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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

1. Parliamentary Panel on CBI

2. National Judicial Commission Bill introduced in Rajya Sabha

3. Weighing in on the efficacy of female leadership in government

4. What are the existing laws on religious conversions?


GS Paper 3:

1. World Bank’s new toolkit on Enabling Gender Responsive Urban Mobility

2. N. nature summit puts the industry on alert to disclose more


Content for Mains Enrichment

1. Geetanjali Shree

2. Sanjida Islam Choya (Bangladeshi Student)

3. Billie Eilish (US Singer and songwriter)

4. The link between ‘School dropout’ and ‘Period Poverty’


Facts for Prelims:

1. Sri Aurobindo’s Birth Anniversary

2. Pradhan Mantri Adi Adarsh Gram Yojana

3. What are the Factors of Production?

4. Sebi bars AIFs from raising capital from the non-compliant FIs


6. Japanese Firm’s Lunar Lander

7. National Policy on Rare Diseases

8. Stiff-Person Syndrome

9. Wren babblers

10. Mapping



Parliamentary Panel on CBI

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Statutory Bodies


Source: Business Line

 Context: The department-related Parliamentary Standing Committee on Personnel, Public Grievances, Law and Justice have highlighted that the CBI’s conviction of cases rate has come down while its pendency in courts has escalated

 Key points highlighted by the Panel:

  • Decreasing conviction rate: From 743 (2012), the numbers slipped to 169 in 2020 and 202 in 2021
  • Pendency: Probe was pending in 1,025 CBI cases as of January 31, 2022, with 66 languishing for more than five years and some cases being pending for over 20 years
  • Reducing the number of registered cases: From about 1,000-1,150 cases registered by the agency during 2012-17, the number dipped to 600-900 cases between 2017 and 2021.
  • Issues with recruitment: There is a huge manpower shortage and no provision for direct recruitment of candidates above the rank of sub-inspector in CBI.
  • Withdrawl of General Consent: Over 9 state governments have withdrawn their general consent to CBI


Recommendations by the Panel:

  • Case Management system: CBI should put a case management system in place to track the progress and pursue it to its logical conclusion.
    • This will not only expedite the disposal of cases but will also enhance transparency and promote accountability in the functioning of the agency
  • Direct recruitment: CBI should have a provision for direct recruitment for the posts of inspector or deputy superintendent of police.
    • Currently, the CBI’s sanctioned strength of 480 posts of sub-inspectors is filled through direct recruitment, promotions and departmental examinations in the ratio of 70:15:15.
  • Politics should not override the practical nature of crime: CBI deals with complex nature crimes involving various states and agencies. Therefore, before withdrawing consent, states should consider these practicalities so that seamless investigation is not hampered.



Other issues with CBI:

  • The politicisation of the CBI has been a work in progress for years.
  • Corruption and Politically biased:This was highlighted in Supreme Court criticism for being a caged parrot speaking in its master’s voice.
  • CBI has been accused of becoming a ‘handmaiden’ to the party in power, as a result, high-profile cases are not treated seriously.
  • Since CBI is run by central police officials on deputation hence chances of getting influenced by the government were visible in the hope of better future postings.


What other reforms are needed for CBI?

  • The Second Administrative Reforms Commission (2007)suggested that a new law should be enacted to govern the working of the CBI.
  • Parliamentary standing committee (2007) recommended that a separate act should be promulgated in tune with requirements with time to ensure credibility and impartiality.
    • The new Act must specify criminal culpability for government interference
  • Financial and administrative Autonomy: The government must ensure financial and administrative autonomy for the CBI similar to CAG.
  • CBI to develop its own dedicated cadre of officers who are not bothered about deputation and abrupt transfers.
  • A more efficient parliamentary oversightover the federal criminal and intelligence agencies to ensure better accountability, despite concerns regarding political misuse of the oversight



Prelims Link:

  1. About CBI, ED, SFO and its establishment.
  2. Provisions of the DSPE Act and other laws backing investigating agencies.


Mains Link:

Q. Discuss the need for an independent umbrella body to regulate various central investigating agencies in India. Suggest reforms in this regard. (15M)

World Bank’s new toolkit on Enabling Gender Responsive Urban Mobility

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.


Source: Indian Express

 Context: World Bank launched a “Toolkit on Enabling Gender Responsive Urban Mobility and Public Spaces in India” with the aim of suggesting ways to make public transport in Indian cities more inclusive of women’s travelling requirements.


