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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

  1. Archeological Survey Discovers two 1200-Year-Old Miniature Stupas At Nalanda
  2. Green steel


GS Paper 2:

  1. Case in Supreme Court: Can an underage Muslim girl marry after attaining puberty?
  2. Centre vs Delhi Govt on control over services: timeline of a dispute


GS Paper 3:

  1. Disaster risk reduction: CEA releases disaster management plan for power sector


GS Paper 4:

  1. Corruption in Public Life


Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay/ Governance)

  1. Kollam
  2. REWARD Project
  3. Vidisha becomes the first-ever district in India for the on-ground deployment of innovative 5G use cases offered by startups


Facts for Prelims

  1. India’s First Centre of Excellence in Online Gaming to be set up in Shillong
  2. MAARG portal
  3. Credit Default Swaps (CDS)
  4. Basmati Rice
  5. Hemo-halt bandage


Archeological Survey Discovers 2 1200-Year-Old Miniature Stupas At Nalanda

GS Paper 1

Syllabus: Architecture

Source: TOI


Context:  Archeological Survey of India (ASI) has discovered two 1200-year-old miniature votive stupas during landscaping activities near Sarai Tila mound on the premises of ‘Nalanda Mahavihara’, a world heritage site in Nalanda district.

  • The stupas, carved from stone, depict Buddha figures.


What are stupas?

A Stupa is a hemispherical structure which symbolizes the burial mound of Buddha. It rose to prominence after the advent of Buddhism and peaked during Ashoka’s reign. Stupas evolved as Chorten in Tibet and pagodas in East Asia.


What is a votive stupa?

The form of the stupa, with its distinctive domelike drum, originates in eight cylindrical structures in which the Buddha’s relics were placed after his death.

  • Votive stupas were offered in fulfilment of a vow. Beginning in the 7th century CE in India, small miniature terracotta stupas became popular as votive offerings.



Importance of stupas

  • Religious importance –
    • Relic repository: In the beginning stupas were built to venerate and safeguard relics and remains of Buddha.
    • Sacred place: Along with monasteries (viharas) later, stupas were included in chaityas, which is a prayer halls.
    • Circumambulation path: an important Buddhist ritual around the path surrounding it.
    • The object of veneration– it is believed that relics of buddhas body were buried within the stupas
  • Philosophical
    • Meditation: It is an important place for meditation.
    • Commemorative: In the Tibetan tradition, stupas were built to celebrate the life events of the Buddha.
  • Symbolic: The stupas encapsulate the teachings and ideology of Buddha
    • g. Dhamek stupa at Sarnath marks the spot where the Buddha gave his first sermon after attaining enlightenment, revealing his Eightfold Path leading to nirvana.
  • Historical: Provide information about the various dynasties who ruled India. Eg :
    • Mauryas : Bairat stupa , Sanchi stupa , Bharhut stupa etc
    • Sathavahanas : Amaravati stupa etc
  • Architectural –
    • Oldest stone structures: The stupas at Sanchi and Bharhut are one of the oldest stone structures in India.
    • Inclusion of text in narrative panels – at Bharhut (Queen Maya’s dream)
    • Use of marble – at Amravati stupa
    • Taxila excavations reveal stupas with Boddhisatva images, Gandhara influence and patronage of Kanishka

About Nalanda university:

Nalanda University (427 CE to 1197 CE)  stands out as the most ancient university of the Indian Subcontinent. It engaged in the organized transmission of knowledge over an uninterrupted period of 800 years. It was the leading centre for the teaching of Mahayana Buddhism but other topics were also taught there. It was destroyed in 12th CE by Bakhtiyar Khilji.


Mains Links:

Q. Shed light on the importance of Stupas, detailing their architectural features. (10M)

Q. Stupa is regarded as a monument for veneration. It is associated with votive and commemorative purposes. Trace the development of Stupa architecture during ancient India. (10M)


Prelims links:

Which one of the following statements is correct? (UPSC 2021)

(a)    Ajanta Caves lie in the gorge of Waghora river.

(b)    Sanchi Stupa lies in the gorge of Chambal river.

(c)    Pandu-lena Cave shrines lie in the gorge of Narmada river.

