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[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 21 November 2022

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues.

1. Women bear a disproportionate burden in conflict and women refugees who are forced to flee their homes face trafficking, sexual exploitation and other forms abuse. Suggest possible solutions to the above issues.  (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

The global theme for this year’s 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence is “UNITE! Activism to end violence against women and girls”, a much-needed call to action that all of us must work towards, in order to ensure that we reverse gender and protection deficits.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about issues faced by women refugees and possible solutions to it.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving context regarding refugee crisis.

Body:

First, write about the issues and violation of rights faced by the women refugees – protection and limited assistance services, they do not possess government-issued documentation. Thus, they are unable to open bank accounts, benefit from all government welfare schemes, and are thus inadvertently left behind.

Next, write about the steps that can be taken in order to alleviate the sufferings of the women refugees – social protection systems, and aligned to India’s commitment to all women, their protection and empowerment

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The coup in Myanmar, a Taliban takeover in Afghanistan, and Russia’s invasion of Ukraine — that have all occurred in the last 18 months — have each underscored the fact that women bear a disproportionate burden in conflict, especially those forced to flee their homes and seek refuge in other countries. Economic stressors resulting from COVID-19 exacerbate the situation. Important markers in gender equality and the protection of civilians have been reversed in many countries.

Body

 

Disproportionate burden on women in conflict zones

  • Conflict zones and women’s ordeal : In Yemen, a woman dies in childbirth every two hours.
    • In South Sudan, more than 65% of women have experienced sexual or physical violence — double the global average.
    • More than 40% of girls in Nigeria are married before the age of 18. Each of these statistics directly relates to ongoing violence in those countries.
  • Displacement: According to UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, more than half of the planet’s 80 million displaced people are women and children.
  • Political violence begets gender violence: Across the globe, sexual violence against women and girls is often used as a war tactic to terrorize civilians.
    • In 2020, the United Nations verified 2,500 cases of conflict-related sexual violence in 18 countries committed mostly against women and girls.
    • In Afghanistan, 62% of women have experienced all three forms of gender-based violence (GBV): psychological, physical, and sexual abuse.
  • Refugee women ordeal: An estimated 1 in 5 female refugees living in humanitarian settings has experienced sexual violence and its consequences, including trauma, stigma, poverty, and unwanted pregnancy.
    • Rates of domestic violence and human trafficking also commonly spike during times of conflict due to rising instability, poverty, and a weakening rule of law.
  • Conflict and child marriage: Because war disrupts economies, supply chains, and agricultural production, it often leads to widespread poverty and hunger. Consequently, rates of child marriage go up as families become desperate for additional income or one less mouth to feed.
    • Child brides often face a lifetime of suffering.
    • Girls who marry before 18 are less likely to remain in school, more likely to experience domestic violence, and more likely to die from complications during pregnancy and childbirth.
  • Disrupts access to lifesaving reproductive health care: The violence and chaos of war often destroy a country’s health infrastructure. And without access to sexual and reproductive health care, including family planning services, girls and women in conflict often risk unintended pregnancies in dangerous conditions.
    • In Yemen, for example, only 20% of the country’s remaining hospitals are able to provide maternal and child health services.
    • A looming famine and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic have only worsened an already dangerous situation there, especially for mothers.
    • Right now an estimated 2 million pregnant and breastfeeding women in Yemen are acutely malnourished.

International policy on preventing gender based violence

  • In 2000, the United Nations Security Council approved resolution 1325, which marked the start of the Women, Peace and Security agenda.
    • The resolution urged the participation of women in peace initiatives, protection from violations of their human rights, and the prevention of conflicts.
    • Eight further resolutions have since been approved, widening the range of issues covered by the agenda and thus making it more ambitious.
  • There are other measures which likewise aim to protect women and highlight their specific needs both during and after a conflict.
    • One of such frameworks is Recommendation 30 from the Committee for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), approved in 2013.
    • This covers issues such as the participation of women in all areas – including peace processes –, access and upholding of all their rights, and active participation in conflict prevention.
  • The Sustainable Development Goals constitute a further benchmark framework, in particular SDGs 5 (Gender Equality) and 16 (Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions).
    • Lastly, the Arms Trade Treaty is the first agreement to recognise the links between international arms transfer and gender violence.
  • Article 7(4) specifically states that exporting countries must consider the risk that the arms transfer could be used to commit or facilitate acts of violence against women

