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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper2:

  1. Is judicial majoritarianism justified?


GS Paper 3:

  1. Union Budget 2023-24 (Facts and Data)
  2. Union Budget 2023-24 (New Schemes announced and Old Schemes emphasized)


Facts for Prelims

  1. Alienation
  2. Indian start-ups are looking at Reverse Flipping
  3. Macrosomia: the condition that creates gigantic babies
  4. Radioactive capsule lost – and found – in Australia: Here’s what happened
  5. Exercise Tri-shakti Prahar


Is judicial majoritarianism justified?

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Judicial Reforms


Source: The Hindu


Context: The blind acceptance of numerical majorities in judicial decision-making and the constitutional disregard of analysis and appreciation of arguments and evidence in dissenting judgments have been in news recently after the recent Supreme Court Judgement on demonetization.


What is judicial majoritarianism?

  • The requirement for a majority consensus flows from Article 145(5) of the Constitution, which states that no judgment in such cases can be delivered except with the concurrence of a majority of the judges but that judges are free to deliver dissenting judgments or opinions.
  • Numerical majorities are of particular importance to cases, which involve a substantial interpretation of constitutional provisions. In such cases, Constitutional Benches, consisting of five or more judges, are set up in consonance with Article 145(3) of the Constitution.
  • Such Benches usually consist of five, seven, nine, 11 or even 13 judges.


An issue with Judicial Majoritarianism:

  • Issue of why numerical majorities of judicial bodies are accepted without any debate, while numerical majorities in representative bodies such as the Lok Sabha are often looked at with suspicion.

Reflect upon the concept of judicial majoritarianism:

  • Jeremy Waldron in his ‘Five to Four: Why Do Bare Majorities Rule on Courts?’ He holds that the arguments of – efficiency through ease of decision-making; epistemic objectivity through majority adherence; and equality through fairness, which are made in defence of judicial majoritarianism cannot explain or justify our adherence to majority decisions.
  • As opposed to representatives of the people in legislatures who may act on hunches or popular perception, judges are experts of law and are aware of the arguments for and against the impugned matter. Given the same, Jeremy Waldron questions why is it that the judges too have to resort to head counting in order to resolve disagreements amongst judges.
  • All judges on a particular Bench give their rulings on the same set of facts, laws, arguments and written submissions. In light of the same, any differences in judicial decisions can be attributed to a difference in either the methodology adopted and the logic applied by the judges in their interpretation, or, upon their own ‘judicial hunches’ which may be an outcome of their subjective experiences, outlook, perceptions, prejudices and biases.


Constitutional history:

  • The dissenting opinion of Justice H.R. Khanna in A.D.M. Jabalpur v. Shivkant Shukla (1976) upholding the right to life and personal liberty even during situations of constitutional exceptionalism is a prime example.
  • Another example is the dissenting opinion of Justice Subba Rao in the Kharak Singh v. State of U.P. (1962) case upholding the right to privacy which received the judicial stamp of approval in the K.S. Puttaswamy v. UOI (2017) case.


Solution/Way Forward:

  • Seniority-based assessment: Ronald Dworkin proffers a system which may either give more weightage to the vote of senior judges given that they have more experience or to the junior judges as they may represent popular opinion better.
  • Inculcate critical discourse


Insta Links:


Mains Link:

Q. Critically discuss why ensuring judicial reforms and accountability is imperative for India.

/ 2 Feb 2023, Today's Article

Union Budget 2023-24

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Government Budgeting


Source: PIB

 Direction: The article covers a brief discussion on the Union Budget 2023-24.


Context: While presenting the Union Budget 2023-24 in the Lok Sabha, the Union Finance Minister emphasised that the Indian economy is on the right track, and despite a time of challenges, heading towards a bright future.


What is the ‘Union Budget’?


  • According to Article 112 of the Indian Constitution, the annual financial statement is a statement of the estimated receipts and expenditures of the government for a particular year.
  • The receipts and expenditures are shown under three parts, namely, the Consolidated Fund of India and the Public Account of India (Article 266), and the Contingency Fund of India (Article 267).
  • It is prepared by the Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, for the fiscal year that runs from 1st April to 31st March.
Annual Financial Statement
Revenue BudgetCapital Budget
Revenue ReceiptsRevenue ExpenditureCapital ReceiptsCapital Expenditure
Tax receiptsNon-tax receipts
Direct and Indirect taxesPSU profits, interest or loans received, etc.Subsidies, salaries, pensions, interest payments, etc.Disinvestment proceeds, Borrowings, Recovery of past loans, etc.Expenditure on infrastructure, asset creation, loans to states, etc.