(d)    Amaravati Stupa lies in the gorge of Godavari river.

Answer: (a)


Green steel

GS Paper 1

Syllabus: Geography/ Environment/ Science and Steel


Source: DTE

Context: Intergovernmental organisation International Energy Agency has released a document saying that most net-zero emission (NZE) routes for steel and cement production are not yet commercially available including for ‘green steel’


What is Green Steel?

Green Steel is the manufacturing of steel using renewable or low-carbon energy sources such as hydrogen, coal gasification, or electricity instead of the traditional carbon-intensive manufacturing route of coal-fired plants.


Steel-making process:

What does the document of IEA say?

  • Key technologies such as carbon capture, utilisation and storage for cement and steel industries and hydrogen-based steel manufacturing are still in prototype and demonstration stages.
  • Experience shows that the innovation process usually takes 20 to 70 years from prototype to commercialization
  • Solar and wind energy units require more steel, aluminium and in some cases, cement per unit of capacity than fossil fuel-based generating technologies.
  • Energy resources being concentrated in one geographical area pose a threat to the world’s energy security
  • Currently, China is the dominant producer of solar panels, wind, Electric Vehicle (EV) batteries, electrolysers and heat pumps.
  • Lithium, a key metal for producing electronic vehicles, is mostly concentrated in Australia, Chile and China. Meanwhile, 70 per cent of the world’s cobalt is produced in the Republic of Congo.


Government programmes for green steel:

  • National Hydrogen Energy Mission (NHM) capitalizes on hydrogen for a cleaner alternative fuel option
  • Petroleum and Natural Gas Ministry launched Pradhan Mantri Urja Ganga Projectin Eastern India in 2019 to provide gas to all steel plants located in the area

About IEA:

  • The International Energy Agency is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organisation, established in 1974, that provides policy recommendations, analysis and data on the entire global energy.
  • India became an Associate Member (not a full member) of the IEA in 2017. The IEA has released the India Energy Outlook 2021 Report



Mains Links:

  1. Discuss the distribution and changing patterns of the Iron and steel industry in India. (250 Words)
  2. Even after local coal-iron resources are depleted, the steel and heavy engineering industries do not frequently shift their location, why? Analyse.(250 words)


Prelims Links

Which of the following are some important pollutants released by the steel industry in India? ( UPSC 2014)

  1. Oxides of sulphur
  2. Oxides of nitrogen
  3. Carbon monoxide
  4. Carbon dioxide

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1, 3 and 4 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: D

Case in Supreme Court: Can an underage Muslim girl marry after attaining puberty?

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection of vulnerable sections


Source: TH

 Direction: The article discusses the issue of the age of marriage in India and the challenges as the legal age of marriage is not uniform across communities.


Context: The SC agreed to examine whether girls as young as 15 years old can enter into marriage on the basis of custom or personal law although such marriages are illegal under statutory law.



  • Last year, Punjab and Haryana HC declared in a Habeas Corpus petition that a Muslim girl is free to marry whoever she wants after reaching puberty if she is under the age of 18.
  • The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) had moved the SC against the HC ruling, arguing that the HC’s ruling essentially allowed a child marriage violating the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006, which is secular legislation.
  • While agreeing to hear an appeal on the case, a bench headed by the Chief Justice of India said that the HC’s decision should not be relied on as a precedent in any other case.
  • The SC’s intervention opens up the issue of regulating the minimum age of marriage for women and the impact it has on personal law.


How is the age for marriage determined in India?

  • Personal laws that govern marriage for communities prescribe certain criteria for marriage, including age.
  • For example, The Hindu Marriage Act, of 1955, sets a minimum age of 18 for the bride and 21 for the groom (same for Christians under the Indian Christian Marriage Act, 1872 and the Special Marriage Act).
  • For Muslims, the criterion is attaining puberty, which is assumed when the bride or groom turns 15.
  • This means that the legal age of marriage is not uniform across communities.


Laws for the prohibition of child marriage:

  • The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006: Any marriage below the prescribed age is illegal and the perpetrators of forced child marriage can be punished.
    • But the law does not have any provision that says the law would override any other laws on the issue.
    • Also, child marriages are illegal but not void and they are voidable at the option of the minor party.
  • The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012: The law does not recognise consent for sexual activity by minors (less than 18).


