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Explain the various types of subatomic particles that make up an atom. What are the technological applications of cosmic-ray muons?

Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

6. Explain the various types of subatomic particles that make up an atom. What are the technological applications of cosmic-ray muons? (150 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian Expresswikipedia.org

Why the question:

As per a new study, researchers are examining the fortress wall of Xi’an, an ancient city in China, by using tiny outer space particles that can penetrate hundreds of metres of stone surfaces. Known as muons, these particles have helped them find small density anomalies, which are potential safety hazards, inside the wall.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about sub-atomic particles and application of muons.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by defining subatomic particles.

Body:

First, in brief, explain about the various types of subatomic particles – quarks, leptons: electron, electron neutrino, muon, muon neutrino, tau, tau neutrino, gauge bosons (force carriers) and The Higgs boson.

Next, write about the applications of technological applications of cosmic-ray muons across diverse fields such as nuclear physics, medicine, archaeology, disaster management etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.