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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

  1. Republic Day parade: Significance of including military and non-military elements in the parade at New Delhi
  2. ONGC to map India’s geothermal resources in search of clean energy


GS Paper 3:

  1. UNDP India launches campaign to drive an inclusive circular economy
  2. States fall short of the target to improve forest cover, quality
  3. Japan’s decision to flush Fukushima wastewater into the ocean 

Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay/ Governance)

  1. How can you do your bit to fight climate change?
  2. Clothes Box Foundation (NGO): Fashion fasting for a cause
  3. Fighting plastics – ‘3B ka funda’ and ‘UseReusables’ mantra
  4. Ballad of the road: from artistes who heal to those who help conferred Padma Awards


Facts for Prelims

  1. The Padma award is an honour for the Etikoppaka toy craft
  2. Supreme Court to release 1,268 judgments in 13 Indian languages
  3. India’s timely help ensured Sri Lanka’s economic survival during the crisis
  4. Short Selling
  5. The new T+1 settlement cycle comes into effect
  6. Methanol blended Diesel (MD15)
  7. Mega projects for Andaman and Nicobar
  8. Mass mortality of Olive Ridley turtles in the Godavari region of Andhra Pradesh raises concerns


Republic Day parade: Significance of including military and non-military elements in the parade at New Delhi

GS Paper 1

Syllabus: Indian Culture/Post-Independence consolidation


Source: IE


Direction: The article highlights the strategic significance of the Republic Day parade in New Delhi.


Context: As India celebrated her 74th Republic Day on 26th January 2023, the parade in New Delhi remains the Day’s most enduring symbol for Indians. It was a grand show of India’s military might and showcased its diverse culture as well.



  • 1st parade, 1950: Held in the present day ‘Major Dhyan Chand National Stadium’.
  • The ceremony: included the official swearing-in of India’s first President (Dr Rajendra Prasad), a marching contingent of over 3000 men, Liberator planes of the Indian Air Force flying overhead, etc.
  • 1955 onwards: The parade shifted to Rajpath (now Kartavya Path).
  • The parade from the former Viceroy’s residence (Rashtrapati Bhawan now) to the memorial for British Indian soldiers (India Gate now) also underwent an Indianization process.


What’s on the display at the 74th Republic Day parade in New Delhi?

  • After two years of celebrations without any chief guest due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi was the chief guest at this year’s parade.
  • The drive for atma nirbharta or self-sufficiency in India’s military might and the key role of women in the armed forces (Nari Shakti) was under the spotlight. For example,
    • The Indian Army showcased the Made-in-India main battle tank Arjun, the NAG missile system, the K-9 Vajra-T gun system, the AKASH air defence system, and the Brahmos missile. Also, this was the 1st time that no Russian weapons were on display.
    • In a display of women’s empowerment, the marching contingents of the Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy were led by women officers for the first time.
    • Assam Rifles — India’s oldest paramilitary force, highlighted the message of gender equality: The 144-strong contingent participated in an equal number of Riflemen and Riflewomen in the parade. “The mixed marching contingent of men and women of Assam Rifles marching shoulder to shoulder is the epitome of the ethos of the force of equal opportunity to all.”
  • The Navy’s contingent also included three women and six men Agniveers, from the Agnipath scheme.
  • The theme of nari shakti or female power carried beyond the armed forces contingents into the parade’s cultural tableaux as well. For example,
    • Tripura’s tableau focuses on women’s role in creating sustainable livelihoods through tourism and organic farming.


Significance of the Republic Day military parade:

Display of power:

  • There is a historical link between strong displays of soldiers and weaponry, national pride and projection of power to the nationals and the world.
  • The Prussian army (Germany) – pioneered modern military parades.


Symbol of victory against colonial rule:

  • During the British Raj, royal parades projected British power to its competing European colonial powers.
  • Upon independence, the military parade was chosen as an integral part of Republic Day celebrations to mark the day as –
    • India’s new constitution officially coming into effect
    • A day of victory (against colonial rule) for the Indian state and its people and the coming of a new, sovereign and strong republic


Significance of the non-military elements in the Republic Day parade:

A symbol of unity in diversity:

  • The Republic Day parade includes non-military elements like the iconic tableaux.
  • The tableaux are a way to celebrate India’s diversity: and express regional identities while promoting a sense of national identity.