Can personal laws be overridden?

  • The SC ruled in ‘Shayara Bano v Union of India’ (2017) that the practice of instant triple talaq is unconstitutional, despite the fact that it is permitted under Muslim law.
  • The Karnataka HC (2013) ruled that no Indian citizen on the ground of his belonging to a particular religion can claim immunity from the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act.


The Prohibition of Child Marriage (Amendment) Bill, 2021:

  • It was introduced by the Union Minister for Women and Child Development to increase the age of marriage for women, and ensure harmony in the age limit across religions.
  • During the Parliamentary debate, however, the Bill was criticised as unconstitutional since it breaches Article 25 of the Constitution, which provides freedom of conscience as well as free profession, practice, and propagation of religion.



  • Poverty, and lack of access to quality health and education are larger issues that must be addressed in order to address issues such as child marriage.
  • As penal laws do not result in societal change, it will be the government’s duty to make the shift acceptable as a social norm.


Insta Links:

The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) drafted guidelines for assessing minors


Mains Links:

Q. What are the continued challenges for women in India against time and space? (UPSC 2019)

Centre vs Delhi Govt on control over services: timeline of a dispute

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Functions and Responsibilities of the Union and the States, Issues and Challenges Pertaining to the Federal Structure, Devolution of Powers


Source: IE

 Direction: The article highlights the protracted legal battle between the Centre and the Delhi government and SC’s verdicts on this dispute.


Context: A five-judge Constitution Bench of the SC is hearing the dispute between the Centre and the Delhi government over matters pertaining to control over the transfers and the overall functioning of administrative services in the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi.

Article 239AA:
  • Article 239 AA was inserted in the Constitution by the 69th Amendment Act, 1991, and conferred Special Status upon Delhi following the recommendations of the S Balakrishnan Committee (set up in 1987 to look into Delhi’s demands for statehood).
  • According to this provision, the NCT of Delhi will have an Administrator and a Legislative Assembly.
  • The Legislative Assembly shall have the power to make laws for the whole or any part of the NCT with respect to any matters in the State List or Concurrent List except on the subjects of police, public order, and land.

 Timeline of the dispute 

The 2017 Delhi HC verdict:

  • For administration purposes of the NCT, the Lieutenant Governor (LG) is not bound by the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers in every matter.
  • On appeal, the SC referred the matter to decide the interpretation of Article 239AA of the Constitution.


The 2018 SC verdict:

  • A five-judge Bench laid down broad parameters for the governance of Delhi.
  • The court limited the LG’s jurisdiction to matters involving land, police, and public order, stating that for all other matters, he must act with the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers.


The SC’s 2019 split verdict:

  • The verdict was essentially delivered to decide the contentious issues based on the law settled by the five-judge Constitution Bench in 2018.
  • A two-judge Bench settled several issues relating to the powers of the LG, however, on the issue of control over services, the two judges ruled differently.
  • In the case of a split verdict, the case is heard afresh by a larger Bench assigned by the CJI.


The SC’s 3-judge Bench and the Centre’s argument to refer it to a larger Bench:

  • The Centre argued that because Delhi is the national capital and the “face of the nation,” it needed the authority to order transfers and postings of personnel there.
  • The court agreed that the scope of the legislative and executive powers of the Centre and NCT of Delhi would need an authoritative pronouncement under Article 145(3) of the Constitution.
    • Article 145(3): The minimum number of Judges who must sit to decide any case involving a substantial question of law concerning the interpretation of the Constitution shall be five.
  • The court noted that the primary contention is related to the interpretation of Article 239 AA(3)(a) of the Constitution, which deals with special provisions for the NCT of Delhi.
  • Hence a three-judge Bench had referred this case (last year) to a larger Bench on the Centre’s plea for “further examination”.


Insta Links:

Centre-Delhi row heads to Constitution Bench


Mains Links:

Q. Whether the Supreme Court Judgement (July 2018) can settle the political tussle between the Lt. Governor and the elected government of Delhi? Examine. (UPSC 2018)


Prelims Links: (UPSC 2020)

In the context of India, which one of the following is the characteristic appropriate for bureaucracy?

