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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions ina your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 3:

  1. Economy at risk from move to clean energy
  2. India’s plan to eradicate measles, rubella


GS Paper 4:

  1. The woman who defied realpolitik


Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay/ Governance)

  1. Rohit Singh
  2. Sarveshwar Bhure
  3. Rajat Bansal
  4. Chinampas: Floating Gardens made of Plastic bottles
  5. Dwarka: How a Delhi district stopped the ground from sinking
  6. Keywords: 3Cs of Viksit Bharat


Facts for Prelims

  1. Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
  2. Chargesheet: SC refuses to make chargesheets public
  3. Govt to combine CGHS with Ayushman Bharat
  5. 13th Amendment (13A) to Sri Lanka’s Constitution
  6. NGT probe into cruise operating in Bhopal Ramsar wetland
  7. Exercise Cyclone-I



Economy at risk from move to clean energy

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources/Infrastructure-Energy/Environmental Conservation


Source: TH


Direction: The challenges, especially financial, that India faces as it prepares to transition from a high-carbon emission economy to a low-carbon emission economy are discussed in the article.


Context: According to a study in the Global Environmental Change journal, India’s financial sector is highly exposed to the risks of the economy transitioning from being largely dependent on fossil fuels to clean energy.



  • Coal currently accounts for 44% of India’s primary energy sources and 70% of its power generation.
  • The country’s coal-fired power plants have an average age of 13 years and India has 91,000 MW of new proposed coal capacity in the works, second only to China.
  • According to the Draft National Electricity Plan 2022, coal’s share in the electricity generation mix will decrease to 50% by 2030.
  • In 2021, the PM of India announced India’s commitment to reach net-zero emissions by 2070 and to source half of its electricity needs from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030.


Highlights of the study:

  • The financial decisions of Indian banks and institutional investors are forcing the nation to rely on a more expensive, more polluting source of energy. For example,
    • Oil and gas extraction accounted for 60% of lending to the mining industry, while petroleum refining accounted for one-fifth of debt in the manufacturing industry.
    • Only 17.5% of bank lending to the power sector has been to renewables.
  • Consequently, India has much higher electricity from carbon sources than the world average, despite its vast potential for cheap solar, wind, and small hydropower.



  • High-carbon industries – power generation, chemicals, iron and steel, and aviation – account for 10% of outstanding debt to Indian financial institutions.
    • However, these industries are also heavily indebted and therefore have the less financial capacity to respond to shocks and stresses.
  • Mapping India’s policy commitments against these lending and investment patterns reveal that India’s financial sector is heavily exposed to potential transition risks.
  • A shortage of experts in India’s financial institutions who had the expertise to appropriately advise the institutions on such a transition.
  • Trillion dollars needed: To meet net-zero and power generation from non-fossil fuel sources commitments.


In general, the following are a few reasons a nation’s economy may be at risk from moving to clean energy:

  • High upfront costs: The initial investment required to transition to clean energy, such as building solar or wind power plants, can be significant.
  • Job losses in certain industries: This could have negative effects on the economy and could lead to higher unemployment.
  • Dependence on foreign technology: Many countries may have to import clean energy technology from other nations, which can be expensive.
  • Lack of infrastructure: The transition to clean energy requires a significant overhaul of the existing energy infrastructure, which may be costly and time-consuming.
  • Uncertainty of investments and regulations: The transition to clean energy may be slowed down by the lack of clear regulations and policy frameworks, which can make it difficult for companies to make long-term investments.


Way ahead:

  • Financiers, regulators and policymakers should be acting swiftly to ensure an orderly transition to net zero.
  • RBI is expected to launch India’s first-ever sovereign green bonds auction worth ₹40 billion.
  • India’s presidency of the G-20 also means a focus on the energy transition and mobilising sustainable finance.
  • Major financial institutions should collect information on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) risks and systematically incorporate data into financial planning.


Conclusion: There is a linkage between financial risk, renewable energy technology budgets, and environmental quality as the transition to clean energy can have an impact on all three areas.


