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[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 28 September 2022

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

1. Defining colonialism, examine the social and economic impact of colonialism on India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Live MintInsights on India

Why the question:

It was hardly surprising that when Queen Elizabeth II died on 8 September, chatter around the Kohinoor diamond immediately broke out in the context of how the British monarchy looted India.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about colonialism, its social and economic impact on India.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by defining colonialism.

Body:

First, write about the social impact of colonialism in India. Write both the positive and negative impacts witnessed in the society of colonial India.

Next, write about the economic impact of colonialism in India. Write about the drain, the deindustrialisation, the economic stagnation as well positive impact of colonial rule.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a balanced opinion.

Introduction

Colonialism or colonization is the “the system or policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories”. Colonialism implies domination of people’s life and culture. The main goal of colonialism is extraction of economic benefits from the colony.

Body

India and colonialism

  • Vasco da Gama’s discovery of a new sea route to India in 1498 started the process of direct Indo-European commerce.
  • The Portuguese soon set up trading-posts in Goa, Daman, Diu and Bombay.
  • The next to arrive were the Dutch, the Englishand finally the French.
  • The internal conflicts among Indian Kingdoms, the technological superiority of Europeans and financial benefits of commerce enabled the European traders to gradually gain political and military influence and appropriate lands.
  • Although all European powers controlled various regions of southern and eastern India, ultimately they lost all their territories in India to the British, with the exception of the few outposts, like French of Pondichéry, the Dutch port in Travancore, and the Portuguese colonies of Goa, Daman, and Diu.

 

Social and Economic impact of Colonialism

  • Deindustrialisation of markets:the effect on third world countries of social and economic change caused by skewed industrial revolution of first world countries. This led to rising unemployment in various sectors of economy of various nations.
  • Boost to Mercantilism: Mercantilism, in a way, was both the cause as well as the effect of colonialism. Mercantile economic policies were definitely an impetus for the start of colonization. But subsequently, the benefits due to colonial exploitation further reinforced the ideology of mercantile capitalism and augmented its spread across Europe. As a result, these countries saw very rapid increase in trade volume while colonies suffered proportionally.
  • Economic impact of colonialismis the ‘drain of wealth, led to control over production and trade, the exploitation of natural resources, and the improvement of infrastructure.
  • Political deprivation: No rights for Indians in political administration. Laws and regulations made for British welfare. Role of Indians in administration very miniscule. Decision regarding welfare of Indians taken by administrators in Britain.
  • Slave Trade: To effectively utilize the resources, colonizers needed immense amount of labour. During the initial years, the European settlers met labour requirements by enslaving the native populations. However, the decline in the native population led to importing slaves from Africa which emerged as a lucrative alternative.
  • Social inequality: Indians were treated as inferior compared to British. Interest and tradition of Indians were not respected. People forced to follow British social order and Indians not given due respect. Equality between Indians and British non-existent.
  • Columbian Exchange:The term Columbian Exchange refers to the widespread exchange of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas that occurred between the new world (Americas) and the Old World (Eurasia) in the 15th and 16th centuries, as a result of European colonization and trade.

 

Conclusion

Thus colonialism denotes a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony, and often between the colonists and the indigenous population; relationships in which the colonists acquire benefits (disproportionally), at the expense of the local population.

 

Value addition

Factors that led to colonialism

  • Economic Consideration:The countries like England, France, Spain and Portugal established their colonies primarily for the economic benefits.
  • Mercantilism:The policy of Mercantilism was based on the premise that the economic development of the mother country (Metropolis) was most important and the colonies should be governed in such a way that they lead to the benefit of the mother country.
  • European Rivalry:The exploration and colonization was started by Spain and Portugal. Gradually, other countries like France and England also entered the race. Acquiring new colonies became a thing of national pride. Moreover, due to various economic benefits of colonization, a stage of ‘competitive colonialism’ started among the European powers.
  • To Spread Christianity:During the Age of Discovery; the Catholic Church started a major effort to spread Christianity in the New World by converting indigenous peoples. As such, the establishment of Christian missions went simultaneously with the colonizing efforts of European powers such as Spain, France and Portugal.
  • Push Factors:The enclosure movement, taking land out of cultivation and converting it into pastureland for sheep, was creating a surplus population. Sheep raising, more profitable than traditional agriculture, required fewer labourers. The new lands in America gave these unemployed a place to work.

