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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

1. Judicial comity over arithmetic

2. Role of Interpol


GS Paper 3:

1. The path to deterrence: Arihant SLBM


Content for Mains Enrichment

1. Shepherd who built 17 ponds in Mandya


Facts for Prelims:

1. Dr Dilip Mahalanabis

2. Principles of CAA apply to Sri Lankan Hindu Tamils

3. Age of marriage of a Muslim woman

4. Kerala Governor can sack errant Ministers

5. Learning Losses

6. MPI 2022: Poverty in India

7. Digital banking units dedicated to the nation by Prime Minister

8. FDI in India

9. How does tokenisation prevent online card fraud?

10. National Intellectual Property Conference 2022

11. World Food day

12. ‘One Nation, One Fertilizer’ scheme

13. Aluminium Freight Train Rake

14. Tiger Relocation

15. Green crackers

16. At DefExpo, India to pitch military tools to Africa, IOR countries

17. Mapping


Judicial comity over arithmetic

GS paper 2

Syllabus: Judiciary structure, functioning and conduct of business, Role of constitutional benches etc


Directions: This is an editorial article.

Source: The Hindu

Context: A Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court has unanimously held that a judgment delivered by a larger Bench will prevail over the decision of a smaller Bench, irrespective of the number of judges constituting the majority in the larger Bench.

Positive Implications:

  • Stability and consistency: It seeks to ensure that there is stability and consistency in the decisions of the court.
  • Correct decisions: A bench with more strength is more likely to arrive at a correct decision.


Mechanism of functioning of benches:




Issue with larger benches:

  • A majority decision is treated as the ruling of the entire Bench ignoring the opinion of the dissenting judges, that examined the question.
  • If a larger Bench arrived at a decision by a slim majority (say, 4:3 in a seven-judge Bench): Its correctness can be doubted on the presumption that had the Bench comprised different judges, the outcome might have been different.


Doctrine of Precedents:

  • The doctrine refers to a decision that has already been taken by a higher court is binding to the lower court and at the same time stands as a precedent to the lower court judgment, which cannot be altered by a lower court.
  • This principle is known as Stare decisis.
  • Article 141: stipulates that the law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all Courts within the territory of India.


Consequences of a decision based on a number of judges rather than a bench:

  • Every decision of a larger bench could be doubted and overruled on the ground of plurality of opinions, thereby toppling the certainty and stability of decisions.
  • Correctness of a decision would become a game of numbers rather than reasons.


Recommendation to avoid such conflicts:

There should be a quorum with a break-even or a greater majority than the lower Bench: For example, If a five-judge unanimous decision is referred to a larger Bench, it should be considered by a nine-judge Bench rather than seven, so that it would, in any case, be decided by a majority of at least five judges.


Constitution bench:

  • It is the name given to the benches of the Supreme Court of India which consist of at least five judges of the court which sit to decide any case:
  • Involving a substantial question of law as to the interpretation” of the Constitution of India
  • For the purpose of hearing any reference” made by the President of India under Article 143.
  • This provision has been mandated by Article 145 (3) of the Constitution of India.
  • The Chief Justice of India has the power to constitute a Constitution Bench and refer cases to it.


Insta Links:

Reforms brought by CJI Lalit in SC


Mains Links:

Q. Critically examine the Supreme Court’s judgment on ‘National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014’ with reference to appointment of judges of higher judiciary in India.(UPSC 2017)


Prelims Links:

  • CJI
  • Appointment of CJI
  • National Judicial Data Grid rolling
  • Article 21
  • First Judges case
  • Second Judges case
  • Third Judges case
  • NJAC

With reference to Constitutional bench, consider the following statements:

  1. The formation of a constitutional bench is mandated by the constitution of India.
  2. Power to constitute and referring of cases to constitutional benches lies with CJI

Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (d)


Refer to article above

Role of Interpol

GS paper 2

Syllabus: Important international institutions, agencies and fora-their structure, mandate etc


Source: The Hindu, Indian Express

Direction: One article from Hindu and other from Indian Express have been combined. You may go through it once. We also dealt with Interpol in FFP a few days back. Here we are examining its role.


Interpol Secretary said that the international criminal police organisation was not playing any role in curbing state-sponsored terrorism and that it focussed primarily on ordinary law crimes.


The mandate of Interpol:

Interpol is like the UN. But it is not meant for dispute resolution. It is designed to assist the police forces of member nations. Interpol is neither an investigative agency like the CBI nor a front-line police force. It is mandated to share information and provide back-end technical assistance to law enforcement agencies

Interpol deals with cases of Child abusers, Rapists, Murderers, Traffickers, Drug dealers, and Cybercriminals

  • Providing information: about crime and criminals in the digital space
  • Cyberspace: Preventing abuse of cyberspace
  • Dark web: Stalling hackers on the dark web


New tools being used by Interpol: 

  • Early warning system: Interpol had been developing a global early warning system for the collection and sharing of terrorism-related inputs.
  • Information of terrorists: Interpol had one of the biggest repositories of information related to foreign terrorist hideouts and tools.
    • It has a huge repository of fingerprints, DNA profiles, Facial recognition kits, Cyber-enabled financial crimes, and Property crimes, among others.
  • Interpol’s global stop-payment mechanism(an anti-money laundering rapid response protocol): It has helped the member countries recover more than $60 million(past 10 months).
  • Global Crime Trend Report(by Interpol): It highlighted the massive increase in online child sexual exploitation and abuse, which is only set to increase.
  • Interpol’s International Child Sexual Exploitation database: It helped investigators around the world identify an average of seven child abuse victims every day.
    • The success of its secure i-24 for 24/7 information sharing
  • Red Notice: It is not an international arrest warrant and Interpol could not force any member country to arrest a subject of the notice.
  • Interpol’s Singapore unit: It had been providing support to the member countries to develop a legal framework and come up with tools for tracking and seizing cryptocurrencies.
    • It was also collaborating with the Financial Action Task Force(FATF).