Insta Links:

Egypt President in New Delhi for Republic Day: Significance of his visit, and India’s ties with Egypt

ONGC to map India’s geothermal resources in search of clean energy

GS Paper 1

Syllabus: Economic Geography


Source: Live Mint


Context: ONGC plans to map the geothermal energy sources of India.

  • The focus on geothermal energy comes at a time when the country has set an ambitious climate target of 500 GW of installed renewable energy capacity and net zero carbon emission by 2070.
  • ONGC also has accelerated its diversification efforts through its ‘Energy Strategy 2040’.


About Geothermal Energy:

  • Geothermal energy is an energy source that is stored in the form of heat beneath the earth’s surface, which is clean, renewable, sustainable, carbon-free, continuous, uninterrupted, and environment-friendly.
  • It is the only renewable energy available 24×7 to mankind not requiring storage and unaffected by day-night or seasonality variance.
  • Geothermal resources in India have been mapped by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) and a broad estimate by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) suggests that there could be 10 GW of geothermal power


Types of Geothermal Power Plants ( Sometimes such Qns can be asked in Prelims)

There are three types of geothermal power plants where we can harness the heat of the earth to produce electricity.

  • Dry steam powerplant
  • Flash steam power plant
  • Binary cycle power plant

All these plants follow the same principle of using the heat of the earth to produce electricity. As flash steam power plant requires a high enthalpy range and hence they cannot be used in India.


Benefits of Geothermal Energy:

  • renewable,
  • provides a continuous, uninterrupted supply



  • High initial capital requirement.
  • Location-specific energy source, associated with other emissions like sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide.
  • May cause disasters – earthquakes


Status of Geothermal Energy/Geothermal Powerplants in India

  • Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) has established India’s first Geothermal field development project at Puga village in Ladakh.
  • Tata Power is India’s largest integrated power company. Tata Power will be setting up a geothermal plant in Gujarat of about 5MW plant.
  • National Thermal Power Corporation is planning to construct a 300MW of geothermal power plant project in Chhattisgarh.


Insta Links:

Geothermal Energy

Mains Link:

Q. Examine the various obstacles to an energy-secure India. How can the government ensure energy security while honouring its net zero commitments?

States fall short of the target to improve forest cover, quality

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Environment, Conservation


Source: TH

 Direction: The article highlights the objectives, achievements and shortcomings of the Green India Mission.


Context: According to data accessed via the RTI, India is lagging behind in the targets to increase the number and quality of tree and forest-cover plantations set in the Green India Mission (GIM).



  • As per the India State of Forest Report-2021, forest and tree cover in the country increased by 2,261 square kilometres since the last assessment in 2019.
  • India’s total forest and tree cover was 80.9 million hectares, which accounted for 24.62% of the geographical area of the country.
  • According to India’s National Forest Policy (1988), at least 33% of the country’s total land area should be covered by forests in order to ensure ecological stability.
  • India is tenth in the world in terms of the total area covered by forests, but only 120th in terms of the proportion of that area covered by forests.
  • 17 States and Union Territories had more than 33% of their area under forest cover.
  • The top five States in terms of forest cover as a percentage of their total geographical area were Mizoram (84.53%), Arunachal Pradesh (79.33%), Meghalaya (76%), etc.
  • MP had the largest forest cover, followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Maharashtra.



National Mission for a Green India/ GIM:

  • It is one of the eight Missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) launched in 2014 for a 10 years period with an outlay of Rs 60,000 crore.
  • It aims at protecting, restoring and enhancing India’s forest cover and responding to climate change.
  • The target under the Mission is –
    • Increasing the forest and tree cover by 5 million hectares (ha) in 10 years.
    • Increasing the quality of the existing forest and tree cover in another 5 million ha of forest in non-forest lands in 10 years.
    • Increasing forest-based livelihood income for about 3 million households in and around these forest areas.
  • It is implemented under the overall administrative control of the MoEF&CC and presents a holistic approach to greening that considers –
    • Carbon sequestration goals
    • Maintain diverse ecosystem services (biodiversity, etc) and provisioning services (fuel, fodder, etc)
  • Integrated cross-sectoral approach: Implemented on both public and private lands, with local communities playing a crucial part in planning, decision-making, implementation, and monitoring.


