GS Paper 3
Syllabus: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment Disaster and disaster management.
Context: The World Meteorological Organization has published its first State of Global Water Resources report in order to assess the effects of climate, environmental and societal change on the Earth’s water resources.
The recent UN climate change conference, COP27, urged governments to further integrate water into adaptation efforts, the first-time Water has been referred to in a COP outcome document in recognition of its critical importance.
The first edition of the report looks at streamflow, terrestrial water storage, and the cryosphere.
Key Points of State of Global Water Resources 2021:
- There is a lack of accessible verified hydrological data.
- Large areas of the globe recorded drier than normal conditions in 2021 – a year in which precipitation patterns were influenced by climate change and a La Niña event.
- Disturbance in hydrological cycles has left global food security management in a vulnerable state.
- Between 2001 and 2018, UN-Water reported that 74% of all-natural disasters were water-related.
- 6 billion people face inadequate access to water for at least a month per year.
- Annual glacier runoff increased initially due to the melting of glaciers until the turning point called peak water is reached after which the runoff declines.
Recommendations of the report:
- Accelerate the availability and sharing of hydrological data, including river discharge and transboundary river basin information.
- Invest in filling the capacity gap in collecting data.
- Working together as a global hydrological community on developing the annual State of Global Water Resources.
- Development of end-to-end drought and flood early warning systems.
Q. Effective management of water resources will significantly reduce human despairs. Elucidate. (150 Words)