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[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 January 2023

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

1. The Industrial Revolution of the 1800s, a time of great growth in technologies and inventions, transformed rural societies into industrialized, urban ones. Critically examine the impact of Industrial revolution. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insight on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the positive and negative impact of Industrial revolution as well as its impact on India.

Directive word: 

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start the answer by mentioning the manifold of major changes brought on Industrial revolution.

Body:

In the first part mention the positive impact of Industrial revolution – Growth of modern Industry, emergence of cities, new capitalistic class, improvement in lifestyle, technological innovations etc.

Next, mention the negative impact of IR – poor working conditions, poor living conditions, low wages, child labor, Luddite movement and pollution. 

Next, in detail, write about how IR in Britain impact the Indian colony.

Conclusion:

Summarise the overall impact of Industrial revolution.

Introduction

The Industrial Revolution saw a rapid development of industry take place in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, soon spreading to Western Europe and North America. New and improved large-scale production methods and machinery marked the beginnings of Industrialization. Many different factors contributed to the rise of the Industrial Revolution in Britain and paved the way for Britain to become an industry-driven country.

Body

Impacts of Industrialization

Positives:

  • The Industrial Revolution brought about sweeping changes in economic and social organization.
  • These changes included a wider distribution of wealth and increased international trade.
  • Managerial hierarchies also developed to oversee the division of labor.
  • By the late 1700s many people could no longer earn their living in the countryside. Increasingly, people moved from farms and villages into bigger towns and cities to find work in factories.
  • The Industrial Revolution marked a dramatic change for women as many of them entered the workforce for the first time. Women had to compete with men for jobs. Female factory workers often made only one-third as much as men.
  • Machines greatly increased production. This meant that products were cheaper to make and also cheaper to buy. Many factory owners became rich.
  • The middle class began opening up new factories for which they required financing and therefore, the banking and finance system began developing.
  • Better transport, communications and mechanized goods made life comfortable for man.

Negatives:

  • Advancement in technology and better agricultural production led to better medical facilities and greater employment which led to population explosion.
  • Although the machines made work easier in some ways, factory work created many problems for the laborers. Factory employees did not earn much, and the work was often dangerous. Many worked 14 to 16 hours per day six days per week.
  • Women and child labour was badly exploited.
  • Workers sought to win improved conditions and wages through labor unions. These organizations helped establish laws to protect workers. Such laws, for instance, limited the number of work hours for employees and guaranteed they would be paid a certain amount.
  • Cities grew larger, but they were often dirty, crowded, and unhealthy.
  • Industrial Revolution made the production of goods easy and ready in much less time. Therefore, more and more goods began to be produced which led to the exploitation of resources.
  • The process of industrialization continues around the world, as do struggles against many of its negative effects, such as industrial pollution and urban crowding.
  • It led to wars of imperialism and colonization.

Impact of Industrial revolution on India:

  • The Industrial Revolution in England impacted the nature of trade of the British in India.
  • The Industrial  Revolution  transformed  India  into  a  country  that  supplied  raw-materials  to  the industrial houses of Britain.
  • Prior to the Industrial Revolution British traders purchased cotton piece- goods and other handicraft items from India and used to net huge profit by selling those in the European markets.
  • With the Industrial Revolution Britain started manufacturing various articles in a short time. For the manufacture of such articles huge raw-materials were needed.
  • Thus they procured raw-materials from India at a cheap price.
  • At the same time Britain flooded the Indian markets with the machine-made products produced in British factories.

Conclusion

Industrialization changed our world for the better in many ways. It is up to us to clean up the pollution that comes about as a side effect to these efforts. If we’re unwilling to approach our environment in the same way that we look at our economies, then this planet we have may not be around much longer.

 

Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. The Great Depression was the worst economic downturn in the history of the industrialized world, lasting from 1929 to 1939. Analyse the causes behind it. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the causes of the Great Depression.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of the Great Depression.

Body:

First, write in detail about the various factors that contributed to the Great Depression – world war-I, Unstable economies, inflation, improper lending etc.

