Topic: Disaster and disaster management.
6. Risk reduction rather than emergency response, with an emphasis on timely evacuation of population with proper warning periods, sheltering in fortified structures and emergency communications is key to mitigation. Discuss. (250 words)
Difficulty level: Moderate
Reference: Down to Earth
Why the question:
The Odisha government has ramped up preparation for evacuation and emergency services in the state’s coastal districts in the face of Cyclone Sitrang that is expected to make landfall on the Odisha coast October 23-23, 2022.
Key Demand of the question:
To write about the need of a long-term mitigation measures for cyclones.
Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.
Structure of the answer:
Begin by providing context and the increasing frequency of cyclones in India.
In first part, cite the data and write the reasons for increasing frequency of cyclones on both the eastern and western coast of India. Increasing sea surface temperatures in the northern Indian Ocean and the changing geo-climatic conditions in India etc.
Next, bring out the economic costs and human costs as a result of devastation caused by the severe cyclones.
Mention the measures that are needed – installing a disaster warning system in the coastal districts, and construction of evacuation shelters in cyclone-prone districts etc. Mention long term measures – Embankments that are resilient to storm surges, improved prevention of flooding from swollen rivers and coastal mangrove habitats regeneration etc.
Conclude with a way forward.