  1. An agency for widening the scope of parliamentary democracy
  2. An agency for strengthening the structure of federalism
  3. An agency for facilitating political stability and economic growth
  4. An agency for the implementation of public policy


Ans: 4

Disaster risk reduction: CEA releases disaster management plan for power sector

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Disaster and Disaster Management


Source: BL


Direction: The article highlights the approach for disaster mitigation, preparedness, emergency response and recovery efforts in the power sector.


Context: The Central Electricity Authority (CEA) has released the disaster management plan (DMP) for the power sector in a bid to evolve a proactive and integrated approach to strengthen disaster mitigation, preparedness, emergency response and recovery efforts.



  • The Power Sector is one of the most important infrastructures of the country, as the growth of this sector is directly correlated with the economic growth of the country.
  • Any disruption in the power sector due to disaster creates a hardship for human beings, as every aspect of human life is directly or indirectly associated with electricity.
  • The DMP comes as the Government is investigating instances of land subsidence in the Uk’s Joshimath, the gateway to pilgrimage sites, such as Badrinath and Hemkund Sahib.
  • The DMP is also in conformity with the 10-point agenda articulated by the PM at the Asian Ministerial Conference on disaster risk reduction in 2016. It includes –
    • Investing in risk mapping globally.
    • Creating a network of universities working on disaster-related issues.
    • Leveraging social media and mobile technologies for disaster risk reduction (DRR).
    • Building local capacities for disaster management, reduction and relief, etc.


Highlights of the DMP:

  • It provides a framework and direction to the utilities in the power sector for all phases of the disaster management cycle.
  • It is intended to guide all agencies within the sector with a general concept of potential emergencies and roles and assignments before, during, and following emergency situations.
  • To estimate threats to power infrastructure, it is pertinent that fragility and vulnerability analysis is carried out for civil structures like buildings and foundations in transmission and distribution facilities.


Objectives of the DMP:

  • To find out the quantitative risk involved in power networks.
  • To devise effective strategies for prevention, mitigation, response, and recovery.


Significance of DMP:

  • Accurately assessing climate risks is difficult, hence, electric utilities can manage risks by considering different climate scenarios and potential impacts on their assets.
  • This will ensure a reliable power supply and quick restoration even in times of extreme weather events and natural disasters.
  • This will be helpful for policy and decision-makers to evaluate strategies and measures for critical infrastructure planning and protection.


Way ahead suggested in the DMP:

  • Social media has become an important tool for disaster management since it may be used for rescue, rehabilitation, and relief.
  • Hence, the use of social media on an organisational level can be conceived in two broad categories –
  1. Passively, disseminate information and receive user feedback via incoming messages.
  2. Proactively, as an emergency management tool, for –
    1. Conducting emergency communications and issuing warnings;
    2. Monitoring user activities and posts to establish situational awareness;
    3. Using uploaded images to create damage estimates, etc.


Insta Links:

2 rallies, 2 stampedes: Surging crowds, charges of police laxity


Mains Links:

Q. Vulnerability is an essential element for defining disaster impacts and their threat to people. How and in what ways can vulnerability to disasters be characterised? Discuss different types of vulnerability with reference to disasters. (UPSC 2019)

Corruption in Public Life

GS Paper 4

Syllabus: Challenges of Corruption

Source: Indian Express

Context: The CBI has registered an FIR against former finance secretary Arvind Mayaram for alleged cheating, criminal conspiracy, and corruption.

  • Previously, Jharkhand IAS officer Pooja Singhal was suspended for misappropriation of funds in MGNREGA

What is the case agains Mayaram?

He is accused of extending undue favours to the UK-based company De La Rue by giving a three-year extension to its “expired contract” for the supply of exclusive colour shift security thread for Indian currency notes when he was finance secretary.



What is Corruption?

Corruption refers to unethical behaviour, which is characterized by misuse of public or organizational power, causing harm not only to organizations but also to society.