Next, write about the impact caused by the Great Depression on the global economy.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing measures taken to tackle the Great Depression.

Introduction

The Great Depression was a major economic crisis that began in the United States in 1929, and went to have a worldwide impact until 1939. It began on October 24, 1929, a day that is referred to as “Black Thursday”, when a monumental crash occurred at the New York Stock Exchange as stock prices fell by 25 per cent. In the United States, prices and real output fell dramatically. Industrial production fell by 47 per cent, the wholesale price index by 33 per cent, and real GDP by 30 per cent.

Body

Causes behind Great Depression

  • The 1929 stock market crash shattered confidence in the American economy, resulting in significant cuts in spending and investment.
  • During the early 1930s, banking panics caused many banks to fail, reducing the pool of money available for loans.
  • The gold standard required foreign central banks to raise interest rates in order to compensate for trade imbalances with the United States, which dampened spending and investment in those countries.
  • Speculative boom of 1920s led to an increase in GDP at an annual rate of 4.7%, while the jobless rate averaged 3.7%, total wealth in the U.S. also increased.
  • This ultimately led to rising in consumer debt, companies over-extended themselves, financial institutions became heavily involved in stock market speculation.
  • The absence of strict regulations had opened the way for a period of wild speculation on stock exchanges.
  • Due to the overheated situation in the market the seasoned investors began taking profits in 1929, as a result the share prices started to decrease and caused the stock market crash of 1929.
  • The 1920s consumption boom lead to overproduction on the part of many businesses, due to which they had to start selling goods at a loss.
  • As a result of World War I to increase production farmers bought more machinery which lead to a debt situation as in the post-war economy, production was more than the production.
  • Unemployment increases due to losses and increased layoffs. For instance, at the peak in 1933, the jobless rate reached 24.9%.
  • Spending decreased as the consumers were also debt-ridden, this further worsened the situation, causing more businesses to collapse or cut back and lay off more people.
  • There was a decrease in the aggregate demand which resulted in a decline in production as manufacturers and merchandisers noticed an unintended rise in inventories.
  • The decrease in the American economy was transmitted to the rest of the world largely through the gold standard.

Conclusion

The Wall Street crash was triggered by minor events, the extent of the decline was due to more deep-rooted factors such as a fall in aggregate demand, misplaced monetary policies, and an unintended rise in inventory levels. The great depression of the 1930s was the worst economic crisis that ultimately turned it into a decade-long economic catastrophe and spread across the western world. It led to wide unemployment, a decrease in consumer confidence, and had an impact on the social and cultural lives of the individuals as well. The recovery could mainly come through by various steps, significant of which was monetary expansion.

 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization

3. Selection of women officers for command postings in the rank of Colonel, which has so far been the domain of male officers is the logical next step after the Army granted Permanent Commission to women officers on a par with their male counterparts. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

According to sources, women officers Special No. 3 Selection Board is being conducted for promotion from the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel to Colonel from January 9 to 22. This flows from the Supreme Court judgment in 2021 upholding an earlier judgement granting permanent commission as well as command postings to women officers in all arms and services other than combat.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the attempts at achieving gender parity in Indian armed forces and suggest further steps that are needed.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of recent decision aimed attempt at introducing gender parity in the armed forces.

Body:

Mention that the position of women in the armed forces, offers a limited window for any kind of change in the role of women in occupational and bureaucratic structures. However, there are changes being witnessed but at a slow pace.

Next, write about as to how the attempts at reform have been through litigation and by the orders of the SC. Mention the Babita Puniya case and the observations of the court in that regard.

Write about the reluctance of policy makers in this situation and their preference to maintain the status quo and their reasons, thereof.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a balanced way forward.

Introduction

As many as 108 women officers in the Army are set to be cleared for the rank of Colonel (selection grade) by January 22 by a special selection board, which will make them eligible to command units and troops in their respective arms and services for the first time.

This flows from the Supreme Court judgment in 2021 upholding an earlier judgement granting permanent commission as well as command postings to women officers in all arms and services other than combat.