Types of Deficits Description
Budget DeficitDifference between total expenditure and total receipts.
Fiscal DeficitTotal expenditure – (Revenue receipts + Capital receipts which are non- debt imposing)
Revenue DeficitDifference between revenue expenditure and revenue receipts.
Primary DeficitThe part of the Fiscal Deficit that excludes interest payment amount.
Effective Revenue DeficitRevenue Deficit – Grants for the creation of capital assets


Highlights of the Union Budget 2023-24 speech:

  • Resilience amidst multiple crises: The economic growth is estimated at 7%, which is the highest among all major economies, despite the massive global slowdown caused by COVID-19 and Russia-Ukraine War.
  • G20 Presidency: With the theme of ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’, India is steering an ambitious, people-centric agenda to address global challenges and facilitate sustainable economic development.
  • Achievements since 2014 – Leaving no one behind:


  • Vision for Amrit Kaal – An empowered and inclusive economy:
    • The term ‘Amrit Kaal’ comes from Vedic astrology and indicates a sort of golden era.
    • It signifies that the coming period in India is going to be its most prosperous, with economic growth and social justice.
    • ‘Amrit Kaal’ also describes the hope for a better future, where India would be self-reliant and fulfil all of its humanitarian obligations.
  • Future prospects: This Budget hopes to build on the foundation laid in the previous Budget, and the blueprint drawn for India@100, which envisions a prosperous and inclusive India.

The Budget Estimates 2023-24:


  • The total receipts other than borrowings and the total expenditure are estimated at Rs 27.2 lakh crore and Rs 45 lakh crore respectively.
  • The net tax receipts are estimated at Rs 23.3 lakh crore and the fiscal deficit is estimated to be 5.9% of GDP.
    • Set to benefit the economy because it means more funds available for private players.
    • The government has decided to continue the path of fiscal consolidation, reaching a fiscal deficit of below 4.5% by 2025-26.
  • To finance the fiscal deficit in 2023-24, the net market borrowings from dated securities are estimated at Rs 11.8 lakh crore.
    • The balance financing is expected to come from small savings and other sources.
    • The gross market borrowings are estimated at Rs 15.4 lakh crore.
  • The capital expenditure by the government has been raised to Rs 10 lakh crore. This is more than double the amount of money allocated when compared to 2020-21.
    • Capital expenditure is the money that is spent on building productive assets such as roads and bridges and ports.
    • This has a greater return to the economy and every Rs 100 spent leads to a Rs 250 gain for the economy. Revenue expenditure returns less than Rs 100.


Tax proposals in the Union Budget 2023-24:

Personal Income Tax:

  • The rebate limit in the new tax regime has been increased to ₹ 7 lakh, meaning that peons in the new tax regime with income up to ₹ 7 lakh will not have to pay any tax.
  • The tax structure in the new personal tax regime has been changed by reducing the number of slabs to five and increasing the tax exemption limit to ₹ 3 lakh.


Indirect Tax Proposals:

  • It emphasised simplification of tax structure with fewer tax rates so as to help in reducing compliance burden and improving tax administration.
  • The number of basic customs duty rates on goods, other than textiles and agriculture, has been reduced from 21 to 13.


Better targeting of tax concessions: For better targeting of tax concessions and exemptions, the deduction from capital gains on investment in residential houses has been capped at ₹ 10 crores.


Proposals relating to MSMEs: Describing MSMEs as growth engines of the Indian economy, the Budget proposes enhanced limits for micro-enterprises and certain professionals for availing the benefit of presumptive taxation.


Cooperation: New cooperatives that commence manufacturing activities by 31st March next year shall get the benefit of a lower tax rate of 15%.


Start-ups: The Budget proposes to extend the date of incorporation for income tax benefits to start-ups from 31.03.2023 to 31.03.2024.


Amendments in CGST Act: The Budget provides for amending the CGST Act so as to raise the minimum threshold of tax amount for launching prosecution under GST from ₹ 1 crore to ₹ 2 crores.


Implications of tax changes: The revenue of about ₹ 38,000 crores will be foregone as a result of these proposals in the direct and indirect taxes, while revenue of about ₹3,000 crores will be additionally mobilised.