Targets under the GIM: From 2015-16 to 2021-22, the Centre had approved a target of increasing tree/forest cover by 53,377 hectares and improving the quality of the degraded forest by 1,66,656 ha.


What are the challenges?

  • The GIM is able to achieve only 8% of its plantation target. For example, tree/forest cover had increased by 26,287 hectares and forest quality improved by only 1,02,096 hectares as of December 31, 2022.
  • The GIM is grossly underfunded and funds allocated remain underutilised: the Centre had allocated ₹681 crores but only ₹525 crores had been utilised.
  • Afforestation was solely for the purpose of boosting tree count, rather than taking into account soil and weather conditions.
  • Commercial plantations (like eucalyptus) to enhance green cover, which couldn’t make up for natural forests and was vulnerable to insect infestations because they were monocultures.



In its new Nationally Determined Contribution, India pledged to reduce the emissions intensity of its gross domestic product by 45% by 2030, and to get 50% of its electricity from non-fossil fuel-based sources by 2030.


Insta Links:

State of Forest Report 2021



Q. Define the concept of the carrying capacity of an ecosystem as relevant to an environment. Explain how understanding this concept is vital while planning for the sustainable development of a region. (UPSC 2019)


Prelims Links: (UPSC 2016)

Which of the following best describe/describes the aim of the ‘Green India Mission’ of the Government of India?

  1. Incorporating environmental benefits and costs into the Union and State Budgets thereby implementing the `green accounting’
  2. Launching the second green revolution to enhance agricultural output so as to ensure food security to one and all in the future
  3. Restoring and enhancing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

    1. 1 only
    2. 2 and 3 only
    3. 3 only
    4. 1, 2 and 3


Ans: 3

Japan’s decision to flush Fukushima wastewater into the ocean 

GS Paper 3

Source: The Hindu

Context: Japan is expected to start flushing 1.25 million tonnes of wastewater from the embattled Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean this year, as part of its project to decommission the facility.


About Nuclear Power:

Nuclear power is electricity generated by power plants that derive their heat from fission in a nuclear reactor. Except for the reactor, which plays the role of a boiler in a fossil-fuel power plant, a nuclear power plant is similar to a large coal-fired power plant, with pumps, valves, steam generators, turbines, electric generators, condensers, and associated equipment.



What was the issue:

  • In March 2011, after a magnitude 9 earthquake, a tsunami flooded the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Okuma and damaged its diesel generators. The loss of power suspended the coolant supply to reactors at the facility; the tsunami also disabled backup systems.
  • The water that the Japanese government wants to flush from the plant was used to cool the reactors, plus rainwater and groundwater. It contains radioactive isotopes from the damaged reactors and is thus itself radioactive.
  • Japan has said that it will release this water into the Pacific Ocean over the next 30 years.


Treated Water:

  • The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), which operates the Fukushima facility, has treated the water to remove most radioactive isotopes.
  • Japanese government required the water to have 1/40th as much tritium as the permitted limit.


Issues with discharging treated water into the Pacific Ocean:

  • Difficult to remove tritium from the water.
  • Tritium is easily absorbed by the bodies of living creatures and rapidly distributed via blood.
  • Other radionuclides include isotopes of ruthenium and plutonium, which could persist for longer in the bodies of marine creatures and on the seafloor and could not be completely removed.


Other options available with Japan:

  • Store the water for longer and then discharge it – This is because tritium’s half-life – the time it takes for its quantity to be halved through radioactive decay – is 12-13 years. The quantity of any other radioactive isotopes present in the water will also decrease at this time (each isotope has its own half-life). So at the time of discharge, the water could be less radioactive.


Insta Link:

Nuclear Energy

Mains Link:

Q. Though nuclear energy is a source of clean energy but the vulnerabilities of nuclear reactors make them prone to disasters. Examine. 


Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay/ Governance)

How can you do your bit to fight climate change?

Shrekanth RG  and his startup team have over the last seven years, created more than 40 registered bio-enzyme brands, and helped scores of people launch their bio-enzyme products.