 

Possible solutions

  • Safety audit of refugee camps: Countries which are hosting refugees must do safety audit of camps to ensure that women are not exploited or trafficked. There must be a mechanism to report human rights violation and instances of abuse.
  • Access to reproductive health and contraceptives: Unbridled access to contraceptives and awareness regarding their usage scientifically will lead to prevention of unintended pregnancies in conflict areas.
  • Skilling and opportunity for economic independence: Providing income-generating opportunities is key. Skill development workshops, permits for working will help in mainstreaming them in society.
  • Screening of gender based violence at health camps: Setting up services that do not lead to stigmatisation is the quickest way to increase reporting in communities.
  • Women to be included in peace negotiations: All peace negotiations must include presence of women and their inputs as they are the most affected.

 

Conclusion

Conflicts and situations of instability exacerbate pre-existing patterns of discrimination against women and girls, exposing them to heightened risks of violations of their human rights. Possible solutions must be explored for protection of these women who are displaced and are vulnerable to abuse.

 

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

2. Throw light on the various quasi-judicial bodies in India. Critically examine the issues in their functioning and suggest reforms for the efficient functioning of these agencies. (150 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

There is a class of quasi-judicial agencies that are not discussed in conversations on the pendency of cases. These are generally handled by the revenue authorities and largely relate to land, tenancy, excise, arms, mining, or preventive functions under the Criminal Procedure Code.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about quasi-judicial bodies, issues in their functioning and reform required.

Directive word: 

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Introduction: 

Begin by writing a about the quasi-judicial bodies in India.

Body:

First, in general, write about the need of quasi-judicial bodies in India and their major functions.

Next, write about the issues in the functioning of quasi-judicial bodies in India – understaffed. Their engagement with duties such as law and order, protocol, coordination and other administrative functions leaves them with much less time for court work. Their access to court clerks and record keepers is limited. Several of the presiding officers lack proper knowledge of law and procedures etc.

Next, write about the reforms that are needed to overcome the above performance issues.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

Quasi-judicial bodies are an entity such as an arbitrator or a tribunal, generally of a Public Administrative Agency, which has powers and procedures resembling that of a Court of Law or Judge, and which is obliged to objectively determine facts and draw conclusions from them so as to provide the basis of an official action. Such actions are able to remedy a situation or to impose legal penalties, and may affect the legal rights, duties or privileges of specific parties.

Body

Quasi-Judicial bodies in India

  • Election Commission of India.
  • National Green Tribunal.
  • Central Information Commission (CIC)
  • Income Tax Appellate Tribunal.
  • Lok Adalat.
  • National Human Rights Commission
  • Nation Commission for Women
  • National Green Tribunal and so on

 

Advantages and benefits of quasi judicial bodies

  • Not restrained by rigid procedures: To bring flexibility and adaptability as they are not restrained by rigid rules of procedure.g., Simplified procedure to apply RTI application under Central Information Commission. Natural justice followed in NCLT, Lok Adalats.
  • Less expensive: They are set up to be less formal, less expensive, and a faster way to resolve disputes than by using the traditional court system.
  • Ease the burden: The system also gives the much-needed relief to ordinary courts of law, which are already overburdened with numerous suits. E.g. NCLT reduces the burden of financial cases from judiciary. Lok Adalat resolves minor issues which would otherwise be long drawn in courts.
  • Technical expertise: They play an important role and part in the sphere of the adjudication of disputes especially when the subject demands technical expertise. g., National Green Tribunal avail expertise to deal with environmental issues.
  • Public Awareness and suo moto powers: They enjoy some of the powers of a civil court, viz., issuing summons and allowing witnesses to give evidence. Its decisions are legally binding on the parties, subject to appeal. E.g., National Human Rights Commission can take suo moto cognizance of human rights violations. It also did awareness campaign for sensitisation towards LGBTQ community and HIV infected people.