 

 

Topic: urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

2. Despite various measures aimed at addressing the issue of solid waste management, it continues to be a major issue in urban areas. Analyse.  (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian ExpressInsights on India

Why the question:

This monsoon, several parts of India have found themselves literally swimming in filth and sewage. Gutters have choked with garbage, plastics being the primary culprit. Single-use plastic carry-bags have been singled out for particular attention and regular meetings have been held to educate – as well as admonish — people about their use.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the need for Solid waste management and successes and limitations of the various measures aimed towards i.

Directive word: 

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidence.  You must appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming an opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining solid waste management.

Body:

First, write about the need for solid waste management in the country.

Next, write about the various issues in the solid waste management – funds crunch, low sectoral development & lack of know-how.

Next, write about the various measures to tackle it – Solid waste management rules, Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) 2.0 etc. Write their and successes and limitations.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

Introduction

Solid waste management (SWM) refers to the process of collecting and treating solid wastes. It also offers solutions for recycling items that do not belong to garbage or trash.  In a nascent effort to look beyond toilets and kick off its ODF+ phase — that is, Open Defecation Free Plus — focussing on solid and liquid waste management, the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) has included the prevalence of plastic litter and water-logging in villages as indicators of cleanliness in its 2019 rural survey.

Body

Current Situation of SWM in India:

  • As per the SBM 2.0 guidelines, the total quantity of waste generated by urban areas in India is about 32 lakh tonnes daily. This adds up to 4.8 crore tonnes per annum.
  • Of this only about 25% is being processed; the rest is disposed of in landfills every year.
  • Given that the waste dumpsites have been operational since the early 2000s, more than 72 crore tonnes of waste need to be processed.
  • Most cities have confined themselves to collection and transportation of solid waste. Processing and safe disposal are being attempted only in a few cases.
  • The CPCB report also reveals that only 68% of the MSW generatedin the country is collected of which, 28% is treated by the municipal authorities. Thus, merely 19% of the total waste generated is currently treated.
  • According to a UN report, India’s e-wastefrom old computers alone will jump 500 per cent by 2020, compared to 2007.
  • Disappearance of urban water bodies and wetlands in urban areas can be attributed to illegal dumping of Construction & Demolition waste.

Some of the major issues concerning solid waste management are:

  • Absence of segregationof waste at source.
  • Lack of funds for waste management at ULBs.
  • Unwillingness of ULBs to introduce proper collection, segregation, transportation and treatment/ disposal systems.
  • Lack of technical expertiseand appropriate institutional arrangement
  • Lack of infrastructure and technology
  • Lack of involvement from the private sector and non-governmental organisations
  • Indifference of citizens towards waste managementdue to lack of awareness
  • Lack of community participation towards waste management and hygienic conditions
  • Lack of sewage management plan.
  • About 70% of the plastic packaging products turn into plastic wastewithin a short period.
  • Unorganized vendors and markets, existence of slum areas and Corruption are other issues plaguing MSWM.

Measures needed

  • State governments should provide financial support to ULBsto improve their waste management system under various schemes and programs.
  • Initiatives like Smart Cities Mission, AMRUT should provide significant funding to improve civic services infrastructure.
  • The key to efficient waste management is to ensure proper segregation of waste at sourceand to ensure that the waste goes through different streams of recycling and resource recovery as stated in the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016.
  • Waste to energyis a key component of SWM. Installation of waste-to-compost and bio-methanation plants would reduce the load of landfill sites
  • There is a need to encourage research and developmentso as to reinvent waste management system in India.
  • The focus should be on recycling and recovering from wasteand not landfill. Further, it is important to encourage recycling of e-waste so that the problem of e-waste
  • Public- Private Partnership modelsfor waste management should be encouraged.
  • Construction and demolition waste should be stored, separately disposed off, as per the Construction and Demolition Waste Management Rules, 2016.
  • Responsibilities of Generatorshave been introduced to segregate waste in to three streams, Wet (Biodegradable), Dry (Plastic, Paper, metal, wood, etc.) and domestic hazardous wastes (diapers, napkins, empty containers of cleaning agents, mosquito repellents, etc.) and handover segregated wastes to authorized rag-pickers or waste collectors or local bodies.
  • Sensitizationof citizens as well as government authorities, community participation, involvement of NGOs. Littering should be prohibited.
  • International Best practices should be emulated. South Korea is one of the few countries to separate and recycle food waste. It has also launched landfill recovery projects such as the Nanjido recovery projectwhich have successfully transformed hazardous waste sites into sustainable ecological attractions.