  • The word corrupt is from the Latin word ‘corruptus’ meaning to break or destroy
  • Corruption is an important manifestation of the failure of ethics
  • Corruption misuse of entrusted power for private gain




The Wheel of corruption:

In India, corruption, and abuse of office are aggravated by the following factors:

  • The colonial legacy of unchallenged authority, the propensity to exercise power arbitrarily – easy to deviate from ethical conduct
  • Enormous asymmetry of power – eco, social inequalities, caste legacy, 90% workforce in unorganized sector
  • Policies after independence– e.g. State subsidies, and beneficiary-oriented programmes in the situation of asymmetry of power converted public servants into patrons, citizens into mendicant
  • Over-centralization increases corruption – a large number of functionaries b/w citizens and decision-makers diffuses accountability
  • Quality of politics – criminal-politician nexus
  • Politicians secure votes through money, and muscle power & criminals enter politics to interfere in crime investigation, monetary gain creates “acceptance” for criminals to enter politics



Impact of Corruption:


Two approaches to deal with corruption and abuse of office

  • Overemphasis on values, and character – assume values must be restored to fight Corruption
  • Have the belief that most humans are fundamentally decent but a small proportion cannot reconcile individual goals with the goals of society. For such persons, we must deal with them firmly
  • The creation of institutions and the designing of incentives are crucial for promoting the ethical conduct of civil servants
  • Need systemic reform Holistic approach
  • Punitive measures as a deterrent
  • Preventive measures to reduce opportunities



Related News:

UK-based company De La Rue kickbacks to Indian bureaucrats were revealed through Panama Paper leaks (2016). Hence it becomes important to know the different paper leaks




About Printing of Currency notes

Bank notes are printed at four currency presses, two of which are owned by the Government of India through its Corporation, Security Printing and Minting Corporation of India Ltd. (SPMCIL) and two are owned by the Reserve Bank, through its wholly owned subsidiary, Bharatiya Reserve Bank Note Mudran Private Ltd


Insta Links

A step towards fighting corruption


Mains Links

Q. Fighting corruption is often seen as a crucial step towards building better public institutions and improving the quality-of-service delivery. Comment. (10M)


Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay/ Governance/Water)


Source: TH

Context: Kollam is India’s first Constitution-literate district.


2,200 trainees: As part of the ambitious campaign, around 16.3 lakh people in the district above the age of 10 have been educated on various aspects of the Constitution and the strenuous process involved 2,200 trainers called ‘senators’.

  • During the seven-month campaign, the senators visited schools, offices, auto stands and tribal councils to spread awareness.
  • As part of the campaign, the Preamble of the Constitution has been distributed in all households and installed at government, quasi-government and private institutions and schools
  • Kollam will be officially declared India’s first Constitution literate district by Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan


REWARD Project

Context: Impressed with Karnataka’s performance in the implementation of the Rejuvenating Watershed for Agricultural Resilience through Innovative Development (REWARD) scheme, the World Bank has decided to get agricultural officers from Sub-Saharan countries to visit the State to learn from its experience.

  • Karnataka has been identified as a “lighthouse partner” by the World Bank in developing the science-based watershed model.
  • It is the first State to develop a Land Resource Inventory portal ( the portal will contain the details on the appropriate measures to be taken for different types of land with respect to agriculture, groundwater, crop, and soil health) that has details of 14 lakh hectares of land coming under the project


What is Watershed Management?

The conservation of water and improvement of water quality and conservation of the soil is called watershed management.


What is the REWARD Project?

The project aims to help national and state institutions adopt improved watershed management practices to help increase farmers’ resilience to climate change, and promote higher productivity and better incomes.

  • REWARD is being implemented in three to four Indian States for 6 years for:
    • prevention of soil run-off, regeneration of natural vegetation, rainwater harvesting, and recharging of the groundwater table
    • Enabling multi-cropping and the introduction of diverse agro-based activities


Vidisha becomes the first-ever district in India for the on-ground deployment of innovative 5G use cases offered by startups

Source: PIB

Context: Vidisha, an aspirational district of Madhya Pradesh became the first-ever district in India for the on-ground deployment of innovative 5G use cases offered by startups – a joint initiative by Vidisha District Administration and Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT), Department of Telecommunications (DoT) under the guidance of Additional Secretary (Telecom) & Administrator USOF.