Issues in their functioning

  • There is an unfair imbalance between represented and unrepresented parties. It is unfair to people who are not represented and cannot get legal aid to come up against a rich corporation. Since richer parties are allowed to employ skilled representation, they are consequently more likely to win.
  • The no-costs rule and lack of legal aid penalize poor litigants, although they do keep costs down.
  • The lack of fees encourages poor applicants, although it may also result in ill-founded claims.
  • Tribunals can become complex over time – as did the courts – rules of procedure grow up caused by the use of representatives who as a result make representation desirable in future.
  • They may lack some of the perceived independence of the judiciary.
  • It can still be difficult for the people who go to tribunals to represent themselves because of the inherent difficulty in presenting a case in any environment.
  • It undermines the celebrated principle of separation of powers.

Conclusion

Government needs to address this issue by enabling sufficient number of appointments at various Quasi-Judicial Bodies. However, as a fool proof appointment mechanism plays a crucial role in ensuring quality, the Government is duty bound to provide for the same. Only then can India’s Quasi-Judicial Bodies expedite not only the resolution of disputes but also dispensation of justice.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. Digital healthcare can ensure better health outcomes at a reasonable cost. Examine its potential and limitations. How has Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission contributed to India’s healthcare set up?  (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Financial Express

Why the question:

The National Health Authority (NHA), the implementing agency for the Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission, has invited expressions of interest in developing innovative solutions that will help build a national digital health ecosystem.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the potential and limitations of Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by describing digital healthcare.

Body:

First, write about the potential of Digital healthcare – Accessibility, Quality healthcare, Reach, Benefits to hospitals etc.

Next, write about the limitations – privacy and security issues, awareness, role of private players etc.

Next, write about the contributions of of Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission – seamless online platform, information and infrastructure services, interoperable, longitudinal health records of citizens and health ID for every citizen etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to promote digital healthcare.

Introduction

The covid-19 pandemic has presented a watershed moment, bringing the world’s healthcare systems to a halt, forcing us to rethink existing healthcare delivery models and embrace the digital transformation of the sector. However, a lot more needs to be done to ensure a conducive environment for digital healthcare to flourish, so health benefits can reach the last mile. For instance, telemedicine became a norm for all those who couldn’t visit hospitals.

 

Body

Digital healthcare: Better health outcome

  • Prioritizing patients: Say, mortality from Covid-19 is significantly increased by comorbidities or the presence of other underlying conditions like hypertension or diabetes. With digital health records, doctors can prioritise patients based on their test results.
  • Portability of health records: Portability of records fairly eases in a patient with the first hospital visit, or her/his most frequently visited hospital.
    • If she/he wishes to change a healthcare provider for cost or quality reasons, she can access her health records without carrying pieces of paper prescriptions and test reports.
    • People will able to access their lab reports, x-rays and prescriptions irrespective of where they were generated, and share them with doctors or family members — with consent.
  • Easy facilitation: This initiative will allow patients to access healthcare facilities remotely through e-pharmacies, online appointments, teleconsultation, and other health benefits. Besides, as all the medical history of the patient is recorded in the Health ID card, it will help the doctor to understand the case better, and improved medication can be offered.
  • Technology impetus in policymaking: Meanwhile, it is also not just individuals who could emerge beneficiaries of the scheme. With large swathes of data being made available, the government too can form policies based on geographical, demographical, and risk-factor based monitoring of health.