Body

Background

  • Women were being kept out of command posts on the reasoning that the largely rank and file will have problems with women as commanding officers.
  • Thus, changes have to take place in the culture, norms, and values of not only the rank and file of the Army but also that of society at large.
  • The responsibility to usher these changes lies with the senior military and political leadership.
  • The United States, Israel, North Korea, France, Germany, Netherlands, Australia and Canada are among the global militaries that employ women in front-line combat positions.

 

Attempts at reform and grant of Permanent Commission

  • Induction of women: The Indian Military Nursing Services originated in 1888 and women were given an opportunity to serve in the Armed Forces. The nurses of the Indian Army first served with distinction in World War I. Formation of Women’s Auxiliary Corps allowed them to serve in primarily non-combatant roles like communications, accounting, administration etc. The opportunities for women officers were little.
  • Restriction on women to join army: After Independence, the participation of women in the Armed Forces remained limited. The Acts governing the Armed Forces restricted the role of women e.g., Section 12 of the Army Act, 1950; Section 12 of the Air Force Act, 1950; and Section 9(2) of the Navy Act, 1957 explicitly make women ineligible to participate in the respective services except in such bodies/departments/corps as notified by the Union Government.
  • Limited role: In 1991-92, the Government issued notifications regarding the role of women in the Armed Forces.
    • The roles were limited e.g., women were allowed to serve only in Logistics, Law and Education roles within the Indian Navy.
    • Similarly the roles notified in the Indian Army were support roles (rather than core) like the Army Postal Service, Army Education Corps, Army Ordinance Corps and Army Service Corps (Food Scientists and Catering Officers) etc.
  • Short Service commission: Even in these limited roles, Women were limited only to the Short Service Commission (initially for 5 years only, later extended to 10+4 system). After completion of 14 years, women were asked to leave while eligible male officers were granted Permanent Commission.
    • The discriminatory provision led to numerous litigations.
  • Permanent commission: In 2008, while litigations were sub judice, the Union Government granted a chance of obtaining a PC in the Armed Forces on a restricted basis. There were two major restrictions:
    • (a) The policy was prospective (not retrospective) i.e., women will be offered Permanent Commission only after September 2008;
    • (b) Permanent Commission will be offered only to specific cadres and branches (and not universal PC).
  • Judicary’s role: The Judiciary played a proactive role in ensuring permanent commission. The Indian Air Force was first among the three services to grant PC to SSC women officers post the Delhi High Court Judgment in Jasmine Kaur vs. Union of India WP (C) 8492/2009 in favour of granting PC to women officers.
    • Similarly in the Secretary, Ministry Of Defence vs Babita Puniya (2020) case, the Supreme Court granted equal rights to women with respect to Permanent Commission. The SC held that all the women officers presently on SSC service are eligible to PCs.
    • All the choices of specialization shall be available to the women officers at the time of opting for the grant in PCs, on the same terms as their male counterparts.
    • All the women officers who are eligible and granted PCs through SSC should be entitled to all consequential perks including pension, promotion, and financial incentives.
    • The SC also noted that although Article 33 of the Indian Constitution did allow for restrictions on Fundamental Rights in the Armed Forces, it is also clearly mentioned that it could be restricted only to the extent that it was necessary to ensure the proper discharge of duty and maintenance of discipline. Hence, denial of PC to women is violative of their fundamental rights guaranteed under Article 14.

 

Conclusion

The Supreme Court’s Judgment in 2020 was only the first step in a long journey towards ensuring equal opportunity to women in the armed forces. The debate and legal battles, so far, have been based on gender parity and not on ethical evaluation of the performance of women. The Supreme Court judgments were more driven by Articles 14, 15 and 16 of the Constitution than by merit per se. Women aspirants and serving officers should also step up their resolve to meet the exacting physical, psychological and performance standards, and the conditions of service. Armed Forces should also reform their policies to select the best talent for the role irrespective of the gender.