5G use case promotional pilot:  the following 5G/IoT use cases were demonstrated by startups in collaboration with C-DOT:

  • Superceuticals– 5G/4G Enabled smart health kiosk for measuring vitals & performing tests almost instantaneously with
  • Ambupod: 5G/4G Enabled Auto Ambulance with basic life safety support & measurement of vitals with remote doctor support.
  • LogyAI: Cataract Eye Screening application using the smartphone for quick & effective screening of cataract disease
  • Easiofy:  AR/VR-3D visualization application for Lung & Brain scans (CT/XRAY etc.) for effective diagnosis.
  • TechXR: AR/VR- 3D immersive experience kit for students for enhanced learning & teaching tool for innovative teaching methods.
  • BKC Aggregators: Fasal Salah App- personalized crop advisory for farmers to take informed decisions and connect with Mandis/Traders, state subsidies/insurance for crops
  • Dvara- Surabhi: Unique Biometric muzzle identity of cattle to be used by the state department and insurance companies, and predicting health status of cattle to be used by dairy farmers
  • C-DOT (R&D Arm of DoT): One-stop platform integrating all the health suits enabling Tele consultation and e-learning solution suits.



Facts for Prelims

India’s First Centre of Excellence in Online Gaming to be set up in Shillong

Source: PIB

Context: Digital India Startup Hub through the Software Technology Parks of India shall set up India’s first Centre of Excellence in Online Gaming at Shillong


The Centre of Excellence in Shillong is expected to catalyse startups and entrepreneurs from the entire North East Region to build the Next Gen Online Gaming Ecosystem


The Minister announced another initiative of MeitY to set up a state-of-the-art facility under the National Institute of Electronics and IT (NIELIT) to provide training on cutting-edge Digital Skills at Shillong. A 10-acre campus shall soon be ready for this purpose which shall cater to the skilling requirement of youth in the North East Region.


MAARG portal

Source: ET

Context: Commerce and industry minister will launch the MAARG platform (Mentorship, Advisory, Assistance, Resilience, and Growth) to facilitate mentorship between startups and entrepreneurs across sectors, stages, and functions.

  • The government will also recognize the startups through the ‘National Startup Awards’, the previous version of 2020 and 2021 had recognized 367 startups as winners and finalists.


Credit Default Swaps (CDS)

Source: Financial Express


Context: Securities and exchange board of India has allowed alternative investment funds) to participate in credit default swaps (CDS) as protection for both buyers and sellers.

  • Under the new norm, Category-I and Category-II AIFs can buy CDS on underlying investment in debt securities only for the purpose of hedging, while Category-III AIFs can purchase CDS for hedging or otherwise, within permissible leverage



Basmati Rice

Source: Business-standards

Context: For the first time in the country, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has specified identity standards for basmati rice (including brown basmati, milled basmati, parboiled brown basmati, and milled parboiled basmati)

Food Safety and Standards (Food Products Standards and Food Additives) First Amendment Regulations, 2023 are aimed at establishing fair practices in the trade of basmati rice and protecting consumer interest, both domestically and globally.

  • These standards will be enforced from August 1
  • Previously, there was an issue with the export standards of Basmati Rice from India leading to many EU countries putting restrictions on Indian Basmati Exports.


Hemo-halt bandage

Source: DST

Context: A newly developed bandage (by MACS-Agharkar Research Institute, an autonomous institute under DST) containing chitosan (a natural polymer that halts bleeding) and agonist (a substance that improves clotting) nanoparticles can rapidly minimize blood loss from wounds.


Chitosan can control bleeding due to its cationic nature and hydrogel-forming ability leads to the concentration of erythrocytes and platelets in the injury site.



The issue with blood loss?

Worldwide, uncontrolled haemorrhage is the leading cause of traumatic death during accidents or injuries among the military and civilian populations. Severe bleeding triggers trauma due to shock, hypothermia, coagulopathy, tissue damage, and organ failure that often causes mortality.

  • The Hemo-halt bandage can reduce blood loss before treatment, save lives, and reduce disabilities on the battlefield. It can also contribute to the reduction in hospitalization costs.

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