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[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 19 October 2022

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

 

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Considering the unique features of Indian arts, we must not just sustain these art traditions but build on them. Examine. (250)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Recently, a dedicated report of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Education (2021–22) has very elaborately discussed issues in arts education and given some important recommendations.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the need to building upon the rich heritage of Indian arts.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give the context of rich Indian arts.

Body:

First, write about unique features of Indian arts in detail and its rich cultural legacy since time immemorial.

Next, write about the need to shift from sustaining these art forms to build on them to ensure they remain of source of livelihood, provide opportunities etc. Suggest steps to do the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

Introduction

India has a vast basket of living and diverse cultural traditions, traditional expressions, intangible cultural heritage comprising masterpieces which need institutional support and encouragement with a view to addressing areas critical for the survival and propagation of these forms of cultural heritage. Preserving our heritage is enshrined as a Fundamental Duty in our Constitution.

Body

Unique features of Indian Arts

  • Traditionally, fine arts, performing arts, and visual arts have played a significant role in setting agendas and shaping narratives.
  • More importantly, with an increasingly frightening spectre of the flattening of the world, it is these disciplines of knowledge that help any society retain its cultural identity.
  • In the context of India, it is an undeniable fact that a plethora of rich and colourful art traditions have made this great nation stand apart from the rest.
  • All our major dance traditions and our music—both vocal and instrumental—have traditionally been seen as dedicated to the worship of gods and goddesses.
  • They essentially have a spiritual foundation.
  • While the importance of STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) cannot be undermined, it is the education of different arts that plays a major role in creative thinking.

Ways to sustain the art traditions of India

  • Strengthening Legislations and Initiatives:
    • The Antiquity Act of 1947, Antiquities and Art Treasures Act of 1972 particularly provide for the prevention of smuggling and illegally dealing in antiques.
    • Recent bill to amend The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act which allowed construction within 100m of the protected monuments should be avoided.
    • In 2015, the ministry launched an initiative of e-ticketing services in over 116 monuments under the ASI and launched an initiative to digitise cultural resources.
  • Strengthening institutions:
    • The CAG report on Preservation and Conservation of Monuments and Antiques clearly indicates that the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) for this purpose needs to be more proactive and vigilant in its efforts and the ministry needs to develop an aggressive strategy for the same
    • Tapping of the Public —Private Partnership models for sustenance of Arts and Crafts.
    • Setting up at least one museum in each district with different chambers for visual and other forms of art, architecture, science, history and geography with regional flavour.
    • Artistes from the field of architecture, sculpture, painting, handicrafts, puppetry, music, dance, theatre, and literature will be graded by the Centre on the basis of their performance.
  • Cultural awareness:
    • Curriculum modification – Identification and inclusion of heritage as an asset in school, Open departments of Heritage management on the lines of Ahmedabad University
    • Introduction of a compulsory offline and online training for tourism purposes willing to undertake ventures.
    • Heritage depiction and promotion through immersive technology & augmented reality
    • Re-Classify heritage and announce awards for people with exceptional heritage sense.
    • Greater involvement of universities in schemes promoting arts and culture as well as inclusion of Fine Arts as a subject in universities.
  • Adaptive reuse of heritage sites:
    • Restoring the historical sites in the form of festivals and inducing festivity link perceptions.
    • Recognizing ‘cultural heritage tourism’ as an upcoming industry by building cultural resources with an adaptation of scientific and technological knowledge to local circumstances as well as forming partnerships between local and global bodies.

Conclusion

It is the duty of every citizen to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture. The art and culture of our nation are a vast continuum, evolving incessantly since time immemorial. Naturally, preservation and conservation of India’s rich cultural heritage and promotion of all forms of art and culture, both tangible and intangible, including monuments and archaeological sites, anthropology and ethnology, folk and tribal arts, literature and handicrafts, performing art of music-dance-drama and visual arts of paintings-sculpture-graphics is essential and assumes a lot of importance.