Potential if digital healthcare

  • Tackling the Spread of a Pandemic: Once data is recorded and available for analysis, it can help the systems determine both prevalence and genomic data to provide information on disease transmission and geospatial coverage.
    • Innovative use of digital tools such as deep learning and cloud emergency response algorithms has significantly aided emergency room workers during the pandemic to reduce response time.
  • Patient-Friendly Health: The deployment of artificial intelligence tools for all aspects of the health system, including triaging, diagnostics, among others, will substantially reduce delays, and, therefore, the costs associated with healthcare.
    • Digital transformation of healthcare is at the core of addressing issues such as resource limitations, a varied population mix, and an urgent need to increase medical reach.
  • Preventive Care: Emerging technologies not only expedite the development of new drugs but also introduce a completely new class of therapies, such as digital therapeutics (DTx).
    • DTx are software-based solutions that can treat disease or disorder which are linked to lifestyle issues.
    • Thus, digital health has a growing impact on the delivery of care and provides the opportunity to tackle the next frontier in healthcare by shifting the focus from treatment to prevention.
  • Helps in Clinical Trials: Digital health can harness the power of data that can aid in the analysis of samples and images to diagnose as well as drive better clinical decision-making.

 

Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission

Features

  • Health ID: It will be issued for every citizen that will also work as their health account. This health account will contain details of every test, every disease, the doctors visited, the medicines taken and the diagnosis.
    • Health ID is free of cost, voluntary. It will help in doing analysis of health data and lead to better planning, budgeting and implementation for health programs.
  • Healthcare Facilities & Professionals’ Registry: The other major component of the programme is creating a Healthcare Professionals’ Registry (HPR) and Healthcare Facilities Registry (HFR), allowing easy electronic access to medical professionals and health infrastructure.
    • The HPR will be a comprehensive repository of all healthcare professionals involved in delivering healthcare services across both modern and traditional systems of medicine.
  • Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission Sandbox: The Sandbox, created as a part of the mission, will act as a framework for technology and product testing that will help organisations, including private players intending to be a part of the national digital health ecosystem become a Health Information Provider or Health Information User or efficiently link with building blocks of Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission.

Benefits

  • Ensure ease of doing business for doctors and hospitals and healthcare service providers.
  • Enable access and exchange of longitudinal health records of citizens with their consent.
  • Create integration within the digital health ecosystem, similar to the role played by the Unified Payments Interface (UPI) in revolutionising payments.

 

Limitations of digital healthcare

  • The lack of a data protection bill could lead to the misuse of data by private firms and bad actors.
  • Exclusion of citizens and denied healthcare due to faults in the system are also a cause of concern.
  • Health insurance may be denied by a firm due to lack of data protection and insidious motives.
  • Digital divide between rural and urban India is very high. Rural folks don’t have last mile connectivity to Primary health care centres let alone digital healthcare. Smart phone penetration in rural area is low.
  • Cyber security, falling for fraudulent mischief of people by innocent unsuspecting individuals can lead to major loss of financial resources.

Conclusion

With an enabling ecosystem, supported by effective policies for digital healthcare and increased innovation, the promise of digital solutions in healthcare is immense. It’s not long before precision healthcare becomes central to the health and well-being of every citizen.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

4.  The mission Prarambh, marks the Indian private sector’s first foray into the promising space launch market, opening opportunities for the privatisation of space which is heavily dominated by ISRO. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Times of IndiaIndian Express

Why the question:

India’s first privately developed launch vehicle, Vikram-S, blasted off on its maiden flight from the Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO’s) Sriharikota spaceport.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the mission Prarambh, challenges and limitations being faced by private sector in space exploration in India and methods to overcome them.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context of mission Prarambh.

Body:

In the first part, write about the nature and significance of mission Prarambh.

Next, explain that there has not been much emphasis on enhancing commercial activities in the Indian space sector, and as a result, the participation of the private sector in the Indian space industry has been minimal in space activities.

Next, write about the recent developments in boosting private participation in the space and further measures that are required to improve it.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

Introduction

Skyroot Aerospace is set to launch India’s first privately developed rocket as part of the firm’s maiden mission, called Prarambh.

To enhance the diffusion of space technology and boost the space economy within the country, the Department of Space (DOS) is encouraging the participation of private companies in space activities.