Conclusion

Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental problems of Indian cities. The need of the hour is scientific, sustainable and environment friendly management of wastes.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

3. Why does poverty continue to remain a massive challenge in India? Examine the various measures taken by the government to achieve Sustainable Development Goal-1. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus (Revision) of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the challenges associated with poverty and to evaluate the performance of various measures taken to alleviate poverty.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe the giving statistic regarding the current status of poverty in India.

Body:

First, write about the various challenges associated with eradication of poverty in India.

Next, giver context about SDG-1: zero poverty. Evaluate the pros and cons of the various poverty alleviation measures in India – Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY), National Social Assistance Programme, Land Reforms, MGNREGA and various PDS initiatives etc.

Suggest measures to overcome the above the limitations of the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Introduction

According to World Bank, Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, and comprises many dimensions. It includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. Poverty also encompasses low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, and insufficient capacity and opportunity to better one’s life.

In India, 21.9% of the population lives below the national poverty line in 2011. In 2018, almost 8% of the world’s workers and their families lived on less than US$1.90 per person per day (international poverty line).

Body

Poverty : A massive challenge in India

  • Population Explosion:India’s population has steadily increased through the years. During the past 45 years, it has risen at a rate of 2.2% per year, which means, on average, about 17 million people are added to the country’s population each year. This also increases the demand for consumption goods tremendously.
  • Low Agricultural Productivity:A major reason for poverty in the low productivity in the agriculture sector. The reason for low productivity is manifold. Chiefly, it is because of fragmented and subdivided land holdings, lack of capital, illiteracy about new technologies in farming, the use of traditional methods of cultivation, wastage during storage, etc.
  • Inefficient Resource utilisation:There is underemployment and disguised unemployment in the country, particularly in the farming sector. This has resulted in low agricultural output and also led to a dip in the standard of living.
  • Low Rate of Economic Development:Economic development has been low in India especially in the first 40 years of independence before the LPG reforms in 1991.
  • Price Rise:Price rise has been steady in the country and this has added to the burden the poor carry. Although a few people have benefited from this, the lower income groups have suffered because of it, and are not even able to satisfy their basic minimum wants.
  • Unemployment:Unemployment is another factor causing poverty in India. The ever-increasing population has led to a higher number of job-seekers. However, there is not enough expansion in opportunities to match this demand for jobs.

Achievements in poverty alleviation over the years

  • Decline in Extreme Poverty:Extreme poverty in India was 3% points lower in 2019 compared with 2011, as poverty headcount rate declined from 22.5% in 2011 to 10.2% in 2019, with a comparatively sharper decline in rural areas.
    • Slight moderation in consumption inequality since 2011, but by a margin smaller than what is reported in the unreleased National Sample Survey -2017.
    • The extent of poverty reduction during 2015-2019 is estimated to be notably lower than earlier projections based on growth in private final consumption expenditure reported in national account statistics.
    • The World Bank defines “extreme poverty” as living on less than USD 1.90 per person per day.
  • Rural vs Urban Poverty:Poverty reduction was higher in rural areas compared with urban India as rural poverty declined from 26.3% in 2011 to 11.6% in 2019, while in urban areas the decline was from 14.2% to 6.3% in the corresponding period.
    • Rural and urban poverty dropped by 7 and 7.9% points during 2011-2019.
    • Urban poverty in India rose by 2% in 2016, coinciding with the demonetisation, and rural poverty rose by 10% in 2019.
  • Small Farmers:Smallholder farmers have experienced higher income growth. Real incomes for farmers with the smallest landholdings have grown by 10% in annualized terms between the two survey rounds (2013 and 2019) compared to a 2% growth for farmers with the largest landholding.
    • The growth in incomes of smallest landholders in rural areas provides more evidence of moderation in income disparity in rural areas.
    • Smallest landholders comprise a larger share of the poor population.This income includes wages, net receipt from crop production, net receipt from farming of animal farming and net receipt from non-farm business. Income from leasing out land has been exempted.