 

 


General Studies – 2


Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

4. The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012 has been effective in addressing offences of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children However, there are certain imperfections in the act that needs ironing out. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

Ten years have passed since the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, enacted in consequence to India’s ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1992, came into effect on November 14, 2012.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the impact of the POCSO act and reforms needed.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving aims and objectives of POCSO act.

Body:

First, mention the role of POCSO act in addressing Child abuse and historical child sexual abuse; it refers to incidents that are reported late. Discuss the causative factors of it. Institutional hurdles in accepting Historical Child Abuse.

Next, mention the challenges associated with the Act and recommend reforms that are necessary to overcome it.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The Union Ministry of Women and Child Development led the introduction of the POCSO Act in 2012.

The Act was designed to protect children from sexual assault, sexual harassment and pornography offences, as well as to provide for the establishment of Special Courts for the trial of such offences. The Act was amended in 2019 for enhancing the punishments for specific offences in order to deter abusers and ensure a dignified childhood.

 

Body

Salient features

  • A gender-neutral law: The POCSO Act establishes a gender-neutral tone for the legal framework available to child sexual abuse victims by defining a child as “any person” under the age of 18.
  • Not reporting abuse is an offence: Any person (except children) in charge of an institution who fails to report the commission of a sexual offence relating to a subordinate is liable to be punished.
  • No time limit for reporting abuse: A victim can report an offence at any time, even a number of years after the abuse has been committed.
  • Maintaining confidentiality of the victim’s identity: The Act prohibits disclosure of the victim’s identity in any form of media, except when permitted by the special courts established under the act.
  • New obligations under the POCSO Rules 2020:
    • Any institution housing children or coming in regular contact is required to conduct a periodic police verification and background check of every employee.
    • Such an institution must impart regular training to sensitise its employees on child safety and protection.
    • The institution has to adopt a child protection policy based on the principle of zero tolerance for violence against children.

Concerns

  • Despite the existence of such comprehensive child sexual abuse law, the scale of such abuse is staggering.
    • According to a recent survey, one in every two children is a victim of sexual abuse in India.
    • Furthermore, in the vast majority of cases, the perpetrators are known to the victim, causing the victim to be hesitant to approach authorities for redress.
    • Incidents of child abuse have also risen exponentially since the Covid-19 pandemic, with the emergence of new forms of cybercrime.
  • The general level of awareness or knowledge on the part of minor girls and boys of the POCSO Act remains severely inadequate in the country.
    • Child marriage is common among certain tribal groups in the country, resulting in the criminalisation of 17-18 years old youths due to a lack of knowledge of the POCSO Act.
  • There is no time-bound investigation in the POCSO cases and the trials generally continue for many months. This provides the accused more than enough time to coerce and intimidate the victims and their families to backtrack on their complaints.
  • There are huge pending cases in various High Courts due to lack of adequate special courts. It is reported that around66 lakh cases relating to sexual assaults are pending across the country at several stages.
  • Often the children who report abuse are further victimized and traumatized due to lack of sensitization for investigators and prosecutors in dealing with child victims.
  • The provisions of capital punishment might provoke the accused to murder the victims and increase the risk of sex offenders doing away with their victims to destroy evidence and to ensure that there is no principal testimony.
  • Our child protection mechanism is still at a very nascent stage and is currently struggling to handle the volume of cases, follow the protocols, adopt child-friendly procedures, adhere to time-frames, etc stipulated by POCSO Act.
  • Allocation of infrastructure, manpower, structured training and sensitization, setting up a robust monitoring and accountability mechanism etc. is far from the actual need and little has been done to implement the Act in spirit.

 

Conclusion

Certainty of punishment acts as a better deterrent than its severity. Thus the focus should be more on taking measures to ensure faster and efficient investigation, prosecution and disposal of POCSO cases.

Value addition

Crimes against Children in India

  • Trials and convictions: 43.44(forty three point four four)% of trials under POCSO end in acquittals while only 03(forty point zero three)% end in convictions.
  • Acquittals are significantly higher than convictions for all the states studied: Example:
    • Andhra Pradesh, acquittals are seven times more than convictions
    • West Bengal, acquittals are five times more than convictions.
  • Out of 138 judgements looked at in detail by the study: Only in 6% of the cases were the accused people strangers to the victim.
  • National Crime Record Bureau(2021): 96% of the cases filed under the POCSO Act, 2012, the accused was a person known to the child victim.
  • Penetrative sexual assault and aggravated penetrative sexual assault : They together comprise over half of all POCSO cases.