  • Bio-enzyme has super-powerful cleaning and disinfectant-surfactant properties, which rival any commercial cleaner for effectiveness.
  • Shrekanth is also the ‘frugal living poster boy’. He holds workshops for communities on environmental-friendly living lifestyles and on bio-enzymes.


Clothes Box Foundation (NGO): Fashion fasting for a cause

Globally, clothing emits 10% of global greenhouse gas emissions.

The Clothes Box team is now propagating some easy steps to practice fashion-fasting, and slow down clothes buying:

  • Wear your clothes for a considerable period if they fit.
  • Repair clothes. Live the traditional Indian values, and pass them to the next generation
  • Say ‘Yes’ to repeating clothes. There is no shame in wearing something you own 100 times.
  • Wait for 15 days to buy something that you feel you need today. There is an 80% chance you may not buy it at all.
  • Support brands that support sustainable practices and take care of the planet.
  • Ask questions to your manufacturers about how they are making what they are making

 Fighting plastics – ‘3B ka funda’ and ‘UseReusables’ mantra


Ruchika Sethi Takkar’s (Gurgaon) mantra is simple: whenever you step out of home, carry your own bag, box and bottle. The idea is to minimise the use of disposable bags and containers.



Ballad of the road: from artistes who heal to those who help conferred Padma Awards

Source: Indian Express

Context: Padma Awards were conferred to people for years of quiet contribution in the field of social work, or for preserving endangered traditional arts of India. Here are some of the good examples which can be mentioned in the ethics answer.


  • A 76-year-old retired Army doctor from Jabalpur who has been treating the underprivileged for the last 50 years.
  • A 79-year-old social worker from Andhra Pradesh’s Kakinada, who lost his wife and two children in the 1985 Air India Kanishka bombing and has since dedicated his life to free medical treatment for others.
  • A 98-year-old self-sustained organic farmer from Sikkim who began practising traditional agriculture long before the state government launched its organic mission.
  • A 54-year-old wood carver from a Gond tribal community in Chhattisgarh’s Kanker  has rehabilitated former Maoist cadres by teaching them the art.



“Information space is the “single gravest threat to democracy, electoral integrity and social cohesion in many countries, and it’s only becoming more severe”

Source: Indian Express

Usages: This can be used to introduce/Conclude Questions related to the impact of technology (misinformation) on democracy/elections/social cohesion.

Related news:

US-led Summit for Democracy is a virtual summit hosted by the United States “to renew democracy at home and confront autocracies abroad“. The first summit was held on December 2021. The second summit will be held virtually in March 2023.


Facts for Prelims:

The Padma award is an honour for the Etikoppaka toy craft

Source: The Hindu

Context: An artist from Andhra Pradesh was conferred Padma Shri – for his work on Etikoppaka wooden toy craft which is also a GI-tagged product from the state.


About Etikoppaka toys:

  • The art of making traditional wooden Etikoppaka toys is more than 400 years old.
  • Also known as turned wood Lacquer craft.
  • The toys are unique in shape and form.
  • They are made of wood and painted with natural dyes.
  • The wood used is from the ‘Ankudi Karra’ (Wrightia tinctoria) tree which is soft.
  • The natural dyes are prepared from seeds, lacquer, bark, roots, and leaves.
  • Other GI products from Andhra Pradesh Kondapalli toys, Tirupati laddu, Bobbili Veena, Srikalahasthi Kalamkari, Uppada Jamdani sarees, and Shadow puppets.


Supreme Court to release 1,268 judgments in 13 Indian languages


Source: The Hindu

Context: Supreme Court will release 1,268 judgments in 13 Indian languages on Republic Day in a bid to make justice administration more accessible to the common man.

  • The judgments would be made available in the court’s e-SCR portal.


About e-SCR Portal:

  • The portal is the repository of the electronic version of Supreme Court Reports (SCR)
  • It provides free access and an elastic search facility to about 34,000 of its judgments.
  • Benefits of e-SCR: The move has benefitted law students, young lawyers who cannot afford expensive books which record apex court judgments and even the public.

Related News:

The judgements delivered by SC will now be translated into four languages- Hindi, Tamil, Gujarati and Odia. Also, Online e-Inspection Software to facilitate online e-inspection of digitized judicial files through the internet was launched at Delhi High court.


