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EDITORIAL ANALYSIS : Focus on Africa, the heart of the Global South


Source: The Hindu


  • Prelims: Current events of international importance, Global South, G20, Washington summit etc
  • Mains GS Paper II: Bilateral, regional and global grouping involving India and Affecting India’s interests etc



  • India, through the G20 presidency, intends to be remembered as the voice of the Global South at the heart of which is Africa.



Global South:

  • The Global South is a term often used to identify regions within Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Oceania.
  • It is one of a family of terms, including “Third World” and “Periphery“, that denote regions outside Europe and North America.
  • Economies not fully developed: Global South is used to describe countries whose economies are not yet fully developed and which face challenges such as low per capita income, excessive unemployment, and a lack of valuable capital.
  • Located in tropics: Although the majority of Global South countries are indeed located in the tropics or Southern Hemisphere, the term itself is strictly economic.
  • Australia is “down under” but not part of the Global South.


Washington summit:

  • The second S.-Africa summit was held in Washington.
  • The leaders of 49 countries and the chair of the African Union (AU) participated from Africa.

Important discussion of the Summit:

  • Political, security, and economic cooperation with Africa.
  • Ways to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 and future pandemics
  • Respond to the climate crisis
  • Promote food security and deepen diasporic ties


US declaration during the summit:

  • African voices, leadership and innovation are “all critical to addressing the most pressing global challenges” and realizing the vision of a free, open, prosperous and secure world.
  • The U.S. is “all in on Africa and all in with Africa.


Decisions taken during the summit:

  • Support for G20: The U.S announced its support for the AU to join the G20 as a permanent member.
  • Fully supports” reforming the UN Security Council (UNSC) to include permanent representation for Africa.
  • A promise for the president and the vice president to visit Africa next year.


Investments and Initiatives by the US in Africa:

  • Investments and initiatives: $21 billion to the IMF to provide access to necessary financing for low-and middle-income countries
  • $10 million for a pilot programme to boost the security capacity of its African partners.
  • The administration indicated that it planned to invest $55 billion in Africa over the next three years.


China in Africa:

  • It has emerged as the largest trading partner and the fourth largest investor in the African continent, ahead of the U.S
  • China-Africa trade exchanges stood at $254 billion.
    • S.-Africa trade stood at $44.9 billion.
  • China’s total investment in Africa of $4 billion in 2020.
    • The U.S. investment stock in Sub-Saharan Africa was $31 billion.
  • Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC):
    • established in October 2000.
    • The FOCAC is composed of ministers and leaders of Africa and China who meet once in three years, alternately in Beijing and an African capital.
    • Support under FOCAC:
      • One-China Principle
      • Global Development Initiative
      • Belt and Road Initiative
      • vision of “a community with a shared future.
      • China-Africa community



Way Forward

  • To truly represent the South: It is essential to grasp the mood and changes in Africa, especially in its external partnerships.
    • This will determine the contribution India can make to advance the African agenda.
    • The outcome of the S.-Africa Leaders’ Summit needs a critical examination.
  • FOCAC: S. and other nations can take a cue from the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC): established in October 2000.
    • The FOCAC is composed of ministers and leaders of Africa and China who meet once in three years, alternately in Beijing and an African capital.
  • India’s equity in Africa is older and richer than that of China and the U.S., but that should not be a source of uncritical satisfaction.
  • Political and economic partnership: India has striven hard to strengthen its political and economic partnership with Africa at the continental, regional and bilateral levels.
    • The government created a special momentum in arranging high-level exchanges and forging cooperation initiatives during the 2015-19 period.
  • The G20 presidency: It is India’s opportunity to ensure that the AU becomes a permanent member of this grouping and to firmly reflect Africa’s Agenda 2063 for development.
  • The fourth India-Africa Forum Summit should be held in early 2024, lest the third summit held in 2015 becomes a distant memory.



The USA is facing an existential threat in the form of China, that is much more challenging than the erstwhile Soviet Union.” Explain.(UPSC 2021) (200 WORDS, 10 MARKS)