Body

About mission Prarambh

  • The Prarambh mission is aimed at carrying three payloads into space, including a 2.5-kilogram payload that has been developed by students from several countries.
  • The Prarambh mission and the Vikram-S rocket were developed by the Hyderabad-based startup with extensive support from Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and IN-SPACe (Indian National Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre).
  • The rocket, named Vikram-S, will carry three customer payloads and launch from the Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO’s) launchpad at Sriharikota.
  • If Prarambh is successful, Skyroot Aerospace will become the first private space company in India to launch a rocket into space.

Need for private participation

  • Indian space has had the participation of private sectors on small scale for a long time. A large part of the manufacturing and fabrication of rockets and satellites happens in the private sector. There is increasing participation of research institutions as well.
  • But the Indian industry had a bare 3% share in a rapidly growing global space economy which is already worth at least $360 billion.
    • Only 2% of this market is for rocket and satellite launch services, which require fairly large infrastructure and heavy investment.
    • The remaining 95% related to satellite-based services, and ground-based systems.
  • Indian industry is unable to compete because till now its role has been mainly that of suppliers of components and sub-systems.
  • Indian industries do not have the resources or the technology to undertake independent space projects of the kind that US companies such as SpaceX have been doing or provide space-based services.
  • The demand for space-based applications and services is growing even within India, and ISRO is unable to cater to this.
  • The need for satellite data, imageries, and space technology now cut across sectors, from weather to agriculture to transport to urban development and more.
  • There is a need for greater dispersion of space technologies, better utilization of space resources, and increased requirement of space-based services.

 

Recent developments in boosting privatisation in space sector in India

  • IN-SPACE: IN-SPACe was launched to provide a level playing field for private companies to use Indian space infrastructure.
    • It acts as a single-point interface between Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), and everyone who wants to participate in space-related activities or use India’s space resources.
  • NewSpace India Limited (NSIL): Announced in Budget 2019, its aim is to use research and development carried out by ISRO over the years for commercial purposes through Indian industry partners.
  • Indian Space Association (ISpA): ISpA aspires to be the collective voice of the Indian Space industry. ISpA will be represented by leading domestic and global corporations that have advanced capabilities in space and satellite technologies.

 

Conclusion

There are several ambitious space missions lined up in the coming years, including a mission to observe the Sun, a mission to the Moon, a human spaceflight, and then, possibly, a human landing on the Moon. And to achieve all this ISRO needs the help and back up by opening up to the private sector.

 

Topic: Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

5. Borderlands are subject to diverse influences. The peripheries of a country are extremely sensitive. We need to pay special attention to them. Failure to do so can result in serious consequences for a country’s security and prosperity. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the issues in border areas and consequences of not paying attention to them.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context regarding the diversity of India’s border.

Body:

In the first part, write about the issues in border areas – disputes, hostile neighbours, Terrains are diverse and difficult, Illegal migrations, infiltration etc.

Next, write about the consequences of ignoring the above issues and ramification it can have on the nation’s security. Also, write about the measures that required to overcome the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

Introduction

In the Indian case, borders are quite complex and almost every type of extreme geography is present at different borders viz. deserts, fertile lands, swampy marshes or tropical evergreen jungles. There is cross border smuggling, the problem of drugs, cattle, humans, artefacts, fake Indian currency note (FICN), etc.

 

Body

Diverse influences in borderlands and issues

  • Economic support for insurgency: The Golden Triangle (comprising Myanmar, Laos and Thailand) has provided an economic boom for the insurgent groups to sustain themselves.
  • Availability of weapons: Easy availability of small arms in neighboring countries like Bangladesh and Myanmar has been another factor behind the sustenance of insurgency in the region.
  • Terrain of Border: Difficult terrain along border with different countries in north east make means of transportation and communication difficult and as a result, the border area remains sparsely populated with depressed economic development.
  • Boundary issue: Even though the international boundary between countries like India and Myanmar had been formally delimited and demarcated following the boundary agreement in 1967, the boundary has not crystallised on the ground as lines separating two sovereign countries.
    • Border with China is disputed, and Kashmir has been an ongoing issue with Pakistan since Independence without solution.
  • Lack of critical infrastructure: Critical infrastructure such as observation towers, bunkers, Border Flood Lights etc. are lacking in many border areas which also prevent deployment of hi-tech equipment.
  • Poor intelligence and resource efficiency: Security forces are ill-equipped to handle border management given poor intelligence capabilities and severe resource deficiency.
  • Ethnic conflicts and separatist movements: The situation has worsened due to the changed demographic profile of many Border States and shift in ethnic balance of communities as a result of illegal migration.
  • Over-population in the border areas: Density of population in the border areas at some places is approximately 700-800 persons per square km on the Indian side and about 1,000 persons on the Bangladesh side.
  • Political instability and disorder in its periphery impacts India’s security directly or indirectly. Proxy war between India and Pakistan adds to this security risk.