Budgetary allocation for key ministries and social sector schemes since 2021-2022


Direction: Emphasize the increasing and decreasing trends. Figures may be skipped

Centrally sponsored schemesAfter a dip in allocation in the last budget, FY 2024 saw an increase of Rs 34,000 crore●        2021-22: Rs 4,54,366 crore

●        2022-23: Rs 4,42,781 crore

●        2023-24: Rs 4,76,104 crore

Department of Agriculture and Farmers’ WelfareAfter a dip in allocation in the last budget, FY 2024 saw an increase of over Rs 5,000 crore from the last budget●        2021-22: Rs 1,14,467 crore

●        2022-23: Rs 1,10,256 crore

●        2023-24: Rs 1,15,531 crore

Department of Food and Public DistributionBudgetary allocation for this department has come down, the proposed budgetary allocation is over Rs 90,000 crore less than the last one●        2021-22: Rs 3,04,360 crore

●        2022-23: Rs 2,96,303 crore

●        2023-24: Rs 2,05,513 crore

Ministry of Earth SciencesAfter a marginal dip in budgetary allocation last fiscal, the allocation for FY 2024 is nearly 50% more than the last one●        2021-22: Rs 2,184 crore

●        2022-23: Rs 2,056 crore

●        2023-24: Rs 3,319 crore

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate ChangeRemaining near constant for the last two fiscal years, the proposed budget increases allocation by around Rs 400 crore over the last budget●        2021-22: Rs 2,432 crore

●        2022-23: Rs 2,478 crore

●        2023-24: Rs 3,079 crore

Ministry of Animal Husbandry and DairyingThe proposed budget allocated 33% more to this ministry than the last one●        2021-22: Rs 2,584 crore

●        2022-23: Rs 3,105 crore

●        2023-24: Rs 4,327 crore

Department of Health and Family WelfareThis department got

Rs 10,000 crore more than the last budget

●        2021-22: Rs 81,779 crore

●        2022-23: Rs 76,370 crore

●        2023-24: Rs 86,175 crore

Department of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga RejuvenationAllocation increased over the last fiscal


●        2021-22: Rs 66,251 crore

●        2022-23: Rs 60,029 crore

●        2023-24: Rs 77,223 crore


Budget (New Schemes announced and Old Schemes emphasized)

GS Paper 3 

Source: Multiple sources of PIB, The Hindu, IE, DTE 

Context: As per the ‘Saptarishi’ targets, the schemes have been divided into 7 Key Priority Areas

  1. Inclusive Development
  2. Reaching the Last Mile
  3. Infrastructure and Investment
  4. Unleashing the Potential
  5. Green Growth
  6. Youth Power
  7. Financial Sector
Priority 1: Inclusive Development


Agriculture SectorDigital public infrastructure for agriculture·         It will be built as an open-source, open-standard and interoperable public good

·         This will help to provide farmers with information services for crop planning and help improve access to farm inputs, credit and insurance

  Agriculture Credit·         The credit target will be increased to 20 lakh crores with a focus on animal husbandry, dairy and fisheries.
  Atmanirbhar Horticulture Clean Plant Program·         To boost the availability of disease-free, quality planting material for high value
horticultural crops ­
  Agriculture Accelerator Fund·         It will be set up to encourage Agri start-ups by young entrepreneurs in rural areas
  Enhance the productivity of extra-long staple cotton·         The government will adopt a cluster-based and value chain approach through PPP (collaboration between farmers, state and industry for input supplies, extension services, and market linkages)


  Global Hub for Millets: ‘SHREE ANNA’


·         India is the largest producer and second largest exporter of ‘Shree Anna’ (Millets) in the world

·         To make India a global hub for ‘Shree Anna’, the Indian Institute of Millet Research, Hyderabad will be supported as the Centre of Excellence for R&D in Millets

·         PM Quote: “India is at the forefront of popularizing Millets, whose consumption furthers nutrition, food security and welfare of farmers”

  A New sub-scheme of PM Matsya Sampada Yojana·         It will further enable activities of fishermen, fish vendors, and micro & small enterprises, improve value chain efficiencies and expand the market
 HealthNursing Colleges·         157 new nursing colleges will be established (in co-location with the existing 157 medical colleges)
  Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission·         A Mission to eliminate Sickle Cell Anaemia by 2047 will be launched to enable awareness, screening of 7 crore people (0-40 years age group) and counselling
  Pharma Innovation·         To promote R&D in pharmaceuticals through centres of excellence
 EducationTeachers’ training·         Using innovative pedagogy, curriculum transaction, continuous professional development, dipstick surveys, and ICT implementation

·         District Institutes of Education and Training will be developed as vibrant institutes of excellence

  National Digital Library for children and adolescents·         It will be set up for facilitating the availability of quality books.