  • Women are amongst the biggest users of public transport across Indian cities.
  • Lack of safety deters women from stepping out; creating a vicious cycle that lowers their presence in public spaces.
  • Women face barriers in using public transport owing to gender-blind design elements during access and egress, waiting at stops and transfers, boarding and alighting, and inside the vehicle.
  • Barriers to women’s mobility actively restrict their choices around education and employment.
  • Deep-rooted gender-based social norms actively restrict women’s movement outside their homes.
  • Women bear a disproportionate burden of unpaid care work in India necessitating public transport solutions for the mobility of care
  • Women’s ‘time poverty’ constrains time available for commuting.


The World Bank suggests a four-pillared approach to help address prevailing issues in urban transport for women.


Recommendations given in the new toolkit:

  • Integrating gender elements when developing comprehensive mobility plans at the city level.
  • Developing Gender Action Plans as an integral part of plans at the city level.
  • Incentive-based policies may be brought in by state governments to enable women’s workforce participation in the mobility sector
  • Establish a Gender Advisory Committee to monitor GAP implementation.
  • Strengthen grievance redressal cells to fast-track sexual harassment complaints by commuters and users of public spaces, ensuring representation of women and persons of minority genders.
  • Establish one-stop centres at public transport facilities.
  • Implementing agencies can consider digitizing ticketing systems and adopting a common mobility card through an integrated mobility system.


Insta Links:

Is Access to Transport Slowing Participation of Women in India’s Workforce? 

Mains Link:

Q. The Delhi government’s decision to make public transport free for women has opened a debate about the ways in which women access to transport and the barriers they face, in such a context analyze how reforms in public transport affect women. (250 words)

National Judicial Commission Bill introduced in Rajya Sabha

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Structure, Organization and Functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary


Source: IE

 Direction: The article highlights the recently introduced National Judicial Commission Bill, 2022, its criticism and its way ahead. The earlier article will help to understand the issue of NJAC and why it was declared unconstitutional.

 Context: A private member bill – the National Judicial Commission Bill, 2022, to regulate the appointment of judges through the National Judicial Commission was introduced in RS.


  • This comes amid an ongoing confrontation between the Union government and the SC over the government’s resentment towards the Collegium system as “opaque”.
  • Both have pointed fingers at each other for delaying judicial appointments.
  • The government has also started voicing its grievance against the invalidation of the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) by the court in 2015.


Key features of the Bill:

  • The bill provides for the establishment of the National Judicial Commission, to regulate –
    • the procedure for appointment of the CJI and other judges of the SC and Chief Justices and other judges of HCs.
    • transfer of HC judges
    • to lay down judicial standards
    • provide for accountability of judges.
  • To establish a credible and expedient mechanism for investigating individual complaints for misbehaviour or incapacity of a judge of the higher judiciary.
  • It also proposes the presentation of an address by Parliament to the President in relation to the proceeding for the removal of a judge.


Criticism of the move:

  • The concept of NJAC has come under the consideration of the SC 3 times – 1993, 1998 and 2015.
  • All 3 times, while giving importance to the independence of the judiciary, the SC dismissed the framework of the NJAC.
  • In its 2015 ruling, the SC declared the 99th Constitutional Amendment and NJAC unconstitutional, violating the basic structure of the constitution. However, the SC admitted that all is not well even with the collegium system.


Way ahead:

  • Both the judiciary and the government need to do some “out-of-the-box” thinking to deal with the “perennial” judicial vacancies in HCs.
  • Both institutions need to adhere to the timeline given in the 2nd Judges case and the Memorandum of Procedure (MoP).
  • Until consensus is built on a mechanism, the need is to improve the collegium system through conversation with the judiciary.


Private Member’s Bills:
  • An MP who is not a minister is a private member and the Bills introduced by such private members are referred to as Private Member’s Bills.
    • It requires notice of one month and can be introduced or discussed only on Fridays. Till now 14 such bills have been passed
  • The Bills introduced by ministers are called government Bills, which have the backing of the government and reflect its legislative agenda.
  • Whether Private Bill has to be admitted or not is decided by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha or the Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha.


