GS Paper 1
Syllabus: Population and Associated Issues
Direction: The article highlights how fast the world’s population is ageing with a SWOT analysis and way ahead, which may be applied to the Indian context as well.
Context: The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) published the World Social Report 2023, with the theme “Leaving No One Behind in an Aging World“.
- Rooted in the UN Charter and guided by the transformative 2030 SDGs, the UN DESA (New York City, 1948) upholds the development pillar of the UN.
- UN DESA helps countries make informed decisions by providing information through publications and databases and international deliberations at the UN General Assembly, ECOSOC, etc.
- The World Social Report (since 1997 and previously Report on the World Social Situation) has served as a background document for policy analysis of socio-economic trends.
- Since 2001, the periodicity of the report has been changed from a four-year cycle to a two-year cycle (biennial).
- In 2022, the world marked the twentieth anniversary of the adoption of the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing.
- To commemorate this landmark, the 2023 Report explores the economic and social implications of the ageing of the human population.
Highlights of the 2023 Report:
- Population ageing is a defining global trend of the time, which has begun or is expected to begin soon in all countries and areas.
- People are living longer (an inevitable result of the demographic transition), and more are older than ever before.
- Spectacular improvements in health and survival and reductions in fertility have driven this momentous shift.
- This change brings both challenges and opportunities as countries strive to achieve the SDGs.
|Population ageing signals the extraordinary collective success of the world in improving living
conditions for billions of people.
|● Decrease in the share of working-age people in the total population.
● Dependency, vast inequalities, diverse needs, the COVID-19 crisis, the war in Ukraine, and Climate change.
|Demand for long-term care is soaring in many countries
|Impose significant social, economic, fiscal, and health-related costs on present and future generations.
Two policy actions suggested by the report:
- To promote labour market participation and increased productivity, uphold good health and prevent poverty.
- To reduce inequality and promote economic security at older ages in a fiscally sustainable manner, taking into account both pensions and health care.
Conclusion: The national policies aimed at creating equitable, inclusive societies for people of all ages, and prioritising the rights and well-being of older people are the need of the hour.
Q. Critically examine the effects of globalisation on the aged population in India. (UPSC 2013)