Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 4 January 2023

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Critically analyse the importance of Sangam literature as source of understanding history and cultural attributes of ancient south India. (250 words).

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference:  Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the historical importance of Sangam literature.

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about the three Tamil Sangams and the formation of state in Southern India.

Body:

In the first part, write about I detail bring out the various dimensions of the Sangam texts – Ideals, ritualism, mysticism and tale of valour and love.

Next, write about Sangam literature as historical texts, they give information about kings, dynasties, administration, taxes, trade and commerce, societal aspects etc. The classical epics also throw light on contemporary events as well as historical aspects. Show the refined and advanced nature of literature. Use various Sangam texts as examples to substantiate your points.

Write a few criticisms of Sangam literature as historical texts – lack of chronology, discontinuities etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by giving your opinion of Sangam texts as source of history.

Introduction

The Sangam Age constitutes an important chapter in the history of South India. According to Tamil legends, there existed three Sangams (Academy of Tamil poets) in ancient Tamil Nadu popularly called Muchchangam. These Sangams flourished under the royal patronage of the Pandyas.

Body

Background

  • The first Sangam, held at then Madurai, was attended by gods and legendary sages but no literary work of this Sangam was available.
  • The second Sangam was held at Kapadapuram but the all the literary works had perished except Tolkappiyam.
  • The third Sangam at Madurai was founded by Mudathirumaran. It was attended by a large number of poets who produced voluminous literature but only a few had survived.

Sangam Literature: Literary masterpiece

  • The corpus of Sangam literature includes Tolkappiyam, Ettutogai, Pattuppattu, Pathinenkilkanakku, and the two epics- Silappathigaram and Manimegalai.
  • It is a work on Tamil grammar but it provides information on the political and socio- economic conditions of the Sangam period.
  • Both Ettutogai and Pattuppattu were divided into two main groups – Aham (love) and Puram (valour).
  • Pathinenkilkanakku contains eighteen works mostly dealing with ethics and morals. The most important among them is Tirukkural authored by Thiruvalluvar.
  • Silappathigaram written by Elango Adigal and Manimegalai by Sittalai Sattanar also provides valuable information on the Sangam polity and society.

Sangam Literature: source of Ancient Indian history

  • Political history: The Tamil country was ruled by three dynasties namely the Chera, Chola and Pandyas during the Sangam Age. The political history of these dynasties can be traced from the literary references.
  • Position of women: There is a plenty of information in the Sangam literature to trace the position of women during the Sangam age. Women poets like Avvaiyar, Nachchellaiyar, and Kakkaipadiniyar flourished in this period and contributed to Tamil literature. The courage of women was also appreciated in many poems.
  • Sangam Society: Tolkappiyam refers to the five-fold division of lands – Kurinji (hilly tracks), Mullai (pastoral), Marudam (agricultural), Neydal (coastal) and Palai (desert).
    • Tolkappiyam also refers to four castes namely arasar, anthanar, vanigar and vellalar.
    • The ruling class was called arasar. Anthanars played a significant role in the Sangam polity and religion. Vanigars carried on trade and commerce. The vellalars were agriculturists.

Sangam Polity: Hereditary monarchy was the form of government during the Sangam period. Land revenue was the chief source of state’s income while custom duty was also imposed on foreign trade.

  • Trade: Both internal and foreign trade was well organized and briskly carried on in the Sangam Age. The Sangam literature, Greek and Roman accounts and the archaeological evidences provide detailed information on this subject.
    • Spinning and weaving of cotton and silk clothes attained a high quality.
    • The poems mention the cotton clothes as thin as a cloud of steam or a slough of a snake.
    • There was a great demand in the western world for the cotton clothes woven at Uraiyur.
  • Agriculture: Agriculture was the chief occupation. Rice was the common crop. Ragi, sugarcane, cotton, pepper, ginger, turmeric, cinnamon and a variety of fruits were the other crops.

However, there are dispute among the exact period of sangam age and its chronology. The most probable date of the Sangam literature has been fixed between the third century B.C. to third century A.D. on the basis of literary, archaeological and numismatic evidences.

Conclusion

The Sangam age Tamil literary works remain useful sources to reconstruct the history of the period providing major insights into the social and economic life of people, especially in the Southern India.

