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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

1. India assumes the monthly presidency of the UNSC


GS Paper 3:

1. Insurance law review on cards to push for ‘efficient use of resources’

2. Antimicrobial resistance: Here’s what can be done to address environmental AMR in India


GS Paper 4:

1. How do personality rights protect celebrities?


Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)

1. Gas lighting – Merriam-Webster’s word of the year


Facts for Prelims:

1. Hornbill Festival

2. UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage

3. Where did the Earth’s oxygen come from?

4. Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban)-PMAY (U)

5. RBI brings in a four-tiered regulatory framework for UCBs

6. Natovenator polydontus

7. Joint Exercise Agni Warrior

8. Mapping



India assumes the monthly presidency of the UNSC

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: International Organizations


Source: Indian Express

Context: India assumed the Presidency of the UN Security Council in December. India had earlier assumed the Presidency of the UNSC in August 2021.

 Items on Agenda:

  • Reformed Multilateralism
  • Counter-Terrorism
  • Maintenance of International Peace and Security
  • New Orientation for Reformed Multilateralism (NORMS): NORMS envisages reforms in the current multilateral architecture, with the UN at its centre, to make it more representative and fit for purpose.

India’s priority issues have been guided by the “Five S” approach:

  • Samman (Respect)
  • Samvad (Dialogue)
  • Sahyog (Cooperation)
  • Shanti (Peace)
  • Samriddhi (Prosperity)

Recent issues with regard representation of UN membership:

  • Overrepresentation: There is a huge European bias in P-5 due to the presence of the United Kingdom and France, including Russia.
  • Under-representation: While regions like Latin America, the Caribbean Group, the Arab World, and Africa do not have a single permanent member,
  • Question of Veto: All five permanent members of the UNSC enjoy veto power. But the veto has been misused to put national interests ahead of global interests.
  • Non-transparent: The UNSC has been functioning in the most non-transparent and non-consultative way.
  • North-South Inequality: Only China is representative of the global south region, whereas the global north has four nations to present themselves at the UNSC.


UN remains the one place on Earth where all the world’s nations can gather together, discuss common problems, and find shared solutions that benefit all of humanity.


The presidency of the Security Council is held by each of the members in turn for one month, following the English alphabetical order of the Member States’ names.

 How does the president of the UNSC work?

The president is empowered to enforce rules of procedure, such as opening debate, setting the agenda, limiting speaking times for representatives, and suspending or adjourning debate.



Insta Links

UN Reforms


Mains Links

Q. Discuss the need for reforms in the United Nations to strengthen its legitimacy, representativeness and relevance in order to address the realities of contemporary times. (15M)

Insurance law review on cards to push for ‘efficient use of resources’

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Mobilisation of resources


Source: IE

 Direction: The article highlights the insurance regulatory framework in India, the government’s recent decision to review this framework and its significance.

Context: In light of the changing needs of the insurance sector, a comprehensive review of the sector’s legislative framework has been conducted by the government in collaboration with the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) and the industry.

Background: The Department of Financial Services, Ministry of Finance, is in the process of amending the Insurance Act 1938 and the IRDA Act 1999, to take the reform agenda in the insurance segment to the next level.


Insurance regulatory framework in India:

  • IRDAI is a statutory body established under the IRDA Act 1999, for –
    • Overall supervision and development of the insurance sector in India,
    • Promotion of competition so as to enhance customer satisfaction,
    • Ensuring the financial security of the Insurance market.
  • The Insurance Act, of 1938 is the principal Act governing the Insurance sector in India. It empowers IRDAI to frame regulations for the supervision of the entities operating in the sector.


The proposed amendments primarily focus on:

  • Enhancing the financial security of the policyholders,
  • Promoting policyholders’ interest,
  • Improving returns to the policyholders,
  • Facilitating the entry of more players in the insurance market leading to economic growth and employment generation,
  • Enhancing efficiency (operational and finance) of the insurance industry,
  • Enabling ease of doing business (EoDB).


Reforms suggested by the IRDAI:

  • Issuing composite licences, which is a common license (banned as of now) to operate in both the life and general insurance markets.
  • Reducing the minimum capital requirement from Rs 100 crore in order to enable the entry of smaller players (micro insurers), to serve niche markets.


Earlier reforms:

  • The government raised the foreign direct investment (FDI) limit in insurance from 49 to 74% in the 2021 budget.
  • The IRDAI approved proposals, involving investment, solvency norms, dilution of equity and fundraising, aimed at promoting EoDB and simplifying the process of setting up an insurance company.


