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Niti Aayog proposes decarbonizing industrial emissions

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Science and Technology – Developments and their Applications


Source: TH

 Direction: CCUS is a promising technology to address climate change challenges. The article highlights the role of CCUS, challenges, and suggestions to reap the maximum benefits of CCUS.


Context: NITI Aayog recently released a report on the policy framework of Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage (CCUS) – a technology for decarbonizing carbon dioxide (CO2) from high-polluting sectors.


About Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage (CCUS):


 Highlights of the report:

  • Background:
    • India’s per capita CO2 emissions were approximately 9 tonnes per year, which was less than 40% of the global average and almost one-fourth of China’s.
    • Steel, cement, oil, gas, petrochemicals, chemicals, and fertilisers industries are crucial to the country’s goal of halving CO2 emissions by 2050.
    • As a result, a long-term sustainable strategy for decarbonizing sectors responsible for 70% of emissions is required, particularly for India’s goal of reaching net-zero emissions by 2070.
  • Role to be played by CCUS:
    • The CCUS technology would aid in the promotion of a low-carbon-hydrogen economy and the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere.
    • CCUS could enable the development of clean products (green methanol, green ammonia) while utilising abundant coal resources, lowering imports, and leading to an economically self-sufficient India.
    • CCUS also plays a significant role in supporting sunrise sectors like coal gasification and India’s budding hydrogen economy.
  • The key challenge: To reduce the cost of the mechanisms to implement the technology.
    • Carbon capture, for example, needs the development of molecules capable of binding CO2 in the exhaust gas, which is costly.
  • Suggestions:
    • The emphasis should be on R&D, particularly on cutting-edge technologies.
    • To put in place a policy framework that will encourage the development of sustainable and viable markets for CCUS projects.
    • The policy should focus on financing and funding mechanisms, sufficient incentives (carbon credits) to promote the private sector, etc.
    • Over time, the policy should shift to carbon taxes in order to achieve India’s net-zero goals by 2070.


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Q. What are carbon capture utilisation technologies? Discuss how India can adapt them and tread the path of cleaner energy systems. (250 words)