 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. Folk paintings served as a medium through which a community’s traditions, beliefs, and attitudes can be transmitted and passed from one generation to another. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian art and culture – Nitin Singhania.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance of folk paintings.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a brief about folk paintings in India with examples.

Body:

Mention the major elements of folk paintings in India. Elaborate how they are manifestation of cultural diversity as well as regional specializations. Substantiate with examples. Write about the importance of folk paintings.

Conclusion:

Summarize with respect to folk paintings of India.

Introduction

India is a religious and ethnically diverse country. Indian culture is characterized by distinct languages, and rich traditions among various ethnic and religious groups. Despite hosting a Hindu-majority it is difficult to attach a singular and unifying notion of identity to Indian culture. The folk and tribal arts of India express the cultural diversity of the nation and provide a window through which one can explore the rich heritage of Indian culture.

Body

Folk paintings: Medium to transmit community’s culture and beliefs

  • The purpose of folk-art is to serve as a medium through which a community’s traditions, beliefs, and attitudes can be transmitted and passed from one generation to another.
  • This is often achieved within families and community via practical demonstrations, conversation, and daily
    • Eg: Warli tribal art is representative of this attitude and mainly uses geometric structures such as circles, triangles, and squares to depict daily and social events of the Warli tribe.
    • Altogether, the paintings are reminiscent of prehistoric cave paintings in execution and depict human figures engaged in hunting, dancing, sowing, and harvesting.
    • The paintings are traditionally done in the homes of the Warlis and have served as a means of transmitting stories and traditions to a populace not acquainted with the written word.
  • Folk-art was developed to address the very real needs, and desires of a community. Once that need is removed, the relevant folk-art may gradually vanish within the annals of history thanks to decreased transmission and communication of its existence within the community.
  • The Indian folk-arts have also served as a medium of expression for the cultures of nomadic tribes and ethnic groups within the country. The relevant art forms express the transient and dynamic patterns of lifestyles said communities have experienced while traveling across India.
  • Over the course of Indian history, the various folk-art forms of the nation have been protected and survived under the umbrella of religious and ethnic traditions revolving around familial beliefs, and daily practices.

Conclusion

Indian folk-art abounds in expression of the country’s rich heritage. Indian art forms are diverse and exquisite in nature but also explicit in their use as a media of communicating ancient oral traditions. With 29 states and 7 union territories, each with their own distinct cultural and traditional identities, India boasts a collage of folk art forms that speak volumes about the country’s diverse cultural identity that is rooted in the daily lives of its people.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. The Earth is currently tilted 23.5° from its axial plane and this axial tilt results in many remarkable effects, including the seasons around the planet. Elaborate (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Down to Earth , Insights on India

Why the question:

As the Earth orbits the sun, it spins around an axis — picture a stick going through the Earth, from the North Pole to the South Pole. During the 24 hours that it takes for the Earth to rotate once around its axis, every point on its surface faces toward the Sun for part of the time and away from it for part of the time. This is what causes daily changes in sunlight and temperature.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about axial tilt of earth and its impact.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Define the concept of Earth’s axial tilt briefly.

Body:

First, write about the Earth’s axis of rotation is the line along which it spins around itself as it revolves around the Sun. The points on which the axis intersects the planet’s surface are the geographical north and south poles.

Next, mention the impact of axial tilt of earth – appropriate climate for Earth to support life, responsible for the formation of seasons, governs the warming strength of the sun’s energy etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Axial tilt, also called obliquity, refers to the angle a planet’s rotation axis makes with the plane of its orbit. The Earth is currently tilted 23.5° from this plane, resulting in many remarkable effects, including the seasons around the planet.

Body

Earth’s tilted axis causes the seasons. Throughout the year, different parts of Earth receive the Sun’s most direct rays. So, when the North Pole tilts toward the Sun, it’s summer in the Northern Hemisphere. And when the South Pole tilts toward the Sun, it’s winter in the Northern Hemisphere.

  • As the earth spins on its axis, producing night and day, it also moves about the sun in an elliptical (elongated circle) orbit that requires about 365 1/4 days to complete.
  • The earth’s spin axis is tilted with respect to its orbital plane. This is what causes the seasons.
  • When the earth’s axis points towards the sun, it is summer for that hemisphere.
  • When the earth’s axis points away, winter can be expected. Since the tilt of the axis is 23 1/2 degrees, the North Pole never points directly at the Sun, but on the summer solstice it points as close as it can, and on the winter solstice as far as it can.
  • Midway between these two times, in spring and autumn, the spin axis of the earth points 90 degrees away from the sun.
  • This means that on this date, day and night have about the same length: 12 hours each, more or less.