 

 

Topic: Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

2. Analyse the lessons learnt from the Sino-Indian War of 1962. What changes were introduced subsequently after the war?  (250)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The 1962 India-China war (it began on October 20), there is no indication of its observance in which India lost so many of its brave men — (as in one report) 1,383 soldiers killed, 1,047 wounded, 1,696 missing and over 400 prisoners of war with the Chinese.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the consequences and changes introduced after Sino-Indian War of 1962.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Give the context of the outbreak of Sino-Indian War of 1962 and its outcome.

Body:

In the detail, mention the consequences of Sino-Indian war on various fronts like Political, Foreign Affairs, Defence and Military, and Ideological etc.

Next, write about the changes that were brought in to prevent such a debacle from happening.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing the bitter lessons learnt in 1962 are relevant in modern day geopolitics.

 

Introduction

China launched a swift and massive invasion in October 1962 on Aksai-chin area  in  the  Ladakh  region  of  Jammu  and  Kashmir  and NEFA  (North  Eastern  Frontier  Agency). The first attack lasted one week and Chinese forces captured some key areas in Arunachal Pradesh. The second wave of attack came next month. While the Indian forces could block the Chinese advances on the western  front  in  Ladakh,  in  the  east  the  Chinese  managed  to advance  nearly  to  the  entry  point  of  Assam  plains.  Finally, China declared a unilateral ceasefire and its troops withdrew to where they were before the invasion began.

Body

Lessons learnt from Sino-Indian War of 1962

  • First, the war of 1962 sealed the fate of the Tibet issue as an eternal source of tension in Sino-Indian relations. This has had both strategic and tactical consequences.
  • Strategically,the Dalai Lama’s presence in India, which the war made de facto irreversible, is a constant strain on Sino-Indian relations and the embodiment of the unresolved status of the Tibet issue.
  • For Beijing, the Dalai Lama’s government in exile in Dharamsala has been a constant challenge to its rule in Tibet. For Delhi, it has been a symbol of Beijing’s refusal to grant real autonomy to Tibet.
  • On a tactical level, Sino-Indian relations have been held hostage by events in Tibet and the relationship between the Chinese government and the Tibetans.
  • 1962 has bequeathed to China and India the border dispute that started the war and has made resolving it a Herculean task. Thus to this day China continues to claim the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, while New Delhi lays claim to the Chinese-controlled Aksai Chin territory.
  • A series of incidents- including Indian officials visiting the disputed areas, Beijing refusing to issue visa’s to Indian officers stationed in the disputed area, and official Chinese references to Arunachal Pradesh as “South Tibet”- have rekindled the dispute and led to a new cycle of accusations and tensions.
  • The territorial dispute has led to dangerous militarization of the Sino-Indian border, especially in disputed areas. Both sides have built transportation infrastructure, airstrips, and outposts and have deployed large numbers of troops to the border, including a Tibetan paramilitary special force employed by India’s intelligence service.
  • The result has been frequent stand-offs and even occasional skirmishes between Indian and Chinese soldiers, as seen during last year’s Galwanvalley clashes.
  • The border war has instilled deep mistrust and a strong sense of rivalrybetween the two sides.
  • To this day, Beijing suspects that India, with the help of the U.S., strives to undermine its rule in Tibet in order to balance against China’s growing power. These suspicions have only been heightened by India’s hosting of the Dalai Lama and the recent improvement in U.S.-Indian relations.
  • For its part, India still sees China as a nationalist, aggressive power which seeks to dominate Asia and one that might once again strike unexpectedly, just as it did in 1962.
  • These stereotypes, often propagated by jingoistic media, have proved a major obstacle to building a strong and stable Sino-Indian relationship.

Changes introduced after war:

  • The war of 1962 has also charged Sino-Indian relations with a strong sense of rivalry which has shaped the foreign policies of both countries.
  • Seeking to balance the other side, each country has forged relationships that act as a counterpoint to the other; most notably, Beijing’s “all weather friendship” with Islamabad and Delhi’s partnership with Moscow.
  • The rivalry has also led both sides to compete for influence in their peripheries, especially in Burma and Nepal, and to resent the spread of the other’s influence close to their borders.
  • Hence, Delhi has often obsessed over Chinese penetration in South Asia and its purported “string of pearls” around India’s maritime borders, while Beijing has resented India’s growing involvement in Southeast Asia and especially in the South China Sea.