Shifting financial resources towards these renewables would deliver huge benefits for India like cheaper electricity, cleaner air, and fewer emissions. Thus, on the other side of risk is a tremendous opportunity.




ESG stands for Environmental, Social, and Governance. It refers to a set of standards for a company’s operations that socially conscious investors use to screen potential investments. Environmental standards assess a company’s impact on the natural world. Social standards assess a company’s impact on its employees, customers, and community. Governance standards assess a company’s leadership, financial transparency, and ethical behaviour. ESG criteria can help investors evaluate the long-term sustainability of a company and its potential financial performance.


Related News:

What is Liquified Natural Gas (LNG), and how it impacts the climate

Source: Indian Express

Read related Link: Europe turns to LNG instead of Russian gas: What is it, how it impacts the climate


Insta Links:

India Ranks Third in Renewable Energy Installations in 2021


Mains Links:

Q. Describe the benefits of deriving electric energy from sunlight in contrast to conventional energy generation. What are the initiatives offered by our government for this purpose? (UPSC 2020)


Prelims Links:

With reference to the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA), which of the following statements is/are correct? (UPSC CSE 2015)

  1. It is a Public Limited Government Company.
  2. It is a Non-Banking Financial Company.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: C

India’s plan to eradicate measles, rubella

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Issues Relating to Development and Management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health


Source: TH


Direction: The article highlights what needs to be done as well as the efforts made by India to eradicate measles and rubella.


Context: India set a goal (in 2019) to eradicate measles and rubella (MR) by 2023 after missing the previous deadline of 2020 (an earlier target of 2015 was also missed) for a number of reasons, worsened by the pandemic’s disruptions.


Measles and Rubella:


  • Rubella isn’t the same as measles, but the two illnesses share some signs and symptoms, such as the red rash.
  • Rubella is not as contagious or harmful as measles and is brought on by a different virus.
  • While measles has a high fatality rate, rubella infection in a pregnant woman will have an impact on the foetus, resulting in birth defects.
  • The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is highly effective in preventing MR and provides lifelong protection against them.
  • Over the past two decades, the measles vaccine is estimated to have averted more than 30 million deaths globally.



Why is eliminating MR crucial?

  • According to the WHO, the measles virus is one of the world’s most contagious human viruses that kills more than 1,00,000 children every year globally and rubella is a leading cause of birth defects.
  • An outbreak of measles in Maharashtra in 2022, particularly in Mumbai, killed 15 children among several hundred who contracted the infection.



What has India done to achieve targets?

  • During 2010-2013, India conducted a phased measles catch-up immunisation for children aged 9 months-10 years in 14 States, vaccinating approximately 119 million children.
  • Mission Indradhanush was launched in 2014 to ramp up vaccinating the unvaccinated population.
  • During 2017–2021, India adopted a national strategic plan for MR elimination, and introduced rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) into the routine immunisation programme, besides launching a nationwide MR supplementary immunisation activity (SIA) catch-up campaign.
    • Additionally, it changed the focus of acute fever and rash surveillance from outbreak-based to case-based.
    • Also, the number of laboratories in the MR network has more than doubled.



What needs to be done to achieve the target?

  • The main concern is the under-one-year population. But if the immunisation at 95% can be maintained, it will be possible.
  • However, it needs to be done district by district
    • Give each district a target to achieve the required rate of immunisation,
    • Conduct a robust fever and rash surveillance programme, testing for MR.
  • Monitoring the progress and providing additional inputs to the districts that are lagging in implementing the immunisation.
  • In the process, it is important to provide full support (improve their service conditions, and salaries) to the ground-level staff (village health nurses, ASHA, Anganwadi and ICDS workers) who implement the programme.




  • Having strong immunisation infrastructure, States like Tamil Nadu and Kerala will find it easier to reach the targets, unlike the other States where more effort will be needed to do so.
  • As the saying goes – “a threat of infection anywhere is a threat everywhere,” India needs to improve its surveillance by finding, investigating, collecting, and testing a sample for every suspected case in every district across every State and UT.