Conclusion

Other effects of Axial tilt include the Midnight Sun, Polar Ice, Milankovitch cycles etc. The axis tilt of the Earth also defines the “tropics”, the “tropic” being the low latitude where the Sun is directly overhead for any day of the year. The greater Earth’s axial tilt angle, the more extreme our seasons are, as each hemisphere receives more solar radiation during its summer, when the hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun, and less during winter, when it is tilted away.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. What is the doctrine of proportionality? Do you think demonetisation was purposeful and proportionate in unearthing fake currency and hoarded wealth and combating terror funding vis a vis the difficulties faced by the common people after its announcement? Critically comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The HinduIndian Express

Why the question:

The Supreme Court evaded pronouncing on the legality of the measure for six years. Now it has, as was widely expected, upheld the legality of demonetisation in a 4-to-1 decision.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the doctrine of proportionality and its application the case of demonetisation.

Directive word: 

Critically comment – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘comment’ is prefixed, we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining doctrine of proportionality.

Body:

First, Highlight key objectives of demonetization.

Next, mention of the purpose was proportional to action in caste of demonetisation – Discuss the rationale given that suggests that demonetization has been moderately successful in tackling black money – increasing tax base, formalization of economy etc

Next, mention of the purpose was not proportional to action in caste of demonetisation – Discuss why demonetization was an abject failure in tackling black money. Highlight reasons such as logistical difficulty in penalising all those who converted unaccounted money into legal tender, demonetisation worked as an unintended amnesty scheme, it was a self-inflicted shock– slowdown in GDP, loss of jobs, hit the informal sector etc

Conclusion:

Give a fair and balanced view on demonetization with respect to doctrine of proportionality.

Introduction

Proportionality means that the administrative action should not be more drastic than it ought to be for obtaining the desired result. This implies that canon should not be used to shoot a sparrow. Thus this doctrine tries to balance means with ends. Proportionality of the legitimate aims with the object sought to be achieved. There should be a rational nexus between the objects and the means adopted to achieve them.

In India the doctrine of proportionality was adopted by the Supreme Court of India in the case of Om Kumar v. Union of India.

Body

Demonetization background

Demonetization in modest terms is the withdrawal of a particular form of currency (Rs. 500 and Rs. 1000 currency notes in Indian context) from circulation. It is the action of stripping a currency unit of its status as legal tender. In this, the existing form or forms of money is drawn from circulation and retired, often to be replaced with new notes or coins.

The Government of India had withdrawn Rs. 500 and Rs. 1000 from circulation on November 2016. This move of the government was fundamentally to curtail the black money that is running a shadow economy. Apart from black money the purpose was also to counter terror funding, check counterfeit currencies in circulation etc.

Benefits of demonetization in unearthing fake currency and black money

  • Demonetisation had certain positive impact on the economy which reflected through increase in Assets under Management (AUM) of mutual fund industry.
  • As per RBI, 7 specific accounts, like Basic Saving Bank Deposit Accounts, PMJDY Accounts, KCC, dormant or inoperative accounts, co-operative banks’ accounts with scheduled commercial banks, bullion trader/jewellers’ accounts, and loan accounts, saw a steep rise in deposits. These deposits further helped banks’ capacity to lend to small businesses.
  • One of the principal achievements of demonetization was seen in the drastic curb of terrorist activities as it stopped the funding to terrorism that used to get a boost owing to the inflow of unaccounted cash and fake currency in large volume.
  • Demonetization connected with various Acts and Rules aided to some extent in curbing black practices. It has unveiled numerous unaccounted property in abroad, led to improved tax base by the collection of more taxes, led to undisclosed income detection by the IT department etc.
  • Demonetization has compelled the country towards a cashless society and promoted digitalization. Lakhs of the people even in remote rural areas have begun using cashless transactions. This move has promoted banking activities. Now even the minor transactions have begun going through banking channels and the small savings have turned into a huge national asset.
  • Measures like IDS and PMGKY imparted fear in the minds of unscrupulous businessmen that resulted in the declaration of Rs 70,250 crore undeclared income. This income was taxed at upwards of 45 per cent, increasing the government’s revenue.