 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

5. India is Sri Lanka’s closest neighbour with shared history and geography. However, the relations between the two nations have been inconsistent over the past few years to achieve the much-desired collective growth and prosperity. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

China is a close partner of Sri Lanka and its largest bilateral creditor. At the end of 2021, the island owed about $7.4 billion or 19.6% of its outstanding public debt to China. For Sri Lanka watchers, especially those based in the West or India, that’s a “Chinese debt trap”.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the Indo-Lanka relations, challenges and opportunities it presents.

Directive word: 

Comment- here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving the context of India- Sri Lankan relations in the past and how it has changed over time.

Body:

In the first part, write about the historical bilateral ties between India and Sri Lanka.

Next, mention how India and Lanka had maintained close relations in the past. Cultural ties with India etc. Recent Sri Lankan crisis and how India helped in that situation.

Then, mention about factors that led to the difference between the two nations. China factor etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction

The relationship between India and Sri Lanka is more than 2,500 years old.  Both countries have a legacy of intellectual, cultural, religious and linguistic interaction. In recent years, the relationship has been marked by close contacts at all levels. Trade and investment have grown and there is cooperation in   the   fields   of   development, education, culture   and   defence.   Both   countries   share   a   broad understanding on major issues of international interest.  In recent years, significant progress in implementation of developmental assistance projects for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and disadvantaged sections of the population in Sri Lanka has helped further cement the bonds of friendship between the two countries.

Body:

Uniqueness of India-Sri Lanka bilateral ties:

  • The India-Sri Lanka relationship, de jure, is between equals as sovereign nations.
  • However, the relationship is asymmetric in terms of geographic size, population, military and economic power, on the one hand, and also social indicators and geographical location, on the other.
  • The relationship is also steeped in myth and legend, and influenced by religious, cultural and social affinities.
  • Hardships of COVID-19 present an opportune time for Sri Lanka and India to nourish the roots of the relationship using modern toolkits, but leveraging age-old wisdom and experience.

Evolution of the ties:

  • Historical times:
    • The advent of Buddhism in Sri Lanka during the time of Emperor Ashoka was the result of cross-border discourse.
    • For many centuries, later on, the ancient capital city of Anuradhapura housed an international community that included traders from India, China, Rome, Arabia, and Persia.
    • Buddhist temples in Sri Lanka also contain shrines for Hindu deities.
  • Colonial era:
    • Labor from south India was brought to Sri Lanka to work in plantations.
    • The Indian freedom struggle had its influence on Sri Lanka as well. There was cross-border support for the revival of culture, tradition, local languages, spiritual practices and philosophies, and education.
    • Both countries transformed into modern nations with constitutional and institutionalized governance under colonial rule.
    • Process engineering by colonial powers for identification and categorization of people was a factor in the emergence of separatist ideologies based on ethnicity, language, and religion.
    • This mindset is now ingrained and accentuated in politics. Episodic instances of communal hostility are referenced often to suit tactical political gain.
  • Contemporary times:
    • Sri Lanka’s strategic location makes it apparent that not only economic fortunes but the security of both countries are inextricably linked. Therefore, the calamity in one country can adversely impact the other.
    • Currently, freedom of navigation in the Indo-Pacific together with a rules-based international order and peaceful settlement of disputes are of common interest.