·         States/Panchayats will be encouraged to set up physical libraries to access digital resources

Priority 2: Reaching the Last Mile


Tribal WelfareAspirational Block Programme·         The government had recently launched the Aspirational Blocks Programme covering 500 blocks for saturation of essential government services across multiple domains
  Pradhan Mantri PVTG Development Mission·         It will provide PVTG families and habitations with basic facilities such as safe housing, clean drinking water and sanitation, improved access to education, health etc.

·         The mission will run under the Development Action Plan for the Scheduled Tribes

  Eklavya Model Residential Schools·         Centre will recruit 38,800 teachers and support staff for the 740 Eklavya Model Residential Schools, serving 3.5 lakh tribal students.
 WaterWater for the drought-prone region·         For the drought-prone central region of Karnataka, Central assistance will be given to Upper Bhadra Project to provide sustainable micro irrigation and filling up of surface tanks for drinking water.
 HousingPM Awas Yojana·         The outlay for PM Awas Yojana is being enhanced by 66 per cent to over 79,000 crores
 Languages and InscriptionsBharat Shared Repository of Inscriptions (Bharat SHRI)


·         It will be set up in a digital epigraphy museum, with the digitization of one lakh ancient inscriptions in the first stage
 Criminal Justice systemSupport for Poor Prisoners·         For poor prisoners who are unable to afford the penalty or the bail amount, required financial support will be provided
  E-Courts·         For efficient administration of justice, Phase 3 of the E-Courts project will be launched
Priority 3: Infrastructure & Investment


InvestmentsCapital Investment as the driver of Growth and jobs·         Capital investment outlay has been increased steeply for the third year in a row by 33 per cent to 10 lakh crore (3.3 per cent of GDP)—almost three times that of 2019-20
  Effective Capital Expenditure (through grant-in-aid to states)·         Budgeted at 13.7 lakh crore (4.5 per cent of GDP)
  Support to States for capital investment ·         Centre will continue the 50-year interest-free loan to state governments for one more year
  Enhancing Opportunities for Private Investment in Infrastructure


·         It will be done through the newly established Infrastructure Finance Secretariat
 InfrastructureHarmonized Master List of Infrastructure·         The sectors eligible for financial assistance from IIFCL are the Harmonized list of infrastructure e.g., transportation, energy, water, etc.

·         It will be reviewed by an expert committee

  Lab Grown Diamonds (LGD)·         LGDs were made by humans in a lab or factory rather than by nature. It is a technology-and innovation-driven emerging sector with high employment potential.

·         To encourage indigenous production of LGD, and to reduce import dependency, a research and development grant will be provided to one of the IITs for five years.

 UrbanizationSustainable Cities of Tomorrow·         States and cities will be encouraged to make ‘sustainable cities of tomorrow’ meaning the efficient use of land resources, transit-oriented development, and opportunities for all.
  Urban Infrastructure Development Fund (UIDF)·         Like the RIDF, an Urban Infrastructure Development Fund (UIDF) will be established through the use of priority sector lending shortfall. (This will be done by the National Housing Bank)
  Urban Sanitation·         All cities and towns will be enabled for 100 per cent mechanical desludging of septic tanks and sewers to transition from manhole to machine-hole mode.

·         The enhanced focus will be provided for the scientific management of dry and wet waste.

 Logistics ·         100 critical transport infrastructure projects, for last and first-mile connectivity for ports, coal, steel, fertilizer, and food grains sectors have been identified
 Railways ·         The highest-ever capital outlay of 2.40 lakh crore has been provided for the Railways
 Regional Connectivity ·         50 additional airports, heliports, water aerodromes and advanced landing grounds will be revived for improving regional air connectivity.
Priority 4: Unleashing the Potential


Artificial Intelligence


Centre of Excellence for AI: Make AI in India and Make AI work for India·         3 centres of excellence for Artificial Intelligence will be set up in top educational institutions
 GovernanceNational Data Governance Policy·         National Data Governance Policy will be brought out: This will enable access to anonymized data
  Simplifying KYC process·         The KYC process will be simplified by adopting a ‘risk-based’ instead of a ‘one size fits all’ approach
  One Stop Solution for Identity and Address Updating·         This will be done using Digi Locker service and Aadhaar as a foundational identity