Measures needed across border

  • Sensitization of people: The border community should be sensitised to participate in the nation building project through sustained community interaction programmes. o Increase cultural exchanges, tourism and people-to-people contact, including provision of job permits and work visas, for the South Asian countries.
  • Cooperation with neighboring countries: International borders are best managed when neighbours cooperate to secure their mutual borders. For such cooperation to materialise, political and diplomatic initiatives are required to be carefully crafted.
  • Strengthening of Regional Forums: Regional groupings like SAARC, BIMSTEC, BCIM can help in enhancing economic and security cooperation with these countries which will lead to a better understanding of benefits of peace in North-East India.
  • Effective Border Management through ‘smart borders which ensure quick and easy, legal flow of people and goods, while maintaining a steady momentum in the process of improvement of infrastructure and other facilities at checkpoints.
  • Joint Training and operations: Exercises like “Hand in hand” with China, “Operation Sampriti” between India and Bangladesh etc. can help to combat terrorism. o ‘Operation All Clear’ by Bhutan was a landmark operation which was conducted against Assam separatist insurgent groups in the southern regions of Bhutan.

Way forward and conclusion

  • Providing adequate human resource and equipments to the border forces of countries.
  • Building of fences and erecting floodlights.
  • Creating the effective number of check post along the border.
  • Creating the physical infrastructure for movement of forces and logistics i.e. road
  • Night vision technology to the personnel’s serving in border areas.
  • Thermal imaging technique.
  • Tower building for effective eye keeping.
  • Vital in border security is to curb the sources of finance to these illegal groups.
  • The stability of country brings the full utilization of Human resource potential of the country and brings the economic development and peace and prosperity in the country so, border management is a key issue for whole round development of country.

 

 

Topic:  Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

6. Due to their remoteness, some sections of Indian coastline often remain unguarded, or poorly guarded, thereby providing ideal spots for the clandestine landings of arms, explosives and other contraband by smugglers as well as infiltration by terrorists. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about challenges associated with the remoteness of Indian coastline and ways to overcome it.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context.

Body:

In the first part, write about the various challenges associated with the Indian coastline – infiltration, illegal migration, smuggling, terrorism etc. Physical proximity of India’s coasts to Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Gulf countries adds to its vulnerability. India has faced cross-border terrorism for long.

Next, write about the measures that required to overcome the above – through a mix of technology facilitating surveillance, identification, command and control applications.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

Introduction

The 26/11 attack is a grim reminder that coastal security is of utmost significance to our national security. India’s 7,516-kilometre-long coastline includes 5,422 kilometres of coastline on the mainland and 2,094 kilometres on the islands belonging to nine states and four Union Territories.

The coastline accounts for 90% of the country’s trade and it spans 3,331 coastal villages and 1,382 islands. The coastline houses 12 major and 200 minor ports, along with 95 landing centres, and is increasingly facing security challenges from adversarial neighbours and non-state actors.

This has necessitated the adoption of a more structured and holistic approach with a long-term strategy to modernise, update and strengthen naval surveillance and to plug loopholes in coastal security architecture.