Measures needed

  • Immediate support package will need to quickly reach both the existing and new poor.
    • While existing safety net programs can be mobilized to get cash into the pockets of some of the existing poor relatively quickly, this is not the case for the new poor.
    • In fact, the new poor are likely to look different from the existing poor, particularly in their location (mostly urban) and employment (mostly informal services, construction, and manufacturing).
    • the identification of poor and vulnerable groups is need of the hour.
    • India should consider fixing a universal basic income in the post-Covid period through a combination of cash transfers, expansion of MGNREGA, and introduction of an urban employment guarantee scheme
  • Employment generation for the masses:
    • A large fiscal stimulus along with intermediate informal employment insurgency through MGNREGA and other employment generation programmes are urgent to rein the adverse impact of covid-19 on the welfare of the masses.
  • Multilateral global institutions must support the developing nations:
    • Oxfam is calling on world leaders to agree on an Emergency Rescue Package of 2.5 trillion USD paid for through the immediate cancellation or postponement of 1 trillion in debt repayments, a 1 trillion increase in IMF Special Drawing Rights (international financial reserves), and an additional 500 billion in aid.
  • An effective response in support of poor and vulnerable households will require significant additional fiscal resources.
    • Providing all the existing and new extreme poor with a cash transfer of $1/day (about half the value of the international extreme poverty line) for a month would amount to $20 billion —or $665 million per day over 30 days.
    • Given that impacts are likely to be felt by many non-poor households as well and that many households are likely to need support for much longer than a month, the sum needed for effective protection could be far higher.
  • Decision-makers need timely and policy-relevant information on impacts and the effectiveness of policy responses.
    • This can be done using existing, publicly available data to monitor the unfolding economic and social impacts of the crisis, including prices, service delivery, and economic activity, as well as social sentiment and behaviours.
    • In addition, governments can use mobile technology to safely gather information from a representative sample of households or individuals.
    • Phone surveys can collect information on health and employment status, food security, coping strategies, access to basic services and safety nets and other outcomes closely related to the risk of falling (further) into poverty.

 

Conclusion and wayforward

  • The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index-2018released by the UN noted that 271 million people moved out of poverty between 2005-06 and 2015-16 in India. The poverty rate in the country has nearly halved, falling from 55% to 28% over the ten-year period. Still a big part of the population in india is living Below the Poverty Line.
  • Rapid economic growth and the use of technology for social sector programs have helped make a significant dent in extreme poverty in the country.
  • Despite rapid growth and development, an unacceptably high proportion of our population continues to suffer from severe and multidimensional deprivation. Thus, a more comprehensive and inclusive approach is required to eradicate poverty in India.

 

 

Topic: Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

4. Numerous socio-economic indices are negatively and disproportionately impacted by hunger and malnutrition. Suggest short-term and long-term solutions to address this issue. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus (Revision) of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about causes and impact of hunger and malnutrition and ways to tackle it.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving a statistic regarding Hunger and malnutrition in India.

Body:

Describe the impact of hunger and malnutrition in India – status of child mortality, stunting and wasting in India, loss of demographic dividend, extreme poverty etc.

Next write about the causes – there are social factors like early marriage etc all of which contribute to the undernourishment, stunting and wasting of children.

Next, write about the measures that are needed to overcome hunger and malnutrition in the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

Introduction

India has 5,772,472 children below five years affected by severe wasting, the most in the world, alerted UNICEF. It had been reported in 2017 by the National Health Survey that approximately 19 crore people in the country were compelled to sleep on an empty stomach every night.

Underweight is most common among the poor, the rural population, adults who have no education and scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Hence it clear that hunger and malnutrition is also a direct consequence of socio-economic status of people in India.

Body

Malnutrition in India

  • India, currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the worlde. around 195 million.
  • Nearly 47 million or 4 out of 10 children in India do not meet their full human potential because of chronic undernutrition or stunting.
  • 9% of children under 5 years are stunted and 20.8% are wasted, compared to the Asia average of 22.7% and 9.4% respectively.
  • Rate of overweight and obesity continues to rise, affecting almost a fifth of the adults, at 21.6% of women and 17.8% of men.
  • Inequities in food and health systems increase inequalities in nutrition outcomes that in turn can lead to more inequity, perpetuating a vicious cycle.