Insta Links:

The impasse over the appointment of judges


Mains Links:

Q. Critically examine the Supreme Court’s judgement on ‘The National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014’ with reference to the appointment of judges of higher judiciary in India. (UPSC 2017)


Prelims Links:

Q1. Consider the following statements regarding the appointment of Supreme Court judges:

  1. The Chief Justice of India and the Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President of India.
  2. Whenever there is any doubt about the senior most Judge holding the office of the Chief Justice of India, the matter is decided by the Parliament.
  3. For appointing Judges of the Supreme Court, the recommendation of the collegium to the President is binding during the first instance.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a. 1 only

b. 1 and 3 only

c. 2 only

d. 1 and 2 only

Weighing in on the efficacy of female leadership in government

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Social Justice (Issues related to women)


Source: TH

 Direction: The article throws light on how female leadership in government helps in achieving good governance and gender equality and what is the scenario in India.

 Context: The important takeaway from recent experience and studies is the necessity of overcoming inherent biases and perceptions about female effectiveness in leadership roles.



  • Germany, Taiwan and New Zealand which had women heading their governments, seem to have managed the pandemic much better than their neighbours.
  • The States in the US which have female governors had fewer COVID-19-related deaths because female governors acted more decisively by issuing earlier stay-at-home orders.
  • The above concludes that women leaders are more effective than their male counterparts in times of crisis


Case of India:

  • Women were allowed to vote from 1950 onwards, which is in striking contrast to the experience in the so-called “mature democracies” of the west. For example, women were allowed to vote in the US in 1920, after years of protest.
  • Some charismatic female leaders were/are Indira Gandhi, Jayalalitha, Mayawati, Sushma Swaraj, Mamata Banerjee, and Draupadi Murmu among several others. However, overall figures are depressing.


Reasons are:

  • Poor representation in legislatures: For instance, women constitute just over 14% of the total strength of the 17th Lok Sabha.
    • Best practice: Tiny Rwanda is on the top with a staggering 60% of seats, when it comes to women’s representation in its lower house.
  • The Women’s Reservation Bill is dead: The Bill, first presented to the Lok Sabha in 1996, provided quotas for women in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies.
    • Although the Rajya Sabha did pass the bill in 2010, the Lok Sabha and the State legislatures are yet to give their approval.


Importance of female leadership in government:

  • This can be understood by the example of Gram panchayats in India.
  • A study conducted by Nobel Laureate Esther Duflo used the system of mandated reservations (73rd Constitutional Amendment, 1992, reserves 1/3rd of all positions of pradhan for women) to test the effectiveness of female leadership.
  • The study concluded that women pradhans are more likely to invest in women-friendly infrastructure. For example, providing easy access to drinking water.


Way forward for India:

  • Building consensus on women reservation bill.
  • Such quotas have both a short-term (increased female representation in policy making) and long-term (improves perceptions about female effectiveness in leadership roles) impact.
  • This decreases the bias and results in a subsequent increase in the percentage of female politicians contesting and winning elections.


Conclusion: The instrumental importance of promoting more space for women in public policy is an important goal from the perspective of gender equality.


Insta Links:

Women in the Indian political system


Mains Links:

Q. “Though women in post-Independent India have excelled in various fields, the social attitude towards women and the feminist movement has been patriarchal.” Apart from women’s education and women empowerment schemes, what interventions can help change this milieu? (UPSC 2021)

What are the existing laws on religious conversions?

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.


Source: TH 

Direction: The article discusses the issue of religious conversion in India and its constitutional-legal-judicial interpretation.

 Context: The SC’s recent remarks on religious conversions have brought into the spotlight the long-standing debate about what the fundamental right to propagate one’s religious faith implies.



  • Recently, the SC stated that acts of charity to benefit a community or the poor should not be followed by a desire to religiously convert them as payback.
  • The SC has been hearing a plea seeking a special law against forced conversions, alleging that mass conversions of underprivileged people are being carried out.
  • Earlier, the SC stated that religious conversions by means of force, allurement or fraud may ultimately affect the security of the nation and the freedom of religion and conscience of citizens.
  • The SC asked the Centre to clarify what it was doing to curb such conversions.