Conclusion

Nearly a half a century since the brief war occurred, it continues to cast a long shadow over Sino-Indian relations. The legacy of the war enhances the inherent competition between China and India. While growing trade and cooperation mitigate this competition, a long list of factors, such as the security dilemma engendered by the militarization of disputed Sino-Indian border, keep it alive.

 

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

3. Indus Waters Treaty is often cited as an example of the possibilities of peaceful coexistence that exist despite the troubled relationship between both neighbouring countries. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

Michel Lino has been appointed as the Neutral Expert and Sean Murphy has been appointed as Chairman of the Court of Arbitration regarding the Kishenganga and Ratle hydroelectric power plants.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the significance and shortcomings of Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving context about the Indus Waters Treaty.

Body:

First, write about the major provisions of the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan.

Next, write about the successes of Indus Waters Treaty in ensuring peaceful coexistence despite troubled relations between the both countries and its significance.

Next, write about the various issues in the Indus Waters Treaty which have affected both the parties and possible solutions to it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Introduction

The Indus system comprises of main Indus River, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. The basin is mainly shared by India and Pakistan with a small share for China and Afghanistan. Under the treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960, all the waters of three rivers, namely Ravi, Sutlej and Beas (Eastern Rivers) were allocated to India for exclusive use. While, the waters of Western rivers – Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab were allocated to Pakistan except for specified domestic, non-consumptive and agricultural use permitted to India as provided in the Treaty. India has also been given the right to generate hydroelectricity through run of the river (RoR) projects on the Western Rivers which, subject to specific criteria for design and operation is unrestricted.

 

Body

 

Reasons behind success of Indus Water Treaty

  • First, the treaty has unequal sharing of the waters. Pakistan has been allocated ~80% of the Indus basin waters.
  • Experts have termed this the most generous water sharing treaty. It is the only water-sharing pact in the world that compels upper riparian State to defer to the interests of the downstream State.
  • Second, it prevents India from building any storage systemson the western rivers.
  • Even though the treaty lays out that under certain exceptional circumstances storage systems can be built, Pakistan deliberately stops any such effort. The extensively technical nature of the treaty allows Pakistan to stall legitimate Indian Projects.
  • Third, the basin’s size and volume is getting altered by climate changeand this alteration is going to intensify in future. There would be instances of more high-intensity rainfall as well as long stretches of scanty rainfall.
  • There would be a high influx of water due to glacial melt. The contribution of glaciers in the Indus basin is higher than in the Ganges or Brahmaputra basins.
  • A change in the flow conditions may classify as ‘change of circumstances’ which can justify renegotiation or termination in the future.
  • Fourth, the recent report of the Standing Committee of Water resources noted that canals in Punjab and Rajasthan (Rajasthan Feeder and the Sirhind Feeder) had become old and were not maintained properly. This had resulted in the lowering of their water carrying capacity.
  • Thus, the water from the Harike Barrage on the confluence of the Beas and Sutlej in Punjab was usually released downstream into Pakistan. Pakistan is getting more waters than its entitlement in the Eastern Rivers.

Way forward for India

  • India should take steps to completely utilize its entitlement of waters of Western Rivers. The infrastructure to utilize the waters has remained under-developed in J&K.
  • Some experts suggest that in case of escalation of hostilities by Pakistan in future, India can suspend the meetings of Permanent Commission. If the first state of dispute redressal is not functional, the subsequent two steps of 3-tier dispute redressal don’t kick in. Thus India can use this as a pressure tactic on Pakistan.
  • India should explore the possibility of using climate change as a ‘change in circumstances’ to initiate conversation on renegotiation of the IWT. This will also put pressure on Pakistan.
  • Experts in India and Pakistan should assess how much of the waters in the Eastern and Western rivers are snow or rain-fed within their respective territories. Such estimates would add to the accuracy of each side’s dependence on the other in sharing the waters of these rivers.
  • As per the standing committee of water resources, the canal systems in Punjab and Rajasthan should be repaired to increase their water carrying capacity.