Causes of hunger and malnutrition in India

  • Poverty: Poverty restricts the food choices and has been the causative factor of hunger related deaths.
    • If the persistent high prices of food items and the regional disparities in terms of development, especially the backwardness among the hilly and tribal areasalso taken into account, the percentage of people who cannot afford balanced nutrition will be much higher in India.
  • Poor access to safe drinking water: Safe and tap drinking water is still a luxury in many parts of rural India and urban slums/shanties. Unsafe water causes water borne diseases and children are prone to it more than adults.
  • Issues with agriculture:The change from multi to mono cropping systems limits the diversity of agricultural products.
    • Inclinationtowards cash crops and changing food habits result in malnutrition, undernutrition and even micro-nutrient deficiencies.
    • Local cuisine such as millets arenot being consumed causing nutrient deficiencies and anaemia.
  • Food wastage: Food wastage is also an emerging challenge that undermines the efforts to end hunger and malnutrition. According to the FAO, the global volume of food wastage is estimated at 6 billion tonnes of primary product equivalents.
  • Poor health services:The relationship between poverty and access to health care can be seen as part of a larger cycle, where poverty leads to ill health and ill health maintains poverty.
  • Insufficient education and training:In developing countries, children do not have access to basic education because of inequalities that originate in sex, health and cultural identity. It has been revealed in reports that illiteracy and lack of education are common factor that lead to poverty and in turn hunger.
  • Covid-19 impact: The momentum set by this entire nutrition movement wasdisturbed once Covid lockdowns led to the shutting of schools, Anganwadi centres, Nutritional Rehabilitation Centres.
    • Further, frontline workers had to be engaged in Covid-related work that took precedence over their daily duties, which entailed identifying, referring and monitoring children suffering from severe acute malnutrition and moderate acute malnutrition among other nutrition-strengthening activities.
  • States tried to cope to the best of their abilities by replacing hot-cooked meals with dry ration or cash transfers.
  • Moreover, indirect forces triggered by the pandemic such as disruption in food systems, dried-up income sources, job losses and consequent financial hardshipsalso mean that access to nutrient-rich food might have reduced among economically vulnerable people.

Measures needed to tackle hunger

  • Agriculture-Nutrition linkage schemes have the potential for greater impact in dealing with malnutrition and thus, needs greater emphasis.
    • Recognising the importance of this link, the Ministry for Women and Child Development launched theBharatiya Poshan Krishi Kosh in 2019.
    • There is a need to promote schemes directed to nutrition-agriculture link activities in rural areas. However, implementation remains the key.
  • Early fund disbursement: The government needs to ensure early disbursement of funds and optimum utilisation of funds in schemes linked to nutrition.
  • Underutilisation of Resources:It has been pointed out many a times that expenditure made under many nutrition-based schemes is considerably lower than what was allocated under them. Thus, emphasis needs to be on implementation.
  • Convergence with other Schemes:Nutrition goes beyond just food, with economic, health, water, sanitation, gender perspectives and social norms contributing to better nutrition. This is why the proper implementation of other schemes can also contribute to better nutrition.
    • The convergence of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Jal Jeevan Mission with schemes pertaining to nutrition, will bring holistic changes to India’s nutrition scenario.
  • Mid-Day Meal Scheme: The Mid-Day Meal Scheme aims to enhance the nutrition of school children by providing a balanced diet in schools.
    • By including milk and eggs in each states’ menu, preparing a menu based on climatic conditions, local foods etc. can help in providing the right nutrition to children in different States.

Conclusion

Welfare measures must continue to reach the most vulnerable population and children and mothers must be at the centre of the focus to target hunger and malnutrition. Achieving zero hunger requires agriculture and food systems to become more efficient, sustainable, climate-smart and nutritionsensitive. It is important to look at the future of food production to achieve the zero-hunger goal. Human resource capacity building is the key as is access to education and health services and empowering the poor through partnerships.