Issues and Conflicts:

  • In recent years, China has extended billions of dollars of loans to the Sri Lankan government for new infrastructure projects, which is not good for India’s strategic depth in Indian Ocean Region.
    • China is a close partner of Sri Lanka and its largest bilateral creditor. At the end of 2021, the island owed about $7.4 billion or 19.6% of its outstanding public debt to China. For Sri Lanka watchers, especially those based in the West or India, that’s a “Chinese debt trap”.
  • Sri Lanka also handed over the strategic port of Hambantota, which is expected to play a key role in China’s Belt and Road Initiative, to China on a 99-year lease.
  • The opposition parties and trade unions in Sri Lanka have already dubbed the port deal as a sellout of their country’s national assets to China.
  • China has also supplied arms as well as provide huge loans to Sri Lanka for its development.
  • China also invested sufficiently in the infrastructure of Sri Lanka, which included building of Colombo international container terminal by China Harbor Corporation.
  • However, the relation between Sri Lanka and India are improving. In order to allay Indian concerns that the Hambantota port will not be used for military purposes, the Sri Lankan government has sought to limit China’s role to running commercial operations at the port while it retains oversight of security operations.
  • The two countries have signed civil nuclear cooperation agreement which is Sri Lanka’s first nuclear partnership with any country.
  • India is also investing into Sri Lanka’s infrastructure development in the Northern and Eastern provinces.
  • India is also planning to build Trincomalee Port to counterweight the Chinese developments at Hambantota Port.

Measures needed to strengthen the bilateral ties during the pandemic:

  • As both countries have a democratic setup there is scope for broadening and deepening the ties.
  • Both countries should try to work out a permanent solution to the issue of fishermen through bilateral engagements.
  • Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) must be signed to improve the economic cooperation between both countries.
  • India needs to focus more on its traditional and cultural ties to improve relations with Sri Lanka.
  • Starting of ferry services between India and Sri Lanka can improve people to people linkages.
  • Mutual recognition of each other’s concerns and interests can improve the relationship between both countries.

Way forward:

  • The socio-economic development of Sri Lanka has remained linked to India.
  • Though robust partnerships with other countries have been often sought in line with the non-alliance foreign policies of both countries, such efforts must be bounded by an atmosphere needed for peace, prosperity, and stability.
  • Sri Lanka can also encourage Indian entrepreneurs to make Colombo another business hub for them, as logistical capacities and facilities for rest and recreation keep improving in Sri Lanka.
  • Integrating the two countries but with special and differential treatment for Sri Lanka due to economic asymmetries can be fast-tracked for this purpose.
  • There is immense potential for both countries to accentuate or create complementariness, using locational and human resource potential, for harnessing benefits in the modern value chains.
  • Robust partnerships across the economic and social spectrum can also promote people-to-people bonhomie.

 

 


General Studies – 3


Topic: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

6. What do you understand by inclusive growth? What are the major impediments to inclusive growth and how can they be overcome in the current scenario? Explain. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian ExpressInsights on India

Why the question:

There are a number of indications to show that the recovery in the economy is uneven and on shaky grounds. Unemployment rates, especially among the educated youth, remain at record-high levels. Real wages in the informal sector have been declining, there exists a high level of unutilised capacity in the industrial sector, and the share of private consumption expenditure in the GDP is at a low. All these indicate that distress continues among the poorer sections and those in the informal sector.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain about inclusive growth, impediments to it and measures needed to overcome them.

Directive word: 

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining hydroelectric energy and give the statistic highlighting extent of it being generated in India.

Body:

First, mention the potential of hydroelectric energy – plenty of rivers, favourable geology, presence of technological expertise, past success etc.

Next, write about the various risks that are associated with hydropower projects – political conflicts, social impact, economic viability and ecological concerns must be written in detail. Substantiate them with examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to remedy the above-mentioned limitations.

Introduction

The concept of inclusive growth focuses on equitable growth for all sections of society. This involves ensuring that fruits of growth and development reach the poor and marginalized sections as well. Inclusiveness is a multi-dimensional concept. Inequalities that include, social exclusion, discrimination, restrictions on migration, constraints on human development, lack of access to finance and insurance, corruption – are sources of inequality and limit the prospect for economic advancement among certain segments of the population, thereby perpetuating poverty.

