- Prelims:Current events of international importance, NATO, Paris agreement etc
- Mains GS Paper II:Bilateral, regional and global grouping involving India or affecting India’s interests etc
- Turkey is at the center of regional diplomacy amid the Russia-Ukraine war.
INSIGHTS ON THE ISSUE
- The origin of the ideology of pan-Turkism dates back to the mid-19th century when campaigns for uniting Turkic people in Russia gained traction.
- Its geographic scope eventually became much wider, covering the huge spread of Turkic people from the “Balkans to the Great Wall of China.
- However,in the 20th century, the decline of Turkey began with the integration of Turkic people into other states.
Steps by President Erdogan to re-establish relations:
- He has rebuilt bridges with Israel: Meeting its Prime Minister on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly and pledging to cooperate on shared security and energy interests.
- Engagement with Syria:Indicated Turkey’s readiness to engage with Syrian President
Stand on NATO members:
- NATO: It retains its tough posture on Sweden’s membership of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
- Confrontation: Maintains its confrontation with fellow NATO member, Greece.
Issues faced by Turkey:
- Turkey is concerned about expanding ties between Greece and the United States: The deployment of U.S. military supplies on islands in the Aegean that are close to Turkey, in violation of several agreements, including Lausanne (1923)and Paris (1947).
- Cyprus and the East Mediterranean: The U.S. removed restrictions on defense supplies to Cyprus in response denying refueling and repair facilities to Russian naval vessels.
Stand of Turkey:
- Turkey concluded an energy agreement with the Tripoli-based Libyan government: For joint exploration of hydrocarbon resources in the East Mediterranean.
- It is the only NATO member, which can engage with Russia and mediate in the Ukraine war.
- Grain agreement: Turkey successfully negotiated the grain agreement with Russia and Ukraine.
- Important differences on:
- Armenia, Syria, Libya and the East Mediterranean.
- Significant Russian investments and financial transfers to Turkish banks: including a $15 billion transfer from Russia’s nuclear company, to its Turkish partner.
- Turkey’s exports to Russia: It has increased 75% over the last year.
- It has emerged as a major importer of Russian energy:The Russian President has reciprocated by proposing that Turkey become a hub for supplies of Russian gas to Europe.
- Turkey has indicated its interest in membership of the SCO:In response to criticisms that this is an anti-West grouping.
- Serious economic crises:with inflation well over 80%.
- Hostility and confrontation: Anti-Kurdish hostility and confrontations with Greece.
- Global level: Erdoğan has positioned Turkey at the center of the East-West divide, reaping benefits from both sides, but fully committing to neither of them.
- Turkey’s military posture vis-à-vis the Kurds in Syria and Iraq: while maintaining links with the governments in Baghdad and the Kurdistan Regional Government in Arbil.
- Turkey has nurtured ties: with Turkmen and Islamist groups, to the chagrin of Russia and Iran.
- Erdoğan foreign policy: It reflects the usage of politics and geopolitics, mixed with strong elements of Ottoman glory.
QUESTION FOR PRACTICE
- Critically examine the aims and objectives of SCO. what importance does it hold for India(UPSC 2021)
(250 WORDS, 15 MARKS)