Issues faced

  • Demonetization was intended to recover about 10 lakh crore of high value notes in circulation out of about 16 lakh crores. The pre-assumption of the government was that about 6 lakh crore rupees was under black money. But the concluding disclosure by the RBI in August 2018 stated that it has recovered31 lakh crore and only Rs. 16,000 crore was not returned to the RBI. This showed that much of the money in circulation or under black deposits was able to get into the banking system making them legal. And hence, in essence, demonetization had not encountered the government’s goal of wiping out black money from the Indian economy.
  • The move decreased the RBI’s profit as central bank spent Rs. 21,000 crore in the management of the mechanics of demonetisation, including printing of notes. This resulted into RBI paying lesser dividend to the central government.
  • The immediate withdrawal had made adverse effect on business and economy. Instead of increasing economy India has become a standstill and no growth economy.
  • India is an agriculture-based economy. Owing to the cash crunch, the farmers especially small and marginal who mostly depend on cash to buy seeds, fertilizers and to pay for sowing, borrowing water for irrigation and for other associated agriculture equipment remained worst affected and could not complete the crop related activity.
  • Since minor branches of the banks were also not provided with adequate cash within time of sowing season of the crop, farmers could not get their crop loans disbursed. This added to the distresses of the farmers leading to weak agriculture production the upcoming year.
  • Real Estate sector came to a standstill and is still winded for buyers of the constructed and half constructed inventory without buyers. This resulted in poor cash flow leading to a poor demand.
  • Demonetization made the situation chaotic. Tempers were running high amongst the masses as there was an interruption in the circulation of new currency.
  • Due to the incapability to pay cash to poor daily wage workers, the small employers had stopped their business activity.
  • Absence of Rs. 100 and Rs. 500 notes in circulation (less available) added more to the anguishes of the common people with low incomes as they were unable to get changes of Rs. 2000 in return.

 

Conclusion

In a nutshell, the demonetization related with other acts, rules and regulations was to some extent successful, however, the unplanned unexpected implementation had led to chaos in market for some time. The move has definitely benefitted the economy in terms of increased tax base, bringing many under tax net, disclosure of income etc. at the same time impacting slow growth of national income.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology;

5. Discuss the contributions of Satyendra Nath Bose to the field of physics and inspiring the advancement of spirit of scientific inquiry among Indians.  (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

January 1 was the birth anniversary of the physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974). Among other things, Bose is remembered for formulating the statistical rules that describe the behaviour of a certain class of subatomic particles, with help from Albert Einstein.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the contributions of S.N Bose.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of S.N Bose as a pioneering scientist of India.

Body:

First, write about the contributions of S.N Bose – mathematician and physicist specializing in theoretical physics. He is best known for his work on quantum mechanics in the early 1920s, in developing the foundation for Bose statistics and the theory of the Bose condensate.

Next, write about the contributions of S.N Bose in furthering the spirit of scientific inquiry among Indians.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Satyendra Nath Bose, an Indian mathematician and physicist, is renowned for his work in quantum mechanics. His area of research was the theory of relativity & is known for his work in Quantum Physics. Born on January 1, 1894, Bose collaborated with Einstein to develop what we now know as the Bose-Einstein statistics. This kind of particle in atom has been named after his name as Boson.

Body

Contributions of Satyendra Nath Bose

  • In 1921 at the University of Dhaka, Satyendranath Bose settled new Labourites and departments to teach postgraduate students and introduce advanced knowledge.
  • While teaching, Bose derived Max Planck’s Law and Light Quantum Hypothesis, which defined new ways of counting states and identical particles.
  • In the field of quantum statistics, this theory was considered the great theory in the physics sector.
  • Bose got rejected by many publishers and directly sent the research paper to Albert Einstein.
  • He recognised & studied the composition and translated it into German himself. Einstein published the article in the great Zeitschrift Fur Physik on behalf of Satyendranath Bose.
  • The hypothesis received a great and was highly appreciated by the scientists. It became famous to the scientists as ‘Bose-Einstein Theory’.
  • Bose got to work with Marie Curie, Einstein and Louis de Broglie for two years in European laboratories.
  • His collaboration with Albert Einstein in developing a theory regarding the gaslike qualities of electromagnetic radiation is world famous.
  • He also joined the laboratory of Maurice de Broglie where he learnt techniques of X-ray spectroscopy and crystallography, the branch of science that deals with the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids.
  • As the head of Department of Physics at Dhaka University in 1927, he completely devoted himself to teaching and guiding research.
  • He designed equipment for setting up an X-ray crystallography laboratory at the university, and wrote several papers on a range of subjects, such as ‘D2 Statistics’, and ‘Total Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves in the Ionosphere’.

