GS Paper 2
Syllabus: Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, and Human Resources.
Context: According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General, increasing frequency and intensity of climate-related extreme weather events continue to impact universal access to safe and sustainably managed water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH).
The GLAAS report, released by the WHO and UN-Water, provides the most up-to-date information on WASH systems in more than 120 countries, making it the biggest data collection ever.
Key highlights of the report:
- WASH and Health: Implementation of policies and plans on WASH in health care facilities and on hand hygiene is constrained by a critical lack of financial and human resources.
- Climate resilience of WASH systems: Most WASH policies/plans do not address climate-related risks to WASH services.
- Finance: Insufficient WASH funding was reported by 75% of countries.
- Leaving no one behind: Measures to reach vulnerable populations and settings with WASH services lack monitoring and financial resources.
- Human resources: Insufficient human resources are limiting WASH service delivery.
- Gender: Increased inclusion, financial support and monitoring are needed to ensure women are considered in WASH decisions and services.
- Data use: Data are not sufficiently used in decisions on planning or resource allocation for WASH.
- Regulation: Regulatory authorities often do not fully perform their functions.
Note: GLASS and GLAAS are two different reports.
The Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS) report of WHO.
Provides a standardized approach to the collection, analysis, interpretation and sharing of data by countries and seeks to actively support capacity building and monitor the status of existing and new national surveillance systems.
The Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water (GLAAS) is an UN-Water initiative implemented by WHO. The objective of GLAAS is to provide policy- and decision-makers at all levels with a reliable, easily accessible and comprehensive analysis of WASH systems to make informed decisions for sanitation, drinking water and hygiene.
Q. The provision of safe water and sanitation coupled with improvements in hygiene initiatives (WASH) can contribute significantly to ameliorating nutritional challenges and improving health outcomes. Explain.