Insta Links:



Prelims Links: (UPSC 2014)

Consider the following diseases

  1. Diphtheria
  2. Chickenpox
  3. Smallpox

Which of the above diseases has/have been eradicated in India?

      1. 1 and 2 only
      2. 3 only
      3. 1, 2 and 3
      4. None


Ans: 2

The woman who defied realpolitik

GS Paper 4

Syllabus: Moral Thinkers


Source: The Hindu, Live Mint


Context: New Zealand’s Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern who announced her resignation citing burnout, offered an alternative leadership model rooted in a moral vision rather than political opportunism and rose to become a global hero of liberalism.

  • She is considered a classic example of ethical leadership.



About Ethical Leadership:

Ethical leadership is the practice of demonstrating appropriate conduct inside and outside the office. It is mainly concerned with moral development and virtuous behaviour. Ethical leaders display good values through their words and actions.


Lessons from the life of Jacinda Ardern:


Motherhood is powerful

  • Jacinda Ardern became the second world leader (After Benazir Bhutto) to ever give birth and subsequently take maternity leave while in office. She said, “I’m just pregnant, not incapacitated”.
  • Multitasking: The Prime Minister then made history and headlines worldwide when her three-month-old child accompanied her to a United Nations General Assembly in New York City.



Keeping calm under pressure

  • The New Zealand Prime Minister has demonstrated her ability to stay cool numerous times throughout the coronavirus pandemic, but it was her response to a 5.8 magnitude earthquake that set the tone for her approach to a crisis. During a live television broadcast, the parliament building she was in was hit with a mammoth natural disaster.
  • Her ability to immediately gather her thoughts and address a crisis can be a learning lesson for all of us.


Act swiftly, decisively and do not downplay situations

  • Her decisiveness during the COVID-19 pandemic had a huge impact on how the country handled the crisis and the measures she implemented.
  • Not once did she attempt to downplay the severity of the crisis. Instead, she offered facts, educated herself on the data, and made tough choices that would ultimately allow New Zealand to handle the pandemic astutely and save many live


Responsible leadership: The PM, along with her ministers took a pay cut of 20% for 6 months during the pandemic. In her own statement – “While it in itself won’t shift the government’s overall fiscal position, it is about leadership”.



Emotional intelligence

  • During the pandemic, Prime Minister Ardern showed her humane side and fostered the public’s trust by acknowledging the emotional aspect brought on by the crisis.
  • She even went so far as to reassure children that the Easter Bunny was classified as a key worker and would be able to do their Easter rounds as always. While this may seem like a small gesture, the fact that she incorporated such an emotional response into her address showed her humanity and her relatability.




Effective Communication: The underrated value of listening and asking

  • Ardern used regular Facebook Live sessions to check in with citizens during their relatively brief time in lockdown.
  • In an incredibly informal, chatty manner, she effortlessly demonstrated consideration and empathy, whilst also delivering some tough messages, and providing clear direction to mobilize effort.  
  • To support citizens through lockdown, Ardern also conducted a series of video interviews in which she conversed with experts, including a psychologist about coping with the stresses of the pandemic, and an experienced business mentor about supporting small businesses.




Clear vision and humility

  • Jacinda had earlier mentioned child poverty as the reason why she joined politics at the age of 17. She often visited refugee children as a part of working for an international youth organization.


“If you ask me why I’m in politics, my answer would be simple — children. I genuinely believe our success as politicians should be based on the status of children. We need to change how we measure success and our indicators for action,” she had said in an ardent speech at the Social Good Summit 2018.



  • Demonstrate credibility – for instance, by gaining the necessary knowledge and data and/or drawing upon relevant experience
  • Show reliability – be honest and do what you say you will do
  • Create intimacy – share some of yourself and be interested in others
  • Limit self-orientation – keep your self-interest in check


Strength and solidarity are key

  • In March 2019, Jacinda Ardern responded to a series of terrorist attacks on mosques in Christchurch with an approach that supported the people of New Zealand and quickly banned military-style assault weapons in the country. The leader refused to name the shooter in order to avoid giving him notoriety and assisted in uniting not only the people of Christchurch but New Zealand as a whole.
  • Ms Ardern wore a hijab and went to mourn with the grieving families. By keeping the focus on the victims rather than the perpetrator, she brought a healing touch to an otherwise tense, polarising moment.