 

Body:

Elements_of_Inclusive

 

Major impediments to inclusive growth:

  • Poverty alleviation is one of the big challenges for India. Eradication of poverty in India is generally only considered to be a long-term goal. Poverty alleviation is expected to make better progress in the next 50 years than in the past, as a trickle-down effect of the growing middle class.
  • Increasing stress on education, reservation of seats in government jobs and the increasing empowerment of women and the economically weaker sections of society, are also expected to contribute to the alleviation of poverty
  • Government schemes should target eradication of both poverty and unemployment (which in recent decades has sent millions of poor and unskilled people into urban areas in search of livelihoods) attempt to solve the problem, by providing financial assistance for setting up businesses, skill honing, setting up public sector enterprises, reservations in governments, etc.
  • Disparity
    • The disparity between -> Rich and Poor
    • The disparity between -> Urban and Rural
    • The disparity between -> Educated and Uneducated
  • Demography: We have 550 million young people below 25 age, we have the ready workforce for the world, everything we do today must focus on this population, we need to provide them nutrition food, skills, and job opportunities to grow.
  • Improving the delivery of core public services: The incomes rise, citizens are demanding better delivery of core public services such as water and power supply, education, policing, sanitation, roads and public health. As physical access to services improves, issues of quality have become more central.
  • Maintaining rapid growth while making growth more inclusive: The growing disparities between urban and rural areas, prosperous and lagging states, skilled and low-skilled workers, the primary medium term policy challenge for India is not to raise growth from 8 to 10 percent but to sustain rapid growth while spreading its benefits more widely.
  • Developmental challenges:
  • Expansion: Expansion is happening every day in developing countries like India, but perhaps not happening in the pace we would like. We have roads but we need more roads likewise we need to expand energy, infrastructure, facilities, etc.
  • Excellence: Leaving of our top 5 or 10% quality of our education, our services, our governance, is really not that so great, we must collectively work towards improving quality in everywhere.
  • Equity: We need to make sure that the poorest to the poorer can indeed get the best education, health, jobs, and other facilities.
  • Social development is possible through achieving Women Empowerment and eradicating the regional disparities. Though the Government is giving the women empowerment by giving special reservations, the women’s advancement in India is still not matched the expectations for inclusive growth.

Measures needed to overcome:

 

  • Lowering the incidence of poverty and inequality requires a comprehensive strategy.
  • Important steps need to be taken like framing policies to improve health, nutrition and education.
  • Labour market reforms and reforms of direct taxation will have redistributive effects on the system.
  • Schemes like National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), provide 100 days or more of employment at a wage determined by government are already in progress but there is a need to check the cost effectiveness of these schemes
  • Reforms to plug the leakages in the PDS, introduction of GPS tracking, activating vigilance committees, must be undertaken across the country.
  • Research needs to be carried out by government agencies to document the ‘best practices’ in the implementation of government schemes.
  • Minorities and other excluded groups, including the poor in upper castes, also need special programmes to bring them into the mainstream.

 

Conclusion

 

To achieve inclusiveness, all these dimensions need to be looked into. Institutional and attitudinal changes should be brought about though this will take time. Awareness about inclusiveness and empowerment is required to be created. Reducing poverty is to be taken as key element in our inclusive growth strategy and there has been some progress in that regard.

 

 


General Studies – 4


Topic: Case Study

7. You are Vice Principal of a degree college in one of the middle-class towns. The principal has recently retired and management is looking for his replacement. There are also feelers that the management may promote you as Principal. In the meantime, during the annual examination, the flying squad which came from the university caught two students red-handed involving in unfair means. A senior lecturer of the college was personally helping these students in this act. This senior lecturer also happens to be close to the management. One of the students was the son of a local politician who was responsible for getting college affiliated to the present reputed university. The second student was the son of a local businessman who has donated maximum funds for running the college. You immediately informed the management regarding this unfortunate incident. The management told you to resolve the issue with the flying squad at any cost. They further said that such an incident will not only tarnish the image of the college but also the politician and the businessman are very important personalities for the functioning of the college. You were also given hint that your further promotion to Principal depends on your capability in resolving this issue with the flying squad. In the meantime, you were intimidated by your administrative officer that certain members of the student union are protesting outside the college gate against the senior lecturer and the students involved in this incident are demanding strict action against defaulters.