Conclusion

The Indus Waters Treaty is considered one of the most successful water-sharing endeavours in the world today. However, there is a need to update certain technical specifications and expand the scope of the agreement to address climate change.

 

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Government Budgeting.

4. What are the reasons for increase in the frequency of currency and balance of payments crises in developing countries? What steps are required to prevent them from repeating in India? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about reasosn for increasing BOP crises, India’s vulnerabilities with regards to its BoP and steps needed to prevent it.

Directive word:

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining BoP crisis.

Body:

First, in brief, elaborate on the evolution of India’s BoP and various crises faced with respect to BoP.

Next, write about the various reforms undertaken to strengthen India’s BoP scenario and write about their impact.

Next, write about the present vulnerabilities with respect to India’s BoP and steps needed to prevent it from any adverse impact.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

 

Introduction

Balance of Payment (BoP) of a country can be defined as a systematic statement of all economic transactions of a country with the rest of the world during a specific period usually one year. It indicates whether the country has a surplus or a deficit on trade. When exports exceed imports, there is a trade surplus and when imports exceed exports there is a trade deficit.

Body

reasons for increase in the frequency of currency and balance of payments crises in developing countries

  • Trade imbalance

 

  • A BoP deficit can arise if a country’s imports amount to more than its total exports.
  • Rapid Economic Development
    • High outflow of foreign exchange to meet import demands like technology, machines, and equipment can lead to BoP deficit.
  • Inflation
    • Sustained rise in a country’s prices can often make foreign products cheaper, leading to a high volume of imports.
  • Political Disturbance
    • Unstable tax structures, change in government, etc. can lead to a loss in foreign investment, and give way for BoP deficit.
    • Apart from these, factors like population explosion, change in the preference and tastes of the general population, etc. can also contribute to the balance of payment of a country.

Steps required to prevent Balance of Payments crisis

  • Monetary Policy (Deflection)
    • Monetary policy may be devised to correct a deficit in the balance of payments of a country. The deficit occurs because of high import and exports. This is to be reversed.
    • In this regard, the country may adopt deflationary or dear money policy by raising the bank rate and restricting credit
  • Exchange Control
    • Restriction on the use of foreign exchange by the central banks called Exchange Control.
    • When exchange control is adopted, all the exporters have to surrender their foreign exchange earnings to Central Bank.
  • Raising Agricultural Production:
    • To reduce imports of food-grains, agricultural production had to be increased.
  • Import Substitution:
    • The policy of import substitution has also been in operation for a long time. It refers to growing substitution of imported goods by encouraging domestic production of such goods.
  • Export Promotion:
    • choosing of commodities with export potential such as engineering goods, readymade garments, chemicals and allied products, gems and jewellery, etc.,
    • incentives to exporters such as various types of encouragements, concessions and facilities in the form of cash subsidies, duty-free import of capital goods, raw materials, exemption from union excise duty, exemption of export income from income tax, special import licences for raw materials required for export, bank loans at low rates of interest to exporters and so on; and
    • organisational efforts such as creation of Export Promotion Councils for promoting exports of various goods; creation of specialised institutions for export promotion like Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, The Federation of Indian Export Organisation, The Export-Import Bank, etc., arrangements of trade fairs, trade centers, showrooms in and outside India and so on.
  • Cost Reduction:
    • One of the important conditions for the expansion of exports is the re­duction in production costs and, hence, prices, to make country’s products competitive in the interna­tional market
  • Measures from Indian Perspective
    • Adoption of a cautious approach in en­couraging large inflows of external commercial borrowing, portfolio invest­ment by foreigners and large contribu­tion from NRI’s in the from of bonds.
    • Rising exports by at least 12% per an­num.
    • Introducing a policy of selective im­port liberalisation in priority areas.