  • She appointed Nanaia Mahuta, a Maori woman, in the high-profile portfolio of foreign ministers, while her party vowed that schools in the country would have the Māori language integrated into their curriculum by 2025.



In a world where politics is synonymous with realpolitik, she demonstrated that politics informed by a moral vision — doing the right thing rather than what best suits one’s interests — is not unthinkable.


At the heart of her leadership style:

“Kindness, and not being afraid to be kind, or to focus on, or be really driven by empathy. I think one of the sad things that I’ve seen in political leadership is – because we’ve placed so much emphasis on notions of assertiveness and strength over time – that we’ve probably assumed that it means you can’t have those other qualities of kindness and empathy. And yet, when you think about all the big challenges that we face in the world, that’s probably the quality we need the most.”

Jacinda Ardern



Transformational leadership is defined as a leadership approach that causes a change in individuals and social systems. In its ideal form, it creates valuable and positive change in the followers with the end goal of developing followers into leaders. It refers to a leadership style that focuses on inspiring and motivating followers to not only achieve their goals but also to develop their own leadership potential.


Nolan Committee Recommendations – Find the link below.

Insta Links:

Anonymity or Fame

Mains Link: UPSC 2019

Q. What are the basic principles of public life? Illustrate any three of these with suitable examples.


Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay/ Governance)

Direction: We are giving the list of good initiatives taken by civil servants every day (state-wise). One need not remember all the names or their work. Choose the one which connects with you and note it down for using it as an example in Essay/ Ethics/ Governance Mains Questions.

Rohit Singh (Governance Award in Implementation of Central Schemes, Collector, Narsinghpur, MP )

Key work:

  • Super Project Nidaan: Apka Prashasan Apke Aangan
  • Delivery of govt. welfare schemes
  • 20+ camps that addressed 14,000 applications



Sarveshwar Bhure (Excellence in Governance Award in Innovative Education category, DM, Raipur, Chhatisgarh)

Related Story: A girl who came in class XII merit list told the collector, “I want to become a collector like you”. Dr S Bhure replied – “be a better collector than me”.


He enabled:

  • Launch of project Padhai Tuhar Dwar
  • E-learning classes with 8,000 teachers
  • Conducting over 500,000 classes for 20,000



Rajat Bansal (Governance Award in Start-up & Innovations, DC Bastar, Chhattisgarh)

Key work:

  • ThinkB’ is a Technological Hub for Innovation Network
  • An incubator mentoring 15 startups that came up within a year



Chinampas: Floating Gardens made of Plastic bottles

In Singapore, a group of volunteers are encouraging people to turn plastic bottles into mini floating gardens, known as chinampas.

Origin: It was used as an ancient farming technique by the Aztecs (Mexico), who built artificial floating islands in lakes and found a way to grow plants and food on them.

Usage: This can be used as an innovative example to recycle and reuse plastic bottles.




Dwarka: How a Delhi district stopped the ground from sinking

As India’s Himalayan town of Joshimath has been sinking, Delhi’s Dwarka district reduced its reliance on groundwater and reversed the trend of land subsidence.


A University of Cambridge report corroborated that the neighbourhood had subsided by around 3.5cm (1.4in) in 2014 alone. When groundwater is pumped out, the land above it sinks – and this leads to land subsidence.


Initiatives taken:

  • Heavy fines were imposed on buildings still using borewells: By 2016, almost all housing societies had stopped using borewells
  • Two local lakes (including a 200-year-old local reservoir named ‘Naya Jhod’) were rejuvenated
  • Mandatory to irrigate public parks using only sewage and treated surface water
  • Residents began harvesting rainwater to increase the water table in the area


Usages: This example can be used as a conclusion or innovative steps in Geography/Disaster Management Questions.