  1. a) Discuss the ethical issue involved in the case.
  2. b) Critically examine the options available with you as Vice Principal. What option will you adopt and why? (250 Words) (20 M) (UPSC 2021)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving the context. Bring out the key stakeholders in the above case study and major ethical issues present.

Body:

In the body, write about the rational course of action available for you as the Vice Principal in charge.

Next, give valid arguments for the both the above-mentioned courses of action that you can take. Evaluate its pros and cons in detail.

Next, write about the course of action you will take and justify that ethically.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing on the importance of rationality and courage in decision making.

Introduction

The glaring issues in the college where blatant misuse of power is being done sets a bad examples to the students and to the society. This case highlights issue of injustice, immorality and abuse of power by the wealthy. An education institution that is expected to set a good example is violating the principles of ethics.

Body

Stakeholders

  • Myself as an aspiring Principal
  • Students who were caught and their future
  • Other students protesting outside
  • Management and senior lecture of degree-college

Ethical issues involved

  • Integrity: The foremost ethical issue in this case is that of professional integrity. While the senior lecturer has compromised his professional integrity, the situation is also a test of my own integrity, as it creates a conflict between my values/duty and personal interest.
  • Test of moral strength (morality): The present situation is also a test of my moral strength, as one hand it is the lucrative opportunity to become the principalof the college and on the other hand it is the duty to do the right thing.
  • Impartiality:The present situation involves the issue of impartiality, as the examination procedure has to be fair for all, any leniency for a few students will make the process partial for other students.
  • Professional ethics: The situation involves a test of my professional ethics. As it remains to be seen, if I can carry out my duty without any considerations of fear or favour.

 

Options available

  • Option 1: To listen to the advice of the school managementand try to resolve the issue, at any cost, without taking any actions against the students.
    • Merits:This option will save the reputation of the college, in short term. The college will         continue to gain, political and financial patronage from the politician and the  businessman. It might make the possibility of my elevation as principal more certain.
    • Demerits: It will compromise the sanctity of procedures. It will be impartial for the other students. It will tarnish the credibility of the college. It will set a bad precedent for the future. It will compromise my own professional ethics/morality and integrity. It will aggravate the student protests.
  • Option 2: To let the flying squad/concerned authorities take strict action against the senior lecturer, and the two students, according to the procedure, in a fair way.
    • Merits: It will enforce the sanctity of procedures. It will enhance the credibility of the college. It will set a right precedent for the future. It will ensure check against corruption/malpractices by teachers. It will calm the protests by other students.
    • Demerits: It might jeopardise future of the two children It might have financial implications for the college. It might lead to a bad publicity for the college. It will/might tarnish the reputation of the families of the concerned students. My chances of elevation will be diminished.
  • Option 3: To convince the flying squad not to take any action, and thereafter, punishing the boys and the lecturer after conducting an internal enquiry.
    • Merits: It will save the reputation of the college in the short term and its patrons. It will save the career of the two students and the lecturer. It will show my capability for crisis management.
    • Demerits: It will aggravate the protests. It might encourage more such incidents in the future. It will compromise the sanctity of fair procedures.

I will adopt the second option. Even though, it might bring a bad name to the college and may sabotage my promotion, it is the right course of action because:

  • College is a place for students to learn righteous values. This option will teach the students importance of ethics and morality.
  • Also, involvement of a senior lecturerin the incident, highlights that the situation requires strict action.
  • As gaining promotion by unfair ways, will defy the sanctity of means, violating the principle of purity of means and ends.
  • This option will be fair towards all the studentswho were honestly writing their exams.
  • This option will aid in pacifying the protestsby the students.
  • This option will uphold the credibility of the collegeas a fair and impartial institution.

Conclusion

Even if one is ambitious, only right means leads to right destinations and not through obliging to unjust measures. Gandhiji said that if we sow the seeds of babool, one cannot expect or reap rose flowers.


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