Conclusion

The balance of payments data should catalyse finance ministry and RBI to jointly initiate a thorough study of the causes for the deterioration in the past. Very likely, there are measures which can be initiated quickly to arrest the slide in case the vulnerability deepens due to global factors.

 

 

 

Topic: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

5. Critically analyse the performance of Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) scheme in seamless and timely delivery of benefits to the intended beneficiaries. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Last week, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) lauded India’s Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) Scheme as a “logistical marvel” that has reached hundreds of millions of people and specifically benefitted women, the elderly and farmers.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about DBT, its successes and limitations.

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about aims and objectives of Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT).

Body:

First, write about the need for introducing Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) and its evolution in India.

Next, write about the successes and limitations of Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) across the country. Cite statistics to substantiate your points.

Suggest measures to make DBT more robust and overcoming the limitations posed by the DBT.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Introduction

Direct Benefits Transfer programme aims to bring transparency through transfer of subsidies directly to the beneficiaries through their bank accounts. Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) is Government’s major reform initiative to re- engineer the existing delivery processes, ensuring better and timely delivery of benefits using Information & Communication Technology (ICT) by transferring benefits into the bank/postal accounts, preferably Aadhaar seeded, of accurately targeted beneficiaries, as well as in-kind transfers from Government to individual beneficiaries.

Last week, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) lauded India’s Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) Scheme as a “logistical marvel” that has reached hundreds of millions of people and specifically benefitted women, the elderly and farmers.

Body

 

Success of the DBT Scheme

  • By 2022, more than 135 crore Aadhaars have been generated, there are 47 crore beneficiaries under Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana, 6.5 lakh Bank Mitras delivering branchless banking services and mobile subscribers number more than 120 crore.
  • Riding on this network, the DBT programme has reached commanding heights towards achieving the government’s vision of “sabka vikas”.
  • Becoming the major plank of the government’s agenda of inclusive growth, it has 318 schemes of 53 central ministries spanning across sectors, welfare goals and the vast geography of the country.
  • In rural Bharat, DBT has allowed the government to provide financial assistance effectively and transparently to farmers with lower transaction costs – be it for fertilisers or any of the other schemes including the PM Kisan Samman Nidhi, PM Fasal Bima Yojana, and PM Krishi Sinchayi Yojana — thus becoming the backbone for supporting the growth of the agricultural economy.
  • The benefits received under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act and Public Distribution System drive the rural demand-supply chain.
  • In urban India, the PM Awas Yojana and LPG Pahal scheme successfully use DBT to transfer funds to eligible beneficiaries.
  • Various scholarship schemes and the National Social Assistance Programme use the DBT architecture to provide social security.
  • DBT under rehabilitation programmes such as the Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers opens new frontiers that enable social mobility of all sections of society.
  • The efficacy and robustness of the DBT network were witnessed during the pandemic. It aided the government to reach the last mile and support the most deprived in bearing the brunt of the lockdown.
  • From free rations to nearly 80 crore people under the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana, fund transfers to all women Jan Dhan account holders and support to small vendors under PM-SVANidhi, DBT helped the vulnerable to withstand the shock of the pandemic.

Reasons for success

  • The DBT scheme that began as a pilot in 2013-14 could not have achieved the size and scale it has today without the government’s financial inclusion programme, which helped plug leakages in welfare schemes, weed out fake or ghost beneficiaries and transfer funds to genuine beneficiaries.
  • This ensured significant savings to the exchequer and enabled efficient utilisation of government funds.

Shortcomings of DBT

  • low level of literacy in the rural strata of our population
  • poor presence of the branches of banks and their ATM service in the remote area of the country causing consumption of time and money as the extra burden to the beneficiary.
  • There are issues with technology implementation on the ground, such as ensuring foolproof fingerprint recognition, especially for manual workers and the elderly. There is also the issue of ‘connectivity’—ensuring real-time online authentication where there is little or no mobile phone network
  • misuse of money with respect of account holding by males

Way forward and conclusion

  • An enabling policy regime, proactive government initiatives and supportive regulatory administration allowed the private and public sector entities in the financial sector to overcome longstanding challenges of exclusion of a large part of the population.
  • The DBT approach is expected to expand further in size and structure as it continues to be the major tool of the government for a more nuanced and targeted intervention towards improving the ease of living.
  • However, digital and financial literacy, robust grievance redressal, enhancing awareness and an empowering innovation system are some of the aspects that would require continued focus.
  • This would play a vital role for India in meeting the diverse needs of its population and ensuring balanced, equitable and inclusive growth.