·         PAN will be used as the common identifier for all digital systems of specified government agencies

  Unified Filing Process·         For obviating the need for separate submission of the same information to different government agencies, a system of ‘Unified Filing Process’ will be set-up
  Result Based Financing of schemes·         To better allocate scarce resources for competing for development needs, the financing of select schemes will be changed, on a pilot basis, from ‘input-based’ to ‘result-based’.
 DigitizationEntity Digi Locker·         An Entity Digi Locker will be set up for use by MSMEs, large businesses and charitable trusts, to share documents online securely, whenever needed by authorities
  5G labs·         100 labs for developing applications using 5G services will be set up in engineering institutions
Priority 5: Green Growth




Green Growth·         “LiFE”, or Lifestyle for Environment

·         ‘Panchamrit’ and Net-zero carbon emission by 2070

  Battery Energy Storage Projects·         Battery Energy Storage Systems with the capacity of 4,000 MWH will be supported with Viability Gap Funding.

·         A detailed framework for Pumped Storage Projects will also be formulated.

  Renewable Energy Evacuation·         The Inter-state transmission system for evacuation and grid integration of 13 GW of renewable energy from Ladakh will be constructed
  Green Credit Programme·         For encouraging behavioural change by companies, individuals and local bodies, a Green Credit Programme will be notified under the Environment (Protection) Act.
  Gobardhan Scheme·         500 new ‘waste to wealth’ plants under GOBARdhan (Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro Resources Dhan) scheme will be established for promoting a circular economy
  MISHTI: ‘Mangrove Initiative for Shoreline Habitats & Tangible Incomes’


·         It will be taken up for mangrove plantation along the coastline and on salt pan lands using convergence between MGNREGS, CAMPA Fund and other sources
  Amrit Dharohar·         It will encourage the optimal use of wetlands, and enhance bio-diversity, carbon stock, eco-tourism opportunities and income generation for local communities for the next 3 years.


·         “PM Programme for Restoration, Awareness, Nourishment and Amelioration of Mother Earth” will be launched

·         To incentivize States and
Union Territories to promote alternative fertilizers and balanced use of chemical fertilizers

  Bhartiya Prakritik Kheti Bio-Input Resource Centres


·         10,000 Bio-Input Resource Centres will be set up, creating a national-level distributed micro-fertilizer and pesticide manufacturing network.

·         It will help facilitate 1 crore farmers to adopt natural farming in the next 3 years.

Priority 6: Youth Power


SkillingPradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana 4.0·         It will be launched to skill lakhs of youth within the next three years

·         It will also cover new age courses for Industry4.0 like coding, AI, robotics, mechatronics, IOT, 3D printing, drones, and soft skills

·         30 Skill India International Centres will be set up across different States

 TourismUnity Mall·         States will be encouraged to set up a Unity Mall in their state capital/important cities or most prominent tourism centre for the promotion and sale of their own ODOPs (one district, one product), GI products and other handicraft products, and for providing space for such products of all other States
Priority 7: Financial Sector


RegulationFinancial sector Regulations·         Time limits to decide the applications under various regulations will also be laid down
  DATA Embassy·         The government will facilitate the setting up of Data Embassies in GIFT IFSC, Gandhinagar

·         Data embassies create a new approach to securing data by leveraging diplomatic agreements bolstered by cloud technology solutions

 Banking Improving Governance and Investor Protection in Banking Sector·         For this certain amendments to the Banking Regulation Act, the Banking Companies Act and the Reserve Bank of India Act are proposed
 Securities MarketCapacity building in Securities Market·         SEBI will be empowered to develop, regulate, maintain and enforce norms and standards for education in the National Institute of Securities Markets and to recognize the award of degrees, diplomas and certificates
  Central Data Processing Centre·         It will be set up for faster response to companies through centralized handling of various forms filed with field offices under the Companies Ac
 Financial SchemesMahila Samman Savings Certificate·         It will be made available for a two-year period up to March 2025. This will offer a deposit facility of upto 2 lakhs in the name of women or girls for a tenor of 2 years at a fixed interest rate of 7.5 per cent with a partial withdrawal option
  Senior Citizen Savings Scheme·         The maximum deposit limit for Senior Citizen Savings Scheme will be enhanced from Rs 15 lakh to Rs 30 lakh


Facts for prelims


Source: TH

 In sociology, alienation means the state of feeling estranged or separated from one’s milieu, work, products of work, or self.


