Core reasons for it:
- Weak Vehicle Safety Standards in India: In 2014, crash tests carried out by the Global New Car Assessment Programme (NCAP) revealed that some of India’s top-selling car models have failed the UN’s frontal impact crash test.
- Many road accidents are the result of faulty road-design especially a single-lane one with a sharp curve.
- Infrastructural deficits: Pathetic conditions of roads and vehicles, poor visibility and poor road design and engineering – including quality of material and construction.
- Negligence and risks: Over speeding, driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, tiredness or riding without a helmet, driving without seatbelts.
- Distraction while driving like talking over mobile phones while driving has become a major cause of road accidents.
- Overloading to save cost of transportation.
- Lack of awareness among people regarding importance of safety features like airbags, Anti-lock Braking system etc. Moreover, Vehicle manufacturers do not provide them as standard fitment but only in higher class of vehicles reducing their reach.
- Implementation of Legislation: The Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act of 2019 has provisions that aim to bring about change.
- Behavioural Changes: Increasing motorcycle helmet use, increasing seat-belt uses and increasing child restraint use. Awareness regarding influence of alcohol on driving.
- Safe Roads: Safety consideration during the planning, design, and operation of roads, can contribute to reducing road traffic deaths and injuries.
- Vehicular Safety Standards: Vehicle safety features such as electronic stability control, effective Car Crash Standards and advanced braking should be made mandatory.
- Awareness and Publicity: Mass media and social media should be used effectively for spreading awareness about road safety.
- Training and capacity building: Training courses and training workshops have been organized for building capacity in road safety audits and road safety engineering.
Results of the amendments made to the Motor Vehicles Act:
- As the prime mover of these changes, he finds the reported reduction in crashes, notably in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Manipur, Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra, proof of the law’s beneficial impact.
- Establishing and maintaining a data management system that monitors and analyses road accidents will help identify accident hot spots and enable the authorities to pin point what needs to be done to make these patches safer.
- Although road safety data in India is collected by the police departments of all states, this information needs to be analysed, with targets and policies set accordingly.
- However, Any reduction in road safety incidents in a rapidly motorising country is encouraging, but the cold reality is that data on those who lose their lives or are incapacitated do not reflect a marked decline.
- The new Motor Vehicles law does have more muscle in being able to levy stringent penalties for road rule violations some States are using it but that is not the same as saying that India has moved to a scientific road system marked by good engineering, sound enforcement, appropriate technology use and respect for all road users.
Way Ahead measures need to be adopted:
- The transition to a professional road environment requires implementation of first-tier reforms that deal with quality of road infrastructure, facilities for vulnerable users and zero-tolerance enforcement of rules by a trained, professional and empowered machinery.
- A key mechanism of change are District Road Safety Committees, which were enabled even by the 1988 Act, but remain obscure.
- It is essential to make the Collector, local body and police accountable.
- Making dashboard cameras mandatory, with the video evidence accepted in investigation, would protect rule-abiding motorists and aid enforcement.
- To save lives on highways, quality trauma care at the district level holds the key.
- In the absence of good hospitals and cashless free treatment, no significant improvement is possible in the quest to save life and limb.
- Establishing a clear national goal and pursuing it in mission mode through an appropriately resourced lead agency is something India should focus on as a priority.
- The amended Motor Vehicle Act, in fact, makes a provision for exactly such an agency—the National Road Safety Board. States are being encouraged to create independent lead agencies as well.
- The human cost in this is enormous, and so is the impact on the economy.
- A World Bank study has found that if India were to successfully halve road deaths and injuries between 2014 and 2038, it could potentially add 14 percent to its GDP per capita.
- The National Road Safety Strategy, also envisages halving the number of road accident fatalities by 2025.