Keywords: 3Cs of Viksit Bharat (Developed India): Convergence, Collaboration, and Competition


Usage: The 3Cs are currently being used in Aspirational Districts Programme in India:

  • Convergence(of Central & State Schemes)
  • Collaboration(of Central, State level ‘Prabhari’ Officers, District Collectors and Gram Panchayat),
  • Competitionamong districts through monthly delta ranking



“The basic structure of our Constitution, like a north star, guides and gives a certain direction to the interpreters and implementers of the Constitution when the path ahead is convoluted”-Chief Justice of India Dr DY Chandrachud


Basic structure Doctrine (origin: Kesavananda Bharati Case, 1973): It is a legal doctrine that the constitution of a sovereign state has certain characteristics that cannot be erased by its legislature.

  • The doctrine is recognised in India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Uganda
  • Different formulations of the basic structure doctrine have now emerged in South Korea, Japan, certain Latin American countries and African countries as well.


Usages: You may use this quote in a polity essay or Polity GS2 Mains Question as an introduction/Conclusion.


Facts for Prelims

Swami Sahajanand Saraswati

 Source: IE


Context: The Union Home Minister will take part in a celebration commemorating farmer leader Swami Sahajanand Saraswati’s birth anniversary in Patna, Bihar.


Swami Sahajanand Saraswati:

  • He (real name Navrang Rai) was an ascetic, a nationalist and a peasant leader of India.
  • Although born in present-day UP, his social and political activities focussed mostly on Bihar in the initial days, and gradually spread to the rest of India.
  • The Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS) was founded by Saraswati in 1929 to address peasants’ complaints about zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights, and served as the foundation for the farmers’ movements in India.
  • The All-India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) was established at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in April 1936, with Saraswati chosen as its first President.
  • Subhash Chandra Bose and the All India Forward Bloc decided to observe April 28 as All-India Swami Sahajanand Day in protest of his arrest by the British Raj during the Quit India Movement.


It violates the rights of the victim and accused: SC refuses to make chargesheets public

Source: HT

Context: The Supreme Court has held that the public cannot be given free access to a charge sheet or a final investigation report as it is not a public document and doing so will violate the rights of the victim, the accused and even the investigation agency.


What is Charge Sheet?

In policing on the Indian subcontinent, a chargesheet is prepared after First Information Reports and charges an individual for the crimes specified in those FIR. It shows the names of each person brought into custody the nature of the accusations, and the identity of the accusers.


Govt to combine CGHS with Ayushman Bharat

Source: Live Mint

 Context: The National Health Authority (NHA) is in the process of integrating the Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS) with the Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission (ABDM)

  • This is aimed at creating digital health identification of CGHS beneficiaries and storing their digital health records, thus ensuring quick treatment to the needy
  • So far, around 100 million health records have been linked to ABDM.


About CGHS:

CGHS was started in 1954 with the aim of providing comprehensive healthcare to central government employees and pensioners and their dependent family members. The scheme currently covers more than 4 million beneficiaries in 75 cities

Related news:

Ayushman Bharat School Health and Wellness Programme (SHWP) has less than 50% uptake

Source: TH

Context: Almost three years after its implementation, with a robust syllabus from NCERT, less than half of India’s States have started weekly classroom sessions with students


Reasons for less uptake: Overwork of government teachers, not all States have set aside the weekly time slot in the classroom schedule, no formal reporting structure or accountability


About SHWP:

SHWP under Ayushman Bharat was launched in 2018 (a joint collaborative programme of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and the Ministry of Human Resource Development)


Aim: It aims to create awareness about age-appropriate information about health and nutrition among children in schools.

  • Role of teachers: Teachers act as “Health and Wellness Ambassadors” and disseminate various key information by organising culturally sensitive activity-based sessions for one hour per week for 24 weeks a year to promote joyful learning.
  • Two teachers, preferably one male and one female, in every school, are to be designated as HWAs
  • Role of students: Students act as Health and Wellness Messengers in society.
  • Every Tuesdayis dedicated to Health and Wellness Day in the schools
  • Implementation: middle, secondary, and senior secondary grades across government and government-aided schools
  • Syllabus: NCERT+ Ministry of Health+ Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD)
  • Curriculum: It covers 11 core themes including managing emotional and mental health, navigating interpersonal relationships, and promoting the safe use of the internet and social media.