Value Addition

Government welfare measures

  • Eat Right India: An outreach activity organised by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) for citizens to nudge them towards eating right.
  • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana:A centrally sponsored scheme executed by the Ministry of Women and Child Development, is a maternity benefit programme being implemented in all districts of the country with effect from 1st January, 2017.
  • Food Fortification: Food Fortification or Food Enrichment is the addition of key vitamins and minerals such as iron, iodine, zinc, Vitamin A & D to staple foods such as rice, milk and salt to improve their nutritional content.
  • National Food Security Act, 2013:It legally entitled up to 75% of the rural population and 50% of the urban population to receive subsidized food grains under the Targeted Public Distribution System.
  • Mission Indradhanush: It targets children under 2 years of age and pregnant women for immunization against 12 Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (VPD).
  • Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme:Launched on 2nd October, 1975, the ICDS Scheme offers a package of six services to children in the age group of 0-6 years, pregnant women and lactating mothers.
    • Supplementary Nutrition,
    • Pre-school non-formal education,
    • Nutrition & health education,
    • Immunization,
    • Health check-up and
    • Referral services.
  • POSHAN Abhiyaan: Also called National Nutrition Mission, was launched by the government on the occasion of the International Women’s Day on 8th March, 2018.
  • The Abhiyaan targets toreduce Stunting, undernutrition, Anaemia (among young children, women and adolescent girls) and reduce low birth weight by 2%, 2%, 3% and 2% per annum respectively.
  • It also targets to bring downstunting among children in the age group 0-6 years from 4% to 25% by 2022.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

5. What is Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) that was recently conducted by NASA? Discuss its process and significance. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: solarsystem.nasa.govbusiness-standard.com

Why the question:

American space agency NASA recently conducted a planned mission to hit a cruising asteroid in space, as a part of its first planetary defense technology demonstration.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the DART missions, its process and significance.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by context of NASA’s DART.

Body:

First, write about the various features of DART – it objectives, the spacecraft, the asteroid, the mechanism of collision.

Next, write about the significance of such a mission to our future and as well development of science and technology.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

 

Introduction

American space agency NASA recently conducted a planned mission to hit a cruising asteroid in space, as a part of its first planetary defence technology demonstration.

The last time a big asteroid crossed the path with the earth was about 66-million years ago. The impact was so devastating that it wiped out 70% of plants and several species, including the mighty dinosaurs.

Although chances of an asteroid that big hitting the earth again in near future are bleak, scientists don’t rule it out completely. And the likelihood of smaller asteroids coming in earth’s way are much more. They can easily wipe-out a big city or even a state, if not a country.

Body

Background

  • The NASA vehiclecrashed into Dimorphos at a blistering speed of around 4 miles per second.
  • Mission control at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Maryland, announced thesuccessful impact.
  • DART’s on-board camera livestreamed second-by-second images to the earthtill it went blank due to the collision with the asteroid.

About Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART)

  • DART is a low-cost spacecraft.
  • It hastwo solar arrays and uses hydrazine propellant for manoeuvring the spacecraft.
  • It also carries about 10 kg of xenonwhich will be used to demonstrate the agency’s new thrusters called NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster–Commercial (NEXT-C) in space.
    • NEXT-C gridded ion thruster system providesa combination of performance and spacecraft integration capabilities that make it uniquely suited for deep space robotic missions.
  • The spacecraft carriesa high-resolution imager called Didymos Reconnaissance and Asteroid Camera for Optical Navigation (DRACO).
    • Images from DRACO will be sent toEarth in real-time and will help study the impact site and surface of Dimorphos (the target asteroid).
  • DART will also carry a small satellite or CubeSat named LICIACube(Light Italian CubeSat for Imaging of Asteroids).
    • LICIACube is expected to capture images of the impact and the impact crater formed as a result of the collision.

Process involved

  • The mission is to testthe new technology to be prepared in case an asteroid head towards Earth in the future.
  • The aim is to test the newly developed technology that would allow a spacecraft to crash into an asteroid and change its course.
  • The target of the spacecraft is a small moonlet called Dimorphos (Greek for “two forms”).
    • Dimorphos orbits a larger asteroid named Didymos (Greek for “twin”).
  • It is a suicide mission and the spacecraft will be completely destroyed.

Significance

  • So to avert a collision as the one that killed dinosaurs, NASA had been working to develop the capability to nudge an incoming asteroid to change its course.
  • In the last seven years, the American space agency spent around$330 million on the mission, named Double Asteroid Redirection Test, or DART. NASA — which has an annual budget of above $ 23 billion — wanted to see if the spacecraft’s impact can change the trajectory of an asteroid.
  • NASA established thePlanetary Defense Coordination Office to manage its ongoing mission of planetary defence.
  • The PDCO’s goals are to provide early detection of potentially hazardous objects, track and characterize the objects, study strategies and technologies for mitigating possible impacts, and play a leading role in U.S. government response planning for an actual impact.
  • DART is the first planetary defence test mission for PDCO.