 

Body

Vulnerability of Coastal areas in India

  • India’s coasts are characterised by a diverse range of topography such as creeks, small bays, back waters, rivulets, lagoons, swamps, beaches, small islands (inhabited as well as uninhabited) etc.
  • India’s long coastline presents a variety of security concerns that include smuggling of arms and explosives, infiltration, piracy etc.
  • Absence of physical barriers on the coast and presence of vital industrial and defence installations on it enhances the vulnerability of the coasts to illegal cross border activities.
  • Various coastal borders of India are close to politically volatile, economically depressed and unfriendly countries such as Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Gulf countries making it even more vulnerable.

Coastal security mechanism since 26/11

  • The institutional setup for the coastal security includes the National Committee for Strengthening Maritime and Coastal Security at the apex level.
    • It coordinates all matters related to Maritime and Coastal Security and periodically reviews coastal security against threats from the sea with all stakeholders.
  • 3-layered protection of Indian coastal areas has been strengthened and responsibilities have been clearly delineated.
    • Indian Navy: Beyond 200 Nautical Miles (NM)
    • Indian Coast Guard: 12 to 200 NM
    • Marine Police: Up to 12NM from shore
  • Coastal Surveillance Network, comprising of static sensors along coasts, automatic identification systems (AIS), long range tracking, day-night cameras and communication devices has been put in place.
  • Vessel Traffic Management System (VTMS) radars are installed on all major & minor ports to facilitate surveillance.
  • Commissioning of Information Management & Analysis Centre (IMAC) in Gurugram for easy collection and dissemination of shipping data for increased awareness.
  • The Navy established the Information Fusion Centre for the Indian Ocean Region (IFC-IOR) at IMAC for 24/7 regional information sharing on commercial shipping.
  • Activities in maritime zones are now more regulated:
    • Multi-purpose ID issued to all fishermen, seaferrying services and coastal villages
    • Uniform licensing of fishing boats
    • GPS and transponders for tracking.
  • Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) now guards ports.
  • Moreover, Sagar Prahari Bal was constituted as a special force from navy for protection of naval bases.
  • Operation Sagar Kavach was put in operation post 26/11 to improve coordination between security agencies including Indian Navy, Coast Guard and the local police

 

Other Steps taken by government for coastal security

  • Indian Maritime Security Strategy (IMSS) 2015 of Indian Navy: It envisages greater coordination between different maritime agencies; securing Indian Ocean sea lines of communication (SLOCs); Maritime Security Operations for contemporary assessments of maritime terrorism, piracy etc.; multilateral maritime engagement, local capacity building, technical cooperation etc.
  • Coastal Security Scheme (CSS) to strengthen security infrastructure of Marine Police Force in coastal states/UTs.
  • Central Marine Police Force (CMPF) to protect sea, coasts, ports and vital institutions and investigate crimes committed in the coastal water.  Involving fishermen in surveillance & intelligence gathering: Fishermen groups, referred to as the ‘ears and eyes’ of coastal security, are created comprising of trained volunteers who monitor the seas and coastal waters.
  • Enhance Maritime Domain Awareness: through National Command Control Communication and Intelligence Network (NC3I), an over-arching coastal security network which collates and disseminates data about all ships, dhows, fishing boats and all other vessels operating near our coast.
  • Capacity building-The Navy and Coast Guard have also provided periodic maritime training to marine police in all coastal states.
  • Indian Ocean Naval Symposium to provide an open and inclusive forum for discussion of regionally relevant maritime issues.

Issues that remain

  • Shortage of manpower: The marine police stations are not functioning effectively due to shortage of manpower and lack of interceptor boats.
  • Inadequate training for marine police: Though marine police is tasked with overall coastal security but they are not trained for counterterrorism.
  • Lack of a cooperative mechanism: Many agencies like Navy, Coast Guard, Marine Police and other authorities are tasked with coastal security. Hence the information sharing and coordination is a major problem.
  • Inadequate mechanisms at state level: There is below par state-level monitoring mechanisms.
    • Also substituting state-controlled marine police with a central force ignores structural impediments, such as the lack of local intelligence and regional language skills as well as turf wars between the two.
  • Inadequate patrolling: A cumulative shortfall (over 90 percent) in the patrolling efforts, especially at night and decline in physical checks on fishing vessels by the Coastal Police.