In Economy (by Karl Marx): It is the process whereby the worker is made to feel foreign to the products of his/her own labour.

  • Marx discussed four forms of alienation: From the Product; From the Process; From Humanity; From society.


Karl Marx was a German philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist, a critic of political economy, and socialist revolutionary. His best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet The Communist Manifesto and the four-volume Das Kapital.


Indian start-ups are looking at Reverse Flipping

Source: TOI

 Context: Indian start-ups are exploring ‘reverse flipping’, or shifting their domicile back to India, with easy access to capital from private equity and venture capital, changes in rules regarding round-tripping, and the growing maturity of India’s capital markets, observed the Economic Survey 2022-23.

About Flipping and Reverse Flipping:

  • Flipping refers to the process of transferring the entire ownership of an Indian company to an overseas entity, accompanied by a transfer of intellectual property (IP) and all data hitherto owned by the Indian company.
  • This effectively transforms an Indian company into a 100 per cent subsidiary of a foreign entity, with the founders and investors retaining the same ownership via the foreign entity, having swapped all shares.
  • Reverse flipping is shifting their domicile back to India.


Why start-ups were flipping before:

  • Challenges faced by start-ups: funding hurdles, revenue generation struggles, lack of easy access to supportive infrastructure, and a complex regulatory tax environment. Start-ups have been headquartered overseas, especially in destinations with favourable legal environments and taxation policies.



Two-foot-tall infant weighing almost 8kg, born in Brazil: Get to know macrosomia, the condition that creates gigantic babies

 Source: Economic Times


Context: A mother in Brazil recently gave birth to a two-foot-tall baby weighing 16lb (7.3kg). 

About Macrosomia:

The term used to describe these giant babies is macrosomia (Greek for the large body). Any baby that weighs more than 4kg, regardless of its gestational age, is said to have macrosomia.


Factors that cause Macrosomia:

  • Body weight of the mother. Obese mothers tend to have kinds with Macrosomia.
  • In mothers with gestational diabetes (high blood sugar that arises during pregnancy), this increases to between 15 per cent and 45 per cent of births.
  • Being older when pregnant also increases the odds of having a baby with macrosomia.
  • Previous pregnancies increase the risk of macrosomia because, with each successive pregnancy, birth weight increases.
  • Overdue pregnancies – those that run past the typical 40 weeks – also increase the risk of a baby being macrosomic, particularly at 42 weeks or more.
  • Having a boy increases the likelihood of macrosomia. Boys are three times more likely than girls to be born macrosomic.



  • Babies with macrosomia are more likely to encounter difficulties moving through the birth canal because of their large size.
  • “Shoulder dystocia” – which may cause permanent harm to shoulders. While the baby is stuck, it cannot breathe and the umbilical cord may be squeezed.
  • Mothers are also at increased risk of vaginal tears during delivery, which then increases the risk of postpartum haemorrhage (bleeding)


Radioactive capsule lost – and found – in Australia: Here’s what happened

Source: Indian Express

 Context: The Caesium-137 capsule lost in transit more than two weeks ago was discovered using specialist detection equipment, which picked up the radiation.

What are the risks that the capsule posed?

  • Radioactive materials like Caesium-137 produce beta and gamma radiation, both of which are harmful to humans. When exposed to them, short-term risks include that radiation poisoning (which can be deadly) whereas in the long term, it can also be a cause of cancer and damage human DNA.
  • The 20-metre exclusion zone has been set up around the capsule while defence force members verify it via a serial number.
  • Experts say that the capsule, which emits radiation equal to roughly 10 X-rays per hour, was unlikely to contaminate the area it fell in.



Exercise Tri-shakti Prahar

 Source: TH

 Context: It is a joint training exercise involving – the Army, Air force and CAPFs to practice battle preparedness of security forces. It just concluded in North Bengal (near the Siliguri corridor)



Sociology/Economy/: TH: Alienation: The separation of labour from the product, process, humanity, society

PSIR: IE: The un-love triangle (Sino-Russian alliance) by C Raja Mohan

PSIR: TOI: The New Great Game In The Himalayas – China’s territorial disputes are as much about dominating important rivers as occupying land
The quest for hope in Myanmar

Pub Ad/Law/Governance: BS: Why the state must cede power to communities

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