Freedom of Religion in India:

  • Constituent Assembly debates: It discussed the inclusion of the “right to propagate” as a fundamental right and considered replacing the word “propagate” with “practise privately”, fearing forceful conversions.
  • Constitutional provisions: Article 25(1) equally entitles all persons to the freedom of conscience and the right to profess, practise and propagate religion freely.
  • Judicial interpretation:
    • In 1950, the SC held (in Arun Ghosh vs. State of West Bengal) that attempts to raise communal passions through forcible conversions would be considered a breach of public order.
      • It is within the power of States under the State List (Entry 1) of the 7th Schedule of the Constitution to enact Freedom of Religion laws.
    • The SC (in Rev. Stainislaus vs. State of Madhya Pradesh, 1977), dissected Article 25 to hold that the Article does not grant the right to convert other persons to one’s own religion.
      • The court upheld the validity of two regional anti-conversion laws – the Madhya Pradesh Dharma Swatantraya Adhiniyam (1968) and the Orissa Freedom of Religion Act (1967).


Anti-conversions laws enacted by the States in India:

  • Before independence, princely States had Acts such as the Raigarh State Conversion Act of 1936, which were mainly against conversion to Christianity.
  • In post-independence India, more than ten Indian States have passed laws prohibiting certain means of religious conversion.
    • Odisha became the first State to enact a law restricting forceful religious conversions, which later became a model framework for other states.
    • The MP Dharma Swatantraya Adhiniyam (1968), required whoever converted any person to intimate the District Magistrate that such a conversion had taken place.
    • The UP Prohibition of Unlawful Conversion of Religion Act, 2021, declares marriages “null and void” if the conversion is solely for that purpose and provides for imprisonment up to 10 years and a fine.


Why have these laws been challenged? Several HC verdicts and SC’s views (in the same petition which is mentioned in the ‘Background’ above), invoked the Puttaswamy judgement (2018) to hold that religious faith was a part of the fundamental right to privacy.


The Centre’s stand:

  • The right to religion did not include the right to convert other people through fraud, deception, coercion, allurement and other means.
  • According to the SC, fraudulent or induced conversion impinged upon the right to freedom of conscience apart from hampering public order.
  • Therefore, the state is well within its power to regulate/restrict forceful conversion.


Conclusion: “What is freedom for one is freedom for all, and hence there can be no such thing as a fundamental right to convert others to one’s own religion” – SC


Insta Links:

Do we need a Central law against forced conversion?


Mains Links:

Q. Examine the various issues in India’s fundamental right to religion. How can the issue of “forced” or “deceitful” conversions be addressed? (250 words)

U.N. Nature summit puts the industry on alert to disclose more

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.



 Direction: Also read related Links Niti Aayog proposes decarbonizing industrial emissions


Context: Sectors such as mining, agriculture, oil, and fashion are under scrutiny at the COP15 talks, due to their heavy impact on nature with activities that can contaminate soil, foul waterways, or pollute the air.

 Status of biodiversity loss (see Infographic)


How key sectors could be affected by the COP15 talks:


  • Fashion and retail are facing pressure from consumers and governments to reduce waste and emissions throughout their operations.
  • More than 330 companies came out in support of a COP15 deal that includes mandatory disclosure of companies’ environmental impacts by 2030.
  • Smaller companies with limited resources for monitoring and accounting could find a disclosure requirement more challenging.



  • For companies mining metals and coal, an environmental disclosure requirement could force companies to reveal the impacts not just from the blasting and drilling they do on-site, but also from the logging and deforestation carried out in creating access roads.
  • Mining companies are also concerned about the central goal of the COP15 talks – to set aside 30% of Earth’s land and ocean areas for conservation by 2030



  • With new disclosure rules, the farming sector would face an increased burden of reporting on activities like land clearing and pesticide use.


Oil Exploration:

  • Oil companies are expected to ramp up their internal resources for reporting on and disclosing how oil drilling and exploration activities impact nature.


Insta Link:

Economic Growth and its Impact on the Environment

Mains Link:

Q. Coastal sand mining, whether legal or illegal, poses one of the biggest threats to our environment. Analyze the impact of sand mining along the Indian coasts, citing specific examples. (UPSC – 2019)

/ CoP15, Dec 13 CA, GS3, Pollution, Today's Article


Content for Mains Enrichment (Essay/Ethics/ Governance)

Geetanjali Shree (Indian Author)
Novelist and writer Geetanjali Shree made history this year when she became the first Hindi writer to win the International Booker Prize for Tomb of the Sand, the English translation of her novel Ret Samadhi. The French translation of the book was also shortlisted for the Emile Guimet PrizeMarked by the innovative use of language and structure, her works have been translated into many Indian and foreign languages. She also works on theatrical scripts in collaboration with the theatre group Vivadi, of which she is a founding member“Women have always negotiated their spaces. There has been marked progress for them in all spheres of life, even if unevenly across cultures and classes”- Geetanjali Shree
 Sanjida Islam Choya ( Bangladeshi Student)

Bangladesh has one of the highest rates of child marriage in the world, but Sanjida Islam Choya is trying to change that.