Significance of proposed changes:

  • It will facilitate the longer-term growth of the industry and bring India closer to global practices.
  • It will enable insurers to offer comprehensive service to their customers.
  • It will also help companies tap into newer market segments and reach new customers.
  • In the current digital environment, where customer expectations are fast evolving, these changes will provide a uniform, yet personalised service to customers.


Insta Links:

More a private sector primer than a health-care pathway


Mains Links:

Q. Health insurance in India suffers from many lacunae. In the light of the basic right to health of citizens that flows from Article 21 of the Constitution, critically analyse problems plaguing India’s health insurance sector and measures needed to fix these problems. (250 Words)

/ Dec 2 CA, Today's Article

Antimicrobial resistance: Here’s what can be done to address environmental AMR in India

GS Paper 4

Syllabus: Issues relating to health


Source: DTE

Direction: The article discusses the issue of AMR – what it is, prevention and the way ahead to tackle this top global public health emergency.

 Context: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been declared one of the top global public health threats by the World Health Organization (WHO).


  • In 2019, an overall 95 million deaths were caused by AMR infections and associated complications.
  • India is the world’s largest consumer of antibiotics and has the world’s highest infectious disease burden including due to multi-resistant pathogens (superbugs).
  • AMR may cause a global annual GDP loss of $3.4 trillion by 2030 and may push 24 million people into extreme poverty.


About AMR:


Factors leading to AMR:

  • Overuse, misuse and over-the-counter use of antimicrobials;
  • Poor sanitation, sewage and waste;
  • Effluent and waste from the pharmaceutical industry and healthcare facilities;
  • Overuse of antimicrobials in crop production and Animal husbandry;


Preventive measures:

●        One Health Quadripartite: In 2021, the FAO, UNEP, WHO and World Organisation for Animal Health joined to combat AMR.

●        Environmental Dimensions of AMR Summary for Policymakers report Recommended stakeholder action in four key areas –

○        Strengthening environmental governance

○        Targeting priority chemical pollutants like antimicrobials

○        Enhancing reporting, surveillance and monitoring

○        Prioritising innovative and sustainable financing


National Action Plan on AMR (NAP-AMR) for 2017-2021 addresses six critical issues –

●        Creating awareness through effective IEC and training

●        Strengthening knowledge through surveillance

●        Effective infection prevention and control

●        Optimising the use of antimicrobial agents

●        Promoting investments

●        Strengthening India’s leadership

The country is in the process of updating its NAP-AMR for the period 2022-2026.

Way ahead:

  • More research to better understands the spread of AMR in the environment.
  • Short-term and long-term action points related to policy, institutional framework, research, surveillance, engagement and awareness.


Conclusion: With India taking over the G20 Presidency and One Health being one of the priority areas for discussion, the time is opportune for India to address the environmental aspects of AMR.


Insta Links:

Tackling antimicrobial resistance


Mains Links:

Q. Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest health challenges of the 21st century. Examine why.

/ Dec 2 CA, Today's Article

How do personality rights protect celebrities?

GS Paper 4


Source: The Hindu

Context: The Delhi High Court recently passed an interim order to prevent the unlawful use of Bollywood star Amitabh Bachchan’s name, image and voice. 

The court restrained people from infringing the personality rights of the actor.

 Personality rights:

Personality rights refer to the right of a person to protect his/her personality under the right to privacy or property. These rights are important to celebrities as their names, photographs or even voices can easily be misused in various advertisements by different companies to boost their sales. 

 Personality rights consist of two types of rights

  • Firstly, the right of publicity, or the right to keep one’s image and likeness from being commercially exploited without permission or contractual compensation and
  • Secondly, the right to privacy or the right to not have one’s personality represented publicly without permission.


Statutes like the Trademarks Act 1999 and the Copyright Act 1957 govern publicity rights.


Ethical issues involved:

  • Consumers are often misled owing to false advertisements or endorsements. This lead to a loss of trust among consumers.
  • Violation of law: Amendment to the Consumer Protection Act of 2019 was passed to keep a check on the misleading advertisements and endorsements of consumer products by imposing a penalty on the endorser as well
  • Violation of one’s privacy


Content for Mains Enrichment

Gas lighting – Merriam-Webster’s word of the year

Source: Indian Express

Context: Merriam-Webster dictionary said gas lighting saw a ‘1740% increase in lookups, with high interest throughout the year’.

