Use of Technology for Prison:
Tihar jail is installing artificial intelligence (AI)-powered CCTV cameras to monitor inmates and fight crime. The premises will also have a real-time grievance redressal system and optical fibre network.
Facts for Prelims
Stone-age carvings found in Aravalis in Gurugram
Context: Various Paleolithic paintings found in the Aravalli hills and the latest discovery of stone carvings in the Badshahpur area has widened the trove of history in the Gurugram region.
About the findings:
- The petroglyphs discovered in the area include graffiti and hand and footprints of humans and animals engraved on quartzite rocks.
- The Paleolithic era spans from about 25 lakh years to 10,000 BP (before the present, the carbon dating marker that archaeologists use with 1950 treated as the base year).
- It provides evidence of the beginning of Saraswati-Sindhu, Pre Vedic, and Vedic civilizations.
- Several tools and equipment – like pebbles and flake-based tools used to make these petroglyphs were found at the site as well.
EU sets up Trade & Technology Council (TTC) with India
Context: The TTC with India is the EU’s second such technology partnership after the first one with the US (in 2021).
What is TTC?
- According to the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA), TTC is a strategic coordination mechanism that will allow both partners to tackle challenges at the nexus of trade, trusted technology and security.
- Under the TTC, three working groups (on strategic technologies, digital governance and digital connectivity; green and clean energy technologies; trade, investment and resilient value chains) have been established.
- The TTC will be co-chaired on the Indian side by the ministers for external affairs, commerce and industry, communications, electronics and IT.
Significance of TTC:
- It is expected to facilitate the exchange of critical technologies relating to an array of domains, including AI, quantum computing, semiconductors and cybersecurity.
- Deepens cooperation between India and the EU.
Related news: TH
Context: India and the U.S. launched iCET to enhance their strategic partnership
Click here to know about iCET (FFP section of CA)
Various types of bonds
Direction: Continuation of yesterday’s CA FFP (Sebi tweaks operational framework on credit rating agencies)
Context: Markets regulator Sebi has strengthened the framework for green bonds (green debt securities) by introducing the concept of ‘blue’ and ‘yellow’ bonds as new modes of sustainable finance.
What are Green debt securities?
Sebi broadly defines green debt security as one that is issued for the purpose of raising capital to be used for the cause of sustainable development or furthering energy efficiency
Under the sub-categories of green debt securities:
- Blue bonds: It is a debt instrument issued by governments, development banks or others to raise capital to finance marine and ocean-based projects that have positive environmental, economic and climate benefits
- Yellow bonds pertain to solar energy
- Transition bonds: To fund a firm’s transition or to reduce their carbon emissions
These measures have been taken to align India’s framework for green debt securities with the updated Green Bond Principles (GBP) recognised by IOSCO.
The International Organization of Securities Commissions (Est. 1983, HQ: Madrid (Spain)) is an association of organizations that regulate the world’s securities and futures markets. SEBI is a member of it.
Primary steel producers
Context: Steel Ministry will push primary steel producers to use 50 per cent of their input from scrapped/recycled steel by 2047 to help achieve the government target of moving into a circular economy.
- Currently, the level of recycled steel usage in primary steel production is only around 10 per cent
- India currently produces 25 million tonnes of scrap steel and annually imports 5 million tonnes of scrap steel with zero import duty
About Circular Economy: Click here
- The 6Rs philosophy of Circular Economy are: reduce (exploitation of natural resources), recycle, reuse, recover, re-design and reinforce
What is NISAR and its mission?
Source: Indian Express
Context: Jointly developed by NASA and the ISRO, an Earth-observation satellite, called NISAR (NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar), got a send-off ceremony at the American space agency’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).
What is NISAR?
- The satellite consists of both L-band and S-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instruments, which makes it a dual-frequency imaging radar satellite.
- While NASA has provided the L-band radar, GPS, a high-capacity solid-state recorder to store data, and a payload data subsystem, ISRO has provided the S-band radar, the GSLV launch system, and spacecraft.
- It has a large 39-foot stationary antenna reflector made of a gold-plated wire mesh, the reflector will be used to focus “the radar signals emitted and received by the upward-facing feed on the instrument structure”.