Article 348(1) of the Constitution of India provides that all proceedings in the Supreme Court and in every High Court shall be in the English language until Parliament by law otherwise provides.


Article 348 (2) provides that the Governor of the State may, with the previous consent of the President, authorize the use of the Hindi language or any other language used for any official purpose of the State, in the proceedings of the High Court


India’s timely help ensured Sri Lanka’s economic survival during the crisis

Source: The Hindu

 Direction: This is an interview article with Sri Lankan High Commissioner to India Milinda Moragoda. We will concentrate on only prelims-related news.

 Context: Recently IMF has confirmed receiving India’s written financing assurance in support of Sri Lanka’s economic revival.


The economic crisis in Sri Lanka:

Sri Lanka is grappling with a shortage of foreign currency, higher inflation and a steep recession – the worst such crisis since its independence from Britain in 1948.

  • India, China and Japan are Sri Lanka’s three largest bilateral creditors
  • Sri Lanka has an overall debt of around 52bn US dollars (nearly 40% is owed to private creditors, of the rest 60% is owned to bilateral partners: China owns 52%, Japan (19%) and India (12%))


The recovery plan:

Previously experts in Sri Lanka had asked lenders (creditors) to take a ‘Haircut’ on their lending. However, as per the new plan, none of the official lenders would take a haircut while giving Sri Lanka time to recover with an IMF programme. But private creditors, who hold the largest chunk of Sri Lanka’s foreign debt, may have to take a haircut.


What is a Haircut?

When a bank or creditor country takes a ‘haircut’, it means it accepts less than what was due in a particular loan account. For example: if a bank was owed Rs 10,000 cr by a borrower and it agrees to take back only Rs 8,000 cr, it takes a 20% haircut.


Short Selling

Source: IE

Context: Hindenburg Research, which has accused the Adani Group of fraud, is a short seller.


What is Short-Selling?

Short selling, or shorting, is a trading strategy based on the expectation that the price of the security will fall. While fundamentally it is based on the “buy low, sell high” approach, the sequence of transactions is reversed in short selling — to sell high first and buy low later. Also, in short selling, the trader usually does not own the securities he sells, but merely borrows them.

  • Traders in the US use short selling as speculation, and investors or portfolio managers could use it as a hedge against the downside risk of a particular stock.


Related News:

Source: IE

Name: Hindenburg

Zeppelin Airship disaster:  In 1937, a German passenger airship called Hindenburg caught fire while attempting to dock onto its mooring mast in New Jersey, United States. The disaster led to the demise of the airship era.


The new T+1 settlement cycle comes into effect

Source: IE

Context: After China, India (on SEBI’s recommendation) will become the second country in the world to start the ‘trade-plus-one’ (T+1) settlement cycle in top-listed securities.


What is the T+1 settlement cycle?

In simple terms, T+1 settlement means that securities transactions will reflect in the demat account after a day instead of two days now under the T+2 cycle. If an investor buys a stock on Thursday, it would be shown in the demat account on Friday.


Benefits of the move:  

  • Brings operational efficiency
  • Faster fund remittances
  • Share delivery
  • Ease for stock market participants
  • Reduces risks and frees up capital required to collateralise the risk
  • Reduces the number of outstanding unsettled trades at any point in time


Why are foreign investors opposed?

Foreign investors operate from different geographies leading to time zone differences, information flow processes, and foreign exchange problems. Foreign investors said they would also find it difficult to hedge their net India exposure in dollar terms at the end of the day under the T+1 system.

  • The United States, United Kingdom and Eurozone markets are yet to move to the T+1 system.



Methanol blended Diesel (MD15)

Source: PIB

Context: The government ceremonially inaugurated the demo run of an Inland Water Vessel powered by Methanol blended Diesel (MD15) (15% methanol blended HSD)


Benefits of blending gasoline with Methanol:

Blending 15% methanol in gasoline can result in at least a 15% reduction in the import of gasoline/crude oil. In addition, this would bring down GHG emissions by 20% in terms of particulate matter, NOx, and SOx, thereby improving urban air quality. It will also create nearly 5 million new jobs in the Methanol economy.