Other similar programmes are the Fit India movement, Eat Right campaign, Poshan Abhiyaan, Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Program and Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Programme.



 Source: IE


  • In the upcoming Budget, the Centre may increase the income support provided to farmers under the PM-KISAN scheme from Rs 6,000 to 8,000 rupees/year despite the budget’s primary focus on macroeconomic stability.
  • The proposal, in an effort to boost consumption and rural demand, would entail an annual additional cost of around Rs. 22,000 crores to the government.


Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN):

  • The number of beneficiaries has crossed 110 million from 31 million at the beginning of the scheme and financial assistance of more than Rs 2 trillion has been provided to needy farmers in over 3 years.
  • The scheme addressed the liquidity constraints of farmers for buying agricultural inputs, daily consumption, education, health and other incidental expenses, especially during the Covid pandemic.
  • A Niti Aayog member suggests converting the PM-KISAN program into a Universal Basic Income (UBI) program that covers other vulnerable groups, such as farm labourers, etc.



13th Amendment (13A) to Sri Lanka’s Constitution

Source: TH

Context: India has reiterated that full implementation of 13A is “critical” for achieving reconciliation with the minority Tamil community.


What is SL’s 13th Amendment?

The 13th amendment, originally certified on November 14, 1987, states that Tamil will be one of Sri Lanka’s official languages and that provincial councils, with substantial authority, will be established throughout the country.


Origin: It was brought after the Indo-Sri Lankan agreement of 1987 for the devolution of power to the Tamil community.

In the case of the US: The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for a crime.


NGT probe into cruise operating in Bhopal Ramsar wetland

Source: DTE

Context:  The National Green Tribunal has directed the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Board (MPPCB) to periodically monitor the activities of a cruise vessel polluting the Bhoj wetland in Bhopal, MP.


About the issue:

The State government allowed cruises of capacity 50 passengers (2011) and plans to launch higher-capacity cruises in 2023. However, cruise vessels have been known to cause pollution in the lake and are in clear violation of EPA, 1986, and the state government’s own notification of 2022 (“only non-motorized boats are permitted”)


About Bhoj Wetland:

The wetland (man-made) is also a Ramsar site with international importance and has two lakes, Upper Lake, also called Bhojtal and Lower Lake or Chhota Talaab.

  • It provides drinking water to over 1 million people


About CPCB:

The Central Pollution Control Board of India is a statutory organization under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. It was established in 1974 under the Water Act, 1974. The CPCB is also entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air Act, 1981


About NGT:

The National Green Tribunal (under the Ministry of Law and Justice) is a statutory body made in the year 2010 to deal with environmental cases and the speedy implementation of decisions relating to them.


Related News:

Experts slam move to dewater Haiderpur wetland

Source: HT

Context: The Uttar Pradesh irrigation department drained out Haiderpur wetland, a protected Ramsar site that some believe to be the best upland in North India, forcing tens of thousands of migratory birds to leave the most prominent bird site in western Uttar Pradesh.


Reason for draining water out: This was done under pressure from farmers who complained of water logging in their fields due to high groundwater levels.


About Haiderpur Wetland

Haiderpur Wetland is spread over an area of about 7000 hectares on the Muzaffarnagar-Bijnor border between the Ganges and the Solani River. It is a part of Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary.



Exercise Cyclone-I

Source: PIB

Context: The first-ever joint exercise between the special forces of the Indian Army and the Egyptian Army named “Exercise Cyclone-I” is in progress at Jaisalmer in Rajasthan since 14 January 2023.


In 2019, India held its first-ever joint exercise with African countries, Africa-India Field Training Exercise-2019 (AFINDEX-19), which saw participation by 17 African countries


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