Save Wetlands Campaign
Context: Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change launched the ‘Save Wetlands Campaign’.
- Nanda Lake is Goa’s first Ramsar Site
About the Campaign:
- Approach: This campaign is structured on a “whole of society” approach for wetlands conservation, enabling affirmative actions for wetlands conservation at all levels of society and involving all strata of society.
- Aim of the Campaign: Over the next one year, the campaign will include sensitizing people to the value of wetlands, increasing the coverage of wetland Mitras and building citizen partnerships for wetlands conservation.
Mission Sahbhagita: Launched by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) in 2022, it aims to effectively manage the network of 75 wetlands of national and international significance.
Other initiatives: Amrit Dharohar, MISHTI, PM PRANAM, Green credit and Green Growth aligned with Mission LiFE
Wetlands are those areas where the soil is covered with water or can be present near the ground throughout the year.
- World Wetlands Day is observed on 2nd February every year worldwide to commemorate the signing of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance in 1971.
- India has been a party to the Convention since 1982 and has so far declared 75 wetlands as Ramsar sites covering 23 states and Union Territories
Rajasthan plans zoo for dolphins, and rhinos inside Bharatpur sanctuary
Source: Indian Express
Context: The Rajasthan state Forest Department has proposed to construct a zoo inside Keoladeo National Park, a World Heritage Site popularly known as Bharatpur bird sanctuary, to display a range of wetland species, including rhinos, water buffaloes, crocs, dolphins, and exotic species.
- The purpose of this zoo is to rejuvenate the bio-diversity of Keoladeo National Park, thereby boosting its outstanding universal values.
- Agence Française de Développement (AFD), the overseas development arm of the French government, has agreed to fund up to Rs 1,200 crore over eight years.
- A breeding and re-introduction centre for locally extinct species, such as otters, fishing cats, blackbucks, hog deer, etc, “with a collateral provision as exhibits for tourists”;
- An aquarium for indigenous species like Gangetic Dolphin, and crocodiles; enclosures for the display of large wetland species like Indian Rhino, Water Buffalo, and Barasingha (swamp deer);
- An aviary, a reptile house, and a veterinary care facility;
PM rolls out 20% ethanol-blended petrol in 11 States/UTs
Context: Petrol blended with 20% ethanol was rolled out at select petrol pumps in 11 states and UTs as part of a programme to increase the use of biofuels to cut emissions as well as dependence on foreign exchange-draining imports.
- At present, 10% ethanol is blended in petrol (10% ethanol, 90% petrol) and the government is looking to double this quantity by 2025 (advanced by 5 years).
- Ethanol blending in petrol increased from 5% (in 2014) to 10% and is now progressing towards 20% blending.
- The PM launched the higher 20% ethanol-blended petrol (E20) at the India Energy Week (IEW) 2023, two months ahead of the planned rollout.
Significance of rolling out E20:
- India currently is 85% (the world’s third-largest oil consumer and importer) dependent on imports for meeting its oil needs.
- The use of ethanol will cut its imports and save forex. India spent USD 120.7 billion on the import of crude oil in the 2021-22 fiscal. In the current fiscal, USD 125 billion have been spent in the first nine months (April to December) alone.
- The use of ethanol, extracted from sugarcane as well as broken rice and other agri produce, will also be a boost to
- Also, it cuts carbon emissions. Estimated reduction of CO emissions by about 50% in 2-wheelers and about 30% in 4-wheelers compared to E0.
LM: Our growth needs deep analysis more than constant trumpeting
IE: The growth triad (Focus on physical, digital and social infrastructure in Union Budget places people at the heart of policy) by NITI Aayog CEO
IE: Interview with Revenue secretary (Will widen tax base…)
TH: India’s just energy transition is more than a coal story (we already covered it under our Editorials)
Pub Ad/Law/ Environment
Th: Environment: The problem of the Supreme Court as an ‘approving’ authority
Sociology/ Indian Society:
IE: In Assam, Beti Padhao (on Child Marriage) (by Faizan Mustafa)
TOI: Bajra Boosters – Policies promoting millets will not work unless governments address farmers’ incentives
Th: Will the Adani crisis impact India’s neighbourhood diplomacy?
J&K: TH: Jammu, village defence and governance
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