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[MISSION 2023] Insights SECURE : Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 21 October 2022

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. The development of science and technology in ancient India can offer wisdom and key insights to present day scientific advancements. Examine. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

The Indian Space Research Organisation, along with the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), is set to organise a two-day conference themed ‘Akash Tatva’ (the element Akash) in Dehradun that, according to Science Minister Jitendra Singh, would expose “youth of India to the wisdoms of ancient science along with modern scientific advancements”.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the contributions of Ancient India to science and technology and the present-day learnings from it.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Briefly explain about India’s ancient and medieval of development in science.

Body:

Explain that one of the oldest civilizations in the world, the Indian civilization has a strong tradition of science and technology. Ancient India was a land of sages and seers as well as a land of scholars and scientists. India was actively contributing to the field of science and technology centuries long before modern laboratories were set up. Mention a few examples.

Next, mention the major contributions of science and technology in the ancient India.

Next, write about what we can learn from the successes and limitations of ancient science and technology.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance and relevance of such discoveries and inventions even in today’s times.

 

Topic: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

2. Acknowledging and promoting linguistic diversity in the country will lead to social inclusion and national solidarity. Analyse.  (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The Official Language Committee, headed by Home Minister Amit Shah, recently submitted its report to President Droupadi Murmu. It recommended that Hindi be made the medium of instruction in Central institutions of higher education in Hindi-speaking States and regional languages in other States. This has reignited a debate on the imposition of Hindi.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance of linguistic diversity and its role in building national solidarity and social inclusion.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Briefly explain what linguistic diversity is.

Body:

First, in detail comment upon the Need and importance of preserving linguistic diversity – Cultural Identity, Cultural Diversity, glimpse of our past etc. Write about the links between promoting linguistic diversity and social inclusion and national solidarity.

Next, Discuss the Government efforts in this direction in terms of statutes, provisions in the constitution, technological measures etc.

Next, write about the limitations of the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to overcome the limitations.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

3. What ate the causes for urban poverty in India? Discuss the measures that can be taken in order to end urban poverty in the country. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live MintInsights on India

Why the question:

India lifted about 415 million people out of multidimensional poverty between 2005-06 and 2019-21, according to the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), an initiative of UNDP and Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about causes of urban poverty and steps that are needed in order to end it.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving statistic about the numbers of urban poor in India

Body:

First, mention the various causes of poverty in Urban areas and how it is much more severe than the rural areas.

Next, write about the measures that are needed in order to end urban poverty – minimum wages, social security, food and nutritional security and rehabilitation and resettlement, Housing etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. Do you think there is need for a central anti-superstition law in order to deal strictly with crimes associated with superstition, occult practices and black magic? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The brutal murders of two women as part of “ritualistic human sacrifices” in Pathanamthitta district of Kerala have left the country in shock. And in the absence of a comprehensive law to counter such inhuman acts, the call for a strict anti-superstition law has only grown louder.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the need for an anti-superstition law across the country.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving the statistic related to crimes due to superstitious practise.

Body:

First, write about the prevalence of superstition, occult practices and black magic in the Indian society and how it impacts the society in the absence of an anti-superstition law.

In the next part, write about the various measures taken by state governments like Maharashtra and Karnataka to deal with the same and how a central law can be effective curbing superstitious beliefs effectively.

Next, write about the impediments to enactment of such a law.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

5. The biosphere is the connection between the healthy life of the living organisms and their interactions. The little change in the biosphere can cause a large impact on the lives of living organisms. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyse the importance of biosphere functions and impact in its change.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin defining biosphere.

Body:

First, mention briefly various functions of biosphere. Give various instances of depleting natural resources. Cite earth overshoot day to substantiate.

Next, bring out the impact of the same – The increase in human population levels and the harvesting of more of Earth’s natural resources has led to overexploitation. Human activities are causing major alterations to the patterns of energy flow and nutrient cycling through ecosystems, and these activities are eliminating populations and species.

Next, mention how the above can be incorporated to achieved sustainable development.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

6. What are ecotones? Ecotones deserve high conservation investment, potentially serving as speciation and biodiversity centres. Elaborate on their importance. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the ecotones and their importance and the need to conserve them.

Directive word: 

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin defining ecotone.

Body:

First, mention briefly how ecotones are formed. Mentioned about the edge effect.

Next, write about the importance of ecotones – providing an area for a large number of species, nesting, food provisions, greater genetic diversity, serve as bridges of “gene flow” and buffer-zone” protecting the neighbouring ecosystem from possible environmental damage.

Next, write about the need to conserve them.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising the importance and how Ecotones provide a sensitive indicator of global change.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Case Study

7. Rakesh was working as a Joint Commissioner in Transport department of a city. As a part of his job profile, among others, he was entrusted with the task of overseeing the control and functioning of City Transport Department. A case strike by drivers’ union of City Transport Department over the issue of compensation to a driver who died on duty while driving the bus came up before him for decision in the matter.

He gathered that the driver (deceased) was plying Bus No. 528 which passed through busy and congested roads of the city. It so happened that near an intersection on the way, there was an accident involving a middle-aged man. It was found that there was altercation between the driver and the car driver. Heated arguments between them led to fight and the driver gave him a a blow. Lot of passerbys had gathered and tried to intervene but without success. Eventually, both of them were badly injured and profusely bleeding and were taken to the nearby hospital. The driver succumbed to the injuries and could not be saved. The middle-aged driver’s condition was also critical but after a day, he recovered and was discharged. Police had immediately come to the spot and FIR was registered. Police investigation revealed that the quarrel in was started by the bus driver and he had resorted to physical violence. There exchange of blows between them.

The City Transport Department management is considering of not giving any extra compensation to the driver’s (deceased) family. The family is very aggrieved. depressed and agitated against the discriminatory and non-sympathetic approach of the City Transport Department management. The bus driver (deceased) was 52 years of age, was survived by his wife and two school-college going daughters. He was the sole earner of the family. The City Transport Department workers’ union took up this case and when found no favourable response from the management, decided to go on strike. The union’s demand was two fold. First was full extra compensation as given to other drivers who died on duty and secondly employment to one family member. The strike has continued for 10 days and the deadlock remains.

(a) What are the options available to Rakesh to meet the above situation?

(b) Critically examine each of the options identified by Rakesh.

(c) What are the ethical dilemmas being faced by Rakesh?

(d) What course of action would Rakesh adopt to diffuse the above situation?

(250 words) (UPSC 2022)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving the context. Bring out the key stakeholders in the above case study.

Body:

In the body, write about the ethical dilemmas present in the case.

Next, Write about the various options available to Rakesh and their pros and cons.

Next, write about the action that Rakesh must take in order resolve the issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing on the importance of rationality and compassion in such cases.


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