 About Methanol Economy:

NITI Aayog’s ‘Methanol Economy’ programme (launched in 2018) is aimed at reducing India’s oil import bill, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and converting coal reserves and municipal solid waste into methanol. 


About Methanol:

Methanol is a cost-effective alternative marine fuel. It is less costly than other marine fuels and is economical in terms of developing the shoreside storage and bunkering infrastructure. It is also known as wood alcohol. Its properties are similar to ethanol. It is also used in products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics.

About India Energy Week:

IEW 2023 is the first major event under India’s G20 Presidency. It will be organized by the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas.

  • India Energy Week is the only all-encompassing international energy event supported at the highest level of the Indian government, with participation from all the Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs), and officially supported by the Federation of Indian Petroleum Industry (FIPI).


Other initiatives for Methanol-based economy: BIS has notified 20% DME in LPG; Road ministry has notified MD15, MD85 and MD100 blends; Asia’s 1st canister-based methanol cooking fuel programme (by Assam Petrochemicals in 2018); Cola-to-Methanol plants (by BHEL, Thermax and IIT Delhi)


Mega projects for Andaman and Nicobar

Source: TOI, BS

Context: The representation of nearly 100 former civil servants wrote to President Droupadi Murmu against development plans on Great Nicobar Island.

  • In other news, SC panel questions need to revive oil palm plantations in Andamans.


About the Great Nicobar Project

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) last year (November 2022) granted an in-principal clearance for the diversion of 130 sq km of forest in Great Nicobar Island for the mega project.

  • The project includes a transhipment port, an airport, a power plant and a greenfield township.
  • Implemented by Andaman and Nicobar Islands Integrated Development Corporation under a vision plan conceived by the NITI Aayog.
  • It includes compensatory afforestation on “non-notified forest land” in Haryana.



About the ecology of A&N:

A&N has India’s largest mangroves and that over half the species of butterflies, 40% of birds and 60% of mammals are endemic to the region. The project is likely catastrophic for the island’s sensitive ecology and indigenous hunter-gatherer tribes like the Shompen who are already listed as a ‘particularly vulnerable tribal group’.


Fig: Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways will be inviting expressions of interest (EOI) from January 28, 2023, for the development of a Mega International Container Transhipment Port (ICTP) at Galathea Bay of Great Nicobar Island in the Bay of Bengal


Related news:

SC panel questions need to revive oil palm plantations in Andamans

Source: BS

Supreme Court-constituted Central Empowered Committee (CEC) has questioned the need to revive oil palm plantations in Andamans as a similar move in the past has proven to be a total commercial failure.

  • National Mission on Edible Oils (Oil Palm) (launched in 2021-22) with a special focus on North Eastern States and Andaman & Nicobar.
  • Over 90% of India’s Palm oil cultivation is situated in the state of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
  • Oil palm is a native of West Africa.


Mass mortality of Olive Ridley turtles in the Godavari region of Andhra Pradesh raises concerns

Source: The Hindu

 Context: Hundreds of vulnerable Olive Ridley Turtles ( Lepidochelys olivacea) have washed ashore along the coastline between Kakinada and Antarvedi in the Godavari region during the ongoing annual breeding season on the east coast.


Reasons stated:

  • The effluents are released from the aqua ponds along the coastline.
  • The discharges from the pipelines of the onshore oil exploration facilities


About Olive Ridley Turtles:

  • They are the smallest and most abundant of all sea turtles found in the world.
  • They get their name from their olive-coloured carapace.
  • Known for Arribada (Mass Nesting)


Protection Status:

  • Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: Scheduled 1
  • IUCN Red List: Vulnerable
  • CITES Appendix I



They are found in warm waters of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans.

In India, they are conserved in Bhitarkanika National Park, Odisha, Gahirmata Marine Sanctuary, Odisha and the Godavari region of Andhra Pradesh.



PSIR: India-Egypt Relation: IE: India’s Egypt opportunity

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Tamil Nadu PCS/Anthropology/Sociology: The path to righting historical wrongs (The Hindu today’s E-paper)

Pub Ad: IE: A battle-fit police (Written by Prakash Singh ) (Government must address basic structural issues in the force, including recruitment and training of personnel)

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