Conclusion

Bose is known for his research paper on Albert Einstein. Bose has founded new types of statics without even knowing and got the chance to work globally. He worked with scientists like Marie Curie and Albert Einstein abroad for two years. He was awarded Padma Vibhushan as the second highest civilian in 1945 by the government of India.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

6. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“You are what you do, not what you say you’ll do.” ― Carl Gustav Jung

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about the difference between saying and doing. Mention that many times humans act contradictory to their words or do not act all. This is reflection of integrity and the character of the person. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the need to act as per out words.

Introduction

The world only cares for what we do and not what we say we will do. The words which we generally say are much lesser importance than the actions which we deliver. We must speak less and work more. This will not only help us achieve our goals in the minimum possible time but also give some much-needed energy to invest in our significant tasks. It is important to understand the fact that the energy which we have is actually limited, and therefore it becomes very necessary to waste it wisely.

Body

Our actions and not words define our reputation and integrity. Failing to do what we say and repetition of this behaviour over and over again is harmful to our character which others perceive us to be.  It erodes our credibility.  If we don’t do what we say we are going to do, our credibility decreases. After each one of our promises and failing to keep it reduces our integrity as well. Our words mean nothing after this.

It also builds distrust.  Trust is built on small actions, not on the dramatic moments meant for movies. Finally, it limits opportunity. When our team cannot count on the promises made, there will be less and less opportunities for us to prove ourselves.

If you’re known as someone who doesn’t meet promises and expectations, you will face consequences.  Strive to be someone of your word.  Especially when it’s a “small thing,” make sure you do it.  After all, if you fail at the “little stuff,” no one will trust you with the “big stuff.”

Conclusion

It is important to acknowledge the fact that our actions define us and not our choices. A winner always finds ways to turn the right ideas into good deeds. He or she will look for ways to give away to their dreams and transform them into reality. Consistently doing what you say you will do is the foundation of integrity.

 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all.” ― Aristotle

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2022 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about how there exist difference between educating the mind and the heart. If the mind provides knowledge, then from heart comes, empathy and compassion. The education of mind without inculcating values can be meaningless or even destructive. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

“To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society” aptly captures the idea behind the above quote by Mahatma Gandhi. Education promotes the metamorphosis of a child to become a full-fledged adult. Mere learning without promotion and development of values even discards the definition of education. Education of values and principles shapes and moulds a soul.

Body

Achieving academic excellence for all students is at the very core of any school’s purpose, and will inform much of what they do. Character education is not a new thing, extending as it does back to the work of Aristotle. Yet it could be argued that the pursuit of success in schools in more recent years has sought to put the cart before the horse. In driving students to think of success solely in terms of exam grades and university places, pressure is created that can often be counter intuitive to student well- being and academic progress.

It does not matter how educated or wealthy one is, if the inherent character or personality lacks morals. In fact, such personalities can be threat to a peaceful society. E.g.: Mussolini, Hitler are all examples of education devoid of morality leading mankind to their destruction.

In contemporary times it is equally relevant. For instance, An educated man taking dowry will be a death spell for gender equality and gender justice. The seven sins of Gandhiji will materialise when we are educated without morality like Science without humanity as is the case with nuclear weapons today. Thus, Education without values as useful as it seems makes a man, a clever devil.

Conclusion

Education without morals is like a ship without a compass, merely wandering nowhere. It is not enough to have the power of concentration, but we must have worthy objectives upon which to concentrate. It is not enough to know truth, but we must love truth and sacrifice for it.


Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE

Please subscribe to Our podcast channel HERE

Subscribe to our YouTube ChannelHERE

Follow our Twitter Account HERE

Follow our Instagram ID HERE  

Follow us on LinkedIn : HERE