 

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

6. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“Holding anger is a poison…It eats you from inside…We think that by hating someone we hurt them…But hatred is a curved blade…and the harm we do to others…we also do to ourselves.” ― Mitch Albom

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about the disadvantages and limitation of the anger. The effects of the anger on oneself and its long-term repercussions. Cite examples to substantiate your points. Write ways to let go of anger and forgive.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarise.

 

 

Introduction

The above quote captures the ills of fomenting anger within oneself. Gandhiji had rightly acclaimed that “An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind”. Meaning anger is like an epidemic and if anger is nurtured, then it could be disastrous to the entire mankind. Anger is one such emotion which should be kept in check for a happy and contented life.

Body

Anger, hatred & intolerance restricts the rational thinking of an individual, by making him/her biased. This results in lack of correct understanding. Correct understanding means, “a disposition to appreciate or share the feelings and thoughts of others.” Anger makes a person to lose his patience and thus slowly gets intolerant.

Anger affects the person who is angry as well as all the people who are touched by that person’s anger. An angry person is likely to speak harshly. Sometimes angry people hurt themselves if they are unable or out of reach of the people at whom they want to direct their anger.

Examples: Rising cases of intolerance in society like Mob lynching, communal clashes, internet shaming etc. are because of the intolerance and anger which is causing biased and radical views among masses.

Evils like honour killing, acid attack by spurned lovers is because of anger at the moment. Anger does not allow rational thinking and people take up extreme steps and kill their own children/love ones due to uncontrolled emotions.

Conclusion

Anger and intolerance can be controlled by speedy Justice Delivery, persuasion by leaders, celebrities and well-known personalities, check on social media and provocative sites/platforms, efforts of government, public awareness, and value based education etc.

 

 

 

Topic : Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“There is only one type of dirt that cannot be cleansed with pure waters, and that is the stain of hatred and bigotry contaminating the soul. You can purify your body through abstinence and fasting, but only love will purify your heart.” ― Elif Shafak

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about how bigotry impacts us and the society. Tell how love is the anti-dote of bigotry and no solution other than that. Mention the ways to tackle bigotry and promote love to tackle it. Cite examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

 

Introduction

The ability of human beings to love is one of the strongest source of ethics. The love for family, self, partner or friends makes a person honest, just, sacrificing, loyal and moral. The only source of true ethics is love. Love is the only element that sufficiently transcends self-interest to allow for a truly ethical orientation, a truly giving orientation, a truly self-sacrificing orientation. Love is pure ethics, and immorality is pure selfishness.

Body

The philosophical treatment of love transcends a variety of sub-disciplines including epistemology, metaphysics, religion, human nature, politics and ethics. Often statements or arguments concerning love, its nature and role in human life for example connect to one or all the central theories of ethics and philosophy.

Love makes us first of all think of romantic attraction, affection and desire – a whirlwind of emotions, yes, but that is only one of countless forms in which we experience love. In so many different contexts do we speak of love that one may actually wonder what they have in common, if anything: Love between teacher and pupil, love of parents for children, of children for parents; love of your dog or your cats, your country, your grandparents.

Love and ethics have intricate connection like Gandhiji demonstrated. Evil was to be met not by evil but by good. “It is easy for you to love your friends, but I say unto you, love your enemies”, he admonished. The only way to purge the world of evil was to overcome “anger by love, untruth by truth, and himsa by ahimsa.”

Conclusion

Love is the very basis of the energy of our Ethical Values. If we do not understand the energy of love, know how to live our love, know how to share our love, then we will lie, cheat, and steal as our external image of love. The ethical aspects in love involve the moral appropriateness of loving, and the forms it should or should not take.

 


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