Merriam-Webster dictionary defines gas lighting as “psychological manipulation of a person usually over an extended period of time that causes the victim to question the validity of their own thoughts, perception of reality, or memories and typically leads to confusion, loss of confidence and self-esteem, the uncertainty of one’s emotional or mental stability, and a dependency on the perpetrator.”

With the internet and its side effects, permeating every aspect of modern life, gaslighting is a matter of concern, much more than ever before.



Facts for Prelims

Hornbill Festival

Source: PIB

Context: The Vice President, Shri Jagdeep Dhankhar, inaugurated the 23rd edition of the Hornbill Festival at Naga Heritage Village, Kisama near the state capital, Kohima.

About Hornbill festival:

  • Hornbill Festival is celebrated to encourage inter-tribal interaction and to promote the cultural heritage of Nagaland.
  • The Government of Nagaland organizes the Hornbill Festival every year in the first week of December.
  • It is also called the ‘Festival of Festivals”.
  • The festival is named after the hornbill, the globally respected bird which is displayed in folklore in most of the state’s tribes.


UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage

Context: Baguette makes it to UNESCO’s intangible cultural heritage list.

 Aims to ensure better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance.

Intangible cultural heritage refers to “traditions or living expressions inherited from our ancestors and passed on to our descendants, such as oral traditions, performing arts, social practices, etc.”

This list is published by the Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage.

  • Members of the committee are elected by State Parties meeting in a General Assembly.

In India, Sangeet Natak Akademi is the nodal body coordinating with UNESCO.

  • 14 Intangible cultural heritage (ICH) elements from India.




 Context: Digi Yatra is now functional at three airports in the country.

Digi Yatra is a project conceived to achieve contactless, seamless processing of passengers at Airports, based on Facial Recognition Technology (FRT)

  • Launched by the Ministry of Civil Aviation

Digi Yatra Foundation, a not-for-profit company, is the nodal body for DigiYatra

  • It is a joint venture with AAI (26% share) and 5 Airports (BIAL, DIAL, GHIAL, MIAL and CIAL).
  • Digi Yatra Foundation will be a pan-India entity and the custodian of the Passenger ID validation process.


Where did the Earth’s oxygen come from?

Source: DTE

Context: A recent study has shown that a part of oxygen in primordial earth came from a tectonic source via the movement and destruction of the Earth’s crust.

  • Currently, 21% of the atmosphere consists of Oxygen. The amount of oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere makes it a habitable planet.
  • But 2.8 to 2.5 billion years ago — this oxygen was almost absent.


How does plate tectonics help in the oxygenating planet?

During subduction, magmas are formed when oxidised sediments and bottom waters — cold, dense water near the ocean floorare introduced into the Earth’s mantle. This produces magma with high oxygen and water content.



Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban)-PMAY (U)

Context: Centre to cut funds if the land is not allotted for the housing scheme.

Launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation

Aims to provide houses to all eligible families/ beneficiaries.

  • As per PMAY(U) guidelines, the size of a house for an Economically Weaker Section (EWS) could be up to 30 sq. mt. carpet area

The Mission will be implemented through four options given to beneficiaries, ULBs and State Governments. They are

  1. In situ Slum Redevelopment
  2. Affordable Housing through Credit Linked Subsidy
  3. Affordable Housing in Partnership
  4. Subsidy for beneficiary-led individual house construction


 RBI brings in a four-tiered regulatory framework for UCBs

 Source: Live Mint

 Context: The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on 1 December announced a four-tiered regulatory framework for the categorisation of Urban Co-operative Banks (UCBs) as against the existing two-tier framework


Natovenator polydontus

Source: Indian Express

Context: World’s First Swimming Dinosaur was Discovered in Mongolia.


  • A newly described dinosaur from Mongolia called Natovenator polydontus lived about 72 million years ago during the Cretaceous Period.
  • Built like a diving bird with a streamlined body while possessing a goose-like elongated neck and a long flattened snout with a mouth bearing more than 100 small teeth.


Joint Exercise Agni Warrior

Source: PIB

Context: The 12th Edition of Exercise Agni Warrior, a bilateral exercise between the Singapore & Indian Army was recently concluded.

Both sides utilized niche technology and Artillery Observation Simulators as part of the joint training phase. Expert academic discussions were conducted on modern trends in Artillery and the refinement of the Artillery planning process.

The exercise achieved its aim of enhancing mutual understanding of drills & procedures and improving interoperability between the two armies.





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