She and her friends, teachers and collaborators call themselves Ghashforing (Grasshoppers) and report incidents of child marriage to the police.

Now at university, she mentors new members of the group. So far they have reportedly prevented 50 child marriages

 Billie Eilish (US Singer and songwriter)

Grammy Award-winning and record-breaking superstar Billie Eilish are known for pushing boundaries with her music – from her single Your Power, which calls out abusers who exploit underage girls, to All The Good Girls Go To Hell, a song about climate change.

She is protesting against the US Supreme Court’s decision to end the constitutional right to abortion. She has spoken openly about body image, her periods of depression and living with Tourette’s syndrome.

 The link between ‘School dropout’ and ‘Period Poverty’

 Period poverty refers to a lack of access to menstrual products, sanitation facilities, and adequate education.

As per the report by the NGO Dasra (2019), 23 million girls drop out of school annually due to a lack of proper menstrual hygiene management facilities, which include the availability of sanitary pads and information about menstruation.

The Centre must ensure schoolgirls are provided free sanitary products as it has a direct bearing on the school dropout rate. There is a direct link between school dropout rates and ‘period poverty’.

Larger issues:  The pink tax (now abolished) and how women literally pay a higher price simply for existing in the world as non-men. From girls’ toys to women’s personal care products, goods for females cost more than their male counterparts.

Scotland (UK) has made history in the global efforts to end period poverty by offering tampons and other period products free to anyone in need of them. 


Facts for Prelims:

Sri Aurobindo’s Birth Anniversary

Source: PIB

Context: PM to participate in a programme commemorating Sri Aurobindo’s 150th birth anniversary on 13th Dec and release commemorative postal stamp and coin.

Sri Aurobindo’s life and lessons:

  • He was an Indian philosopher, yogi, maharishi, poet, and Indian nationalist
  • He also edited newspapers such as Vande Mataram
  • He joined the Indian movement for independence from British colonial rule, until 1910 was one of its influential leaders, and then became a spiritual reformer, introducing his visions on human progress and spiritual evolution
  • He associated himself with Anushilan Samiti of Bengal and was arrested under the Alipore Conspiracy case
  • In 1926, with the help of his spiritual collaborator, Mirra Alfassa(referred to as “The Mother”), Sri Aurobindo Ashram was founded

 Literary works:

  • The Life Devine
  • Synthesis of Yoga
  • Savitri: A legend and a symbol


Pradhan Mantri Adi Adarsh Gram Yojana

Source: PIB

Context: Ministry of Tribal Affairs has revamped the existing Scheme of ‘Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme (SCA to TSS) with the nomenclature ‘Pradhan Mantri Adi Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAAGY)’, for implementation during 2021-22 to 2025-26, which aims at transforming villages with significant tribal population into the model village (Adarsh Gram).

The objective of the scheme:

  • To achieve integrated socio-economic development of selected villages through a convergence approach.
  • It includes preparing Village Development Plan based on the needs, potential, and aspirations.
  • It also includes maximizing the coverage of individual/family benefit schemes of the Central / State Governments and improving the infrastructure in vital sectors like health, education, connectivity and livelihood.
  • The scheme envisions mitigating gaps prominently in 8 sectors of development Road connectivity, Telecom connectivity, School, Anganwadi Centres, Health Sub-Centre, Drinking water facility, Drainage and solid waste management.



What are the Factors of Production?

Source: The Hindu

Context:  While some consider land, labour, and capital to be building blocks of the economy, others include time and entrepreneurship as well.

What are the factors of production?

  • Factors of production are resources that are thought to be the basic building blocks of production in any economy.
  • These are absolutely necessary for the production of any good or service.

Heterodox economist views:

  • Land, labour and time are the primary factors of production.
  • Capital and Entrepreneurship are secondary factors of production.

Ownership of factors of production:

  • Marxist economists – All factors of production need to be collectively owned by the state, to avoid exploitation of labour and mismanagement of scarce resources.
  • Free market economists – Private ownership of factors of production because of the incentives it offers to resource owners.


Sebi bars AIFs from raising capital from a non-compliant foreign investor

 Source: Business Standards 

Context: Sebi bars AIFs from raising capital from a non-compliant foreign investor.