 

Conclusion

The goal of the mission is to determine how much DART’s impact alters the moonlet’s velocity in space by measuring the change in its orbit around Didymos.

Scientists think the collision will change the speed of Dimorphos by a fraction of one percent. It should alter the moonlet’s orbital period around the larger asteroid by several minutes – enough to be observed and measured by telescopes on Earth.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

6. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“A good man complains of no one; he does not look to faults.” ― Shams Tabriz

Difficulty level: Moderate

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about as to how in the contemporary society people have been accustomed to looking in to faults of others and complaining without them making effort to solve the issue. Write about the impact of such and cite examples to substantiate.

Write the ways to avoid that blame game and steps to improve oneself and others around.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the honesty in the present day.

 

 

Introduction

Complaining is a natural part of human communication. It is often a response to problems or a way to communicate dissatisfaction. “ Instead of complaining that the rose bush is full of thorns, be happy the thorn bush has roses”.

Body

 

It’s easier to complain instead of fixing a problem, like quitting a job or having a talk with someone.

The people who actively find faults in others are the same people who are completely blind to their own. Fault-finding can and does twist the way we see others. It can also drive a wedge between you and others. For some reason or another, we may see ourselves as better or even superior. In essence we become intolerant of the weaknesses of others, in turn distorting the way we may view our own faults.

Learn to be more optimistic

  • Remaining grateful:Counting your blessings can be a great way to get out of a bad mood or switch your focus away from your frustrations. It’s hard to complain when you’re thinking about how lucky you are.
  • Taking action:The urge to complain comes from dissatisfaction with something going on in life (often coupled with a feeling of inability to change it). Complaints can be a signal that action is needed. So, the next time you feel like complaining, instead focus on what you can do to change your circumstances—and then (if possible) do it.
  • Cultivating optimism:It’s much easier to drop negative habits by replacing them with positive ones. Replacing negative thoughts and words with optimistic ones brings so many benefits. It’s worth trying, even if you’re not planning on giving up complaining anytime soon.

Overcoming faultfinding

  • We can choose to simply overlook the difference
  • Or – reserve our judgement and postpone any action
  • Perhaps even take up the differences privately with the person involved and have a courageous conversation with them.

If you can’t say something nice, don’t say anything at all.” Gordon B. Hinckley suggested each of us turn from the negativism that so permeates our society and look for the remarkable good among those with whom we associate, that we speak of one another’s virtues more than we speak of one another’s faults.”

Conclusion

We can always look in the mirror, pause, reflect, carefully consider and honestly examine ourselves and our motives before we choose a comment to express, or a course of action to pursue. We need to examine our own minds, our own thoughts and motivations – but most importantly of all – consider our own flaws

 

Topic : Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

“Raise your words, not voice. It is rain that grows flowers, not thunder.” ― Rumi

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about as to how there is cacophony of arguments than actual debate that is happening. Mention that raising voice without actual substance will lead to just noise and whereas true words will lead to reform/change. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

 

Introduction

This quote is by Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi, a Persian poet. It means that one should not raise voice and use bad words no matter how tense the situation is. Instead, raise the impact of your words, let them have a meaning and let them reflect you so that it fills up others heart with love, not hatred.

Body

Words and voice should be in an equilibrium. Yelling or screaming does not yield a positive environment to work or live in. Same holds good for parenting as well as managing employees.

No problem can be solved in anger or temper but only with kindness and love. Gandhiji showed the power of his voice through his actions and deeds during the freedom struggle. He gave a call for Satyagraha, ahimsa and poorna swaraj. These were words that resonated with all Indians who joined him in his quest for freedom without blink of an eye. Such were the impact of his words and deeds.

In personal life too raising voice will create tensions. It is common wherein people raise their voice and use bad words. We’ve all had heated discussions where voices were raised or have had moments where we yell. But if you look back at those times, we did not get the result we were looking for. Just raise your voice and the front person will stop considering your emotions. Talk the polite way, and choose your words and temper wisely. Raising voice won’t solve your issue. You don’t have to be loud, to get the other person listen to you. They are not deaf and raising voice only worsen the situations.

Conclusion

Incorporating mindfulness can help people in regulating their emotions well. The first step is identifying their behaviour and finding out that there a problem. Second step would be to acknowledge it and address it by being mindful of things we do and say.

 


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