Conclusion and way forward

  • Stronger involvement of coastal police: State police agencies may be integrated in the detection and capture of criminals at sea leveraging their unique access to fishermen and local communities, facilitating the flow of vital human intelligence.
  • Need for a legislative framework: Comprehensive legislations must be enacted to place systems and processes for the protection of India’s maritime infrastructure, covering both the shipping and port sectors.
  • Strengthening of the Coast Guard (CG): The CG must be strengthened by removing all ambiguities from the Coast Guard Act. There should be a clear command chain and defined standard operating procedures with reference to coastal security.
  • National Commercial Maritime Security Policy Document: The government must promulgate a National Commercial Maritime Security Policy Document, to articulate its strategic vision for Commercial maritime security.

 

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. The attraction of an ethical theory like Utilitarianism is that it attempts to resolve moral issues on the basis of a single criterion – outcome. Elaborate. (150 Words)

Difficulty Level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Philosophical Mondays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the philosophy of Utilitarianism and the way it resolves moral issues.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining the philosophy of Utilitarianism in brief.

Body:

In your own words, explain that Utilitarianism is a theory of morality that advocates actions that foster happiness or pleasure and oppose actions that cause unhappiness or harm. When directed toward making social, economic, or political decisions, a utilitarian philosophy would aim for the betterment of society as a whole.

Next, write a critique of utilitarianism.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

Introduction

Utilitarianism would say that an action is right if it results in the happiness of the greatest number of people in a society or a group. Utilitarianism is a theory of morality, which advocates actions that foster happiness or pleasure and opposes actions that cause unhappiness or harm. When directed toward making social, economic, or political decisions, a utilitarian philosophy would aim for the betterment of society as a whole.

 

Body

Concept of Utilitarianism

Greatest good of the greatest number, was famously given by Jeremy Bentham, the father of utilitarianism. Bentham’s fundamental axiom, which underlies utilitarianism, was that all social morals and government legislation should aim for producing the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Utilitarianism, therefore, emphasizes the consequences or ultimate purpose of an act rather than the character of the actor, the actor’s motivation, or the particular circumstances surrounding the act. It has these characteristics:

  • Universality, because it applies to all acts of human behaviour, even those that appear to be done from altruistic motives;
  • Objectivity, meaning it operates beyond individual thought, desire, and perspective;
  • Rationality, because it is not based in metaphysics or theology; and
  • Quantifiability in its reliance on utility.

 

Attempt to resolve moral issues on single criterion

Governments of nations can work and operate in such a way that they can gain legitimacy and consent of the majority. This is enough for a government to stay in power and uphold utilitarian principle of greatest happiness of greatest number. In such a scenario, minority needs and minority rights get shunned. For instance, in Nazi Germany Jews were ostracised and ultimately led to genocide. Most of the policies of a majoritarian governments are for the welfare of a certain community, race. This may deny the minority rights or not work towards these sections are they do not form vote banks.

Hence utilitarianism may not lead to justice and rights of minority sections. At the same time, most democracies have a Constitution that protects minorities.

Limitations

  • A limitation of utilitarianism is that it tends to create a black-and-white construct of morality. In utilitarian ethics, there are no shades of gray—either something is wrong or it is right.
  • Utilitarianism also cannot predict with certainty whether the consequences of our actions will be good or bad—the results of our actions happen in the future.
  • Utilitarianism also has trouble accounting for values like justice and individual rights. For example, say a hospital has four people whose lives depend upon receiving organ transplants: a heart, lungs, a kidney, and a liver. If a healthy person wanders into the hospital, his organs could be harvested to save four lives at the expense of his one life. This would arguably produce the greatest good for the greatest number. But few would consider it an acceptable course of action, let alone an ethical one.

 

Conclusion

Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism because it rests on the idea that it is the consequences or results of actions, laws, policies, etc. that determine whether they are good or bad, right or wrong. In general, whatever is being evaluated, we ought to choose the one that will produce the best overall results. In the language of utilitarians, we should choose the option that “maximizes utility,” i.e. that action or policy that produces the largest amount of good.


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