Print Friendly, PDF & Email

ONGC to map India’s geothermal resources in search of clean energy

GS Paper 1

Syllabus: Economic Geography


Source: Live Mint


Context: ONGC plans to map the geothermal energy sources of India.

  • The focus on geothermal energy comes at a time when the country has set an ambitious climate target of 500 GW of installed renewable energy capacity and net zero carbon emission by 2070.
  • ONGC also has accelerated its diversification efforts through its ‘Energy Strategy 2040’.


About Geothermal Energy:

  • Geothermal energy is an energy source that is stored in the form of heat beneath the earth’s surface, which is clean, renewable, sustainable, carbon-free, continuous, uninterrupted, and environment-friendly.
  • It is the only renewable energy available 24×7 to mankind not requiring storage and unaffected by day-night or seasonality variance.
  • Geothermal resources in India have been mapped by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) and a broad estimate by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) suggests that there could be 10 GW of geothermal power


Types of Geothermal Power Plants ( Sometimes such Qns can be asked in Prelims)

There are three types of geothermal power plants where we can harness the heat of the earth to produce electricity.

  • Dry steam powerplant
  • Flash steam power plant
  • Binary cycle power plant

All these plants follow the same principle of using the heat of the earth to produce electricity. As flash steam power plant requires a high enthalpy range and hence they cannot be used in India.


Benefits of Geothermal Energy:

  • renewable,
  • provides a continuous, uninterrupted supply



  • High initial capital requirement.
  • Location-specific energy source, associated with other emissions like sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide.
  • May cause disasters – earthquakes


Status of Geothermal Energy/Geothermal Powerplants in India

  • Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) has established India’s first Geothermal field development project at Puga village in Ladakh.
  • Tata Power is India’s largest integrated power company. Tata Power will be setting up a geothermal plant in Gujarat of about 5MW plant.
  • National Thermal Power Corporation is planning to construct a 300MW of geothermal power plant project in Chhattisgarh.


Insta Links:

Geothermal Energy

Mains Link:

Q. Examine the various obstacles to an energy-secure India. How can the government ensure energy security while honouring its net zero commitments?