As per SEBI, a foreign Investor (FI) must be a resident of a country whose market regulator is a signatory of either the international organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) or has an MoU with SEBI 

IOSCO is an international body for securities regulators and standards. Sebi is a member of it.



Source: Indian Express

 Context: With an aim to promote the civilian use of Navigation with the Indian Constellation (NavIC), the space agency is introducing the L1 frequency in all its future satellites.

ISRO’s Plan:

  • The new satellites NVS-01 onwards, meant to replace these satellites, will have an L1 frequency.
  • The L1 is the oldest and most established GPS signal, which even the less sophisticated, civilian-use devices such as smartwatches are capable of receiving.
  • Thus, with this band, the use of NavIC in civilian-use gadgets can go up
  • ISRO plans to set up ground stations in Japan and France to better triangulate the entire area under NavIC coverage.

About NAVIC:

  • NavIC is India’s homegrown alternative to GPS.
  • Developed by ISRO, the navigation satellite system was first approved in 2006 but became operational only by 2018.
  • At present, it consists of  Seven satellites, covering the whole of India and up to 1,500 km from its boundaries.
  • Currently, Satellites operate on 2 frequencies – L5 and S

What is L1 Frequency?

Radio-frequency communication refers to wireless communication through the air with electromagnetic wave frequencies ranging from 3 kHz to 300 GHz. L1 frequency is the most commonly used frequency in GPS. (See frequency diagram)

 Other Navigation Systems:

  1. USA – GPS
  2. Galileo – EU
  3. GLONASS – Russia
  4. Beidou – China
  5. QZSS – Japan

Insta Links: NAVIC



Japanese Firm’s Lunar Lander

Source: Indian Express

Context: It was carried by a Falcon 9 rocket ( by SpaceX) from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

About the Lunar lander:

  • It is known as M1, it is from a small Japanese company, Ispace.
  • It could be the 1st cargo successfully carried to the moon’s surface by a private company.

Other visitors to the moon:

  • UAE: Rashid Rover (abord Japanese mission)
  • NASA’s Artemis Mission
  • CAPSTONE – a NASA-financed mission to explore an orbit in which NASA plans to build a lunar outpost where astronauts will stop over before going to the moon.
  • Dhanuri, a South Korean space probe.
  • Luna 2 (USSR)


National Policy on Rare Diseases

Source: The Hindu

Context: RS member Fauzia Khan raised concerns over the benefits of the National Policy on Rare Diseases not reaching patients even after months since its introduction.

What are the allegations?

  1. Unending delay and lack of urgency on part of centres of excellence have claimed several young lives.
  2. Diseases include – Lysosomal storage disorders, Gaucher disease, Pompe disease, MPS1 and 2, and Fabry disease.

The Government launched National Policy for Rare Diseases (NPRD), 2021 in March 2021 for the treatment of rare disease patients. The salient features of NPRD, 2021 are as under: The rare diseases have been identified and categorized into 3 groups namely Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3


Insta Links: A Start on Rare Diseases


Stiff-Person Syndrome

Source: Indian Express

Context: French-Canadian singer Celine Dion ( five times Grammy Awards winner) has opened up about being diagnosed with Stiff-Person Syndrome (SPS), a rare neurological condition that makes the muscles spasm uncontrollably. The disorder has left her with difficulties in walking and singing


Wren babblers

Source: HT

 Context: New species of songbird Wren Babblers found in Arunachal Pradesh which has been named Lisu Wren Babbler (after the Lisu community of the state)

 Wren Babbler:  It is a small Asian bird of the babbler family chiefly found in South Asia.

 About the Lisu community: The Lisu people are a Tibeto-Burman ethnic group who inhabit mountainous regions of Burma (Myanmar), southwest China, Thailand, and the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh

 About bird songs: In bird biology, the word “birdsong” means any sound delivered in the nesting period, usually by a male bird for the purpose of territorial defence or the attraction of a mate.




Ans 1: A


  • The Chief Justice of India and the Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President under Article 124 of the Constitution.
  • The names are recommended by the Collegium. If the Collegium reiterates its recommendation to the President, then s/he is bound by that recommendation.
  • Whenever there is any doubt about the fitness of the senior most Judge to hold the office of the Chief Justice of India, consultation with other Judges as envisaged in Article 124 (2) of the Constitution would be made for appointment of the next CJI.

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