Way forward:

  • Beyond databases and tools: Interpol is required now to articulate an expansion beyond its databases and tools.
  • Real-time dissemination of information: The success of its secure i-24 for 24/7 information sharing aside, the importance of real-time dissemination of information should gain primacy.
  • Equitable significance: should be accorded to the legitimate interests of growing economies pursuing democratic charters.
  • Demographic dividend: A large and young technology-oriented workforce in startups can be utilized for upgrading the security architecture.
  • Interpol and law enforcement agencies of member nations: They must endeavour to build, maintain and operate a people-centric ecosystem to meet the evolving challenges.

Interpol is an intergovernmental organization, with 195 member (India been member since 1949) and founded in 1923 (Vienna, Austria) but with headquarters at Lyon (France). It works on the principle of one country, one vote. It launched Global Policing Goal (in 2018) to focus on collective efforts for the International law enforcement.

Insta Links:



Mains Links:

Q. What are the roles and functions of the International Criminal Police Organization? Discuss the significance of a Red notice and the changes the upcoming meeting in Delhi can bring.


Prelims Links:

  • What is Interpol?
  • Overview of Interpol’s crime programmes.
  • CBI

With reference to Interpol, consider the following statements:

  1. The President of Interpol is elected by the UNSC.
  2. RAW in India assumes contact with Interpol for coordination.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (d)


  • The head of Interpol: is the President who is elected by the General Assembly and holds office for four years.
  • Contact of the country’s law enforcement agency with Interpol: It is through the highest investigating body of the land.
    • The CBI assumes this role in India.

The path to deterrence: Arihant SLBM

GS Paper III

Syllabus : Nuclear technology, Security challenges.


Source: Indian Express

Directions: This Article has been taken from Indian Express. Go through it once, you can use it for value addition.

Context:  Acquiring the optimum degree of nuclear deterrence is imperative for India, given its distinctive spectrum of security and strategic challenges.

Launch of SLBM (Submarine-launched ballistic missile):

  • Recently India successfully launched SLBM and joined among the group of six nations that have demonstrated similar underwater capability i.e. Russia, the UK, the USA, France and China.
    • In August 2016, North Korea claimed a successful launch of an SLBM.
  • Significance: It will help in a robust, survivable and assured retaliatory capability in keeping with India’s policy to have ‘Credible Minimum Deterrence‘ that underpins its ‘No First Use’ commitment.”
    • It increases the second-strike capability of India and thus boosts its nuclear deterrence.

Issues concerning India’s deterrence capabilities

  • Modest ballistic profile of SLBM Launched: this is evident from the characteristics associated with the 6,000-ton INS Arihant.
    • It is reportedly fitted with the K -15 SLBM, which has a range of 750 km and this would be classified as a short-range missile.
  • Slow progress: India has made slow but steady progress in its missile programme, nuclear weapon capability, the nuclear submarine and more recently the building of an aircraft carrier.
    • But all these capabilities remain a “work-in-progress”.
  • Handicapped carrier: The indigenously designed and built aircraft carrier (INS Vikrant) is handicapped by not having the appropriate fighter aircraft and an SSBN whose ICBM capability is some years away.

Emerging challenges in water:

  • US-China contestation: Currently, the global geopolitical domain is in a state of flux and the US-China contestation amongst other issues will roil the waters.
  • Ukraine war: The outcome of the war in Ukraine and the orientation of the Delhi-Moscow relationship will have a bearing on India’s strategic programmes.


Thus, it wouldn’t be wrong to say that India is in a “complex chrysalis phase” as far as the maritime domain is concerned.

What India needs to do?

  • Arm the INS Arihant with a 3,500 km missile IRBM (intermediate-range ballistic missile).
  • At the next stage arm its SSBN with a missile whose range is in excess of 5,000 km — which would qualify as an ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile).

That is the stage when India would be deemed to have acquired the requisite level of strategic capability to “validate the SSBN programme, a key element of India’s nuclear deterrence capability.

What is India’s ballistic missile submarine programme?

  • India’s nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) programme is a closely guarded project.
  • INS Arihant was the first boat under the SSBN project followed by another boat, INS Arighat.
  • SSBN programme is a key element of India’s nuclear deterrence capability.
    • SSBN’s are those classes of submarines which can go deep beneath the ocean making them virtually undetectable for months, they also carry nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles.

Insta Links

Prelims link

  • What is a ballistic missile?
  • About INS Arihant
  • About INS Vikrant
  • Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme

Mains Links:

Nuclear weapons as deterrence or defence have limited usage against contemporary security threats to states. Explain the statement.

/ Oct 18 CA, Today's Article


Content for Mains Enrichment

The shepherd who built 17 ponds in Mandya

Context: Popularly known as the “pond man”, Kalmane Kaamegowda, a shepherd in Karnataka known for building 17 ponds in the barren hills of Kindinibetta in Mandya Taluk died due to age-related ailments in his house.

He has planted many trees and is creating a banyan grove in a Section 4 forest area in his village.

The Karnataka Rajyotsava awardee was shot to national fame when the Prime Minister mentioned his work in his radio programme Mann Ki Baat.

This example can be used in GS3 Environment, Essay and Ethics – dedication to conserving nature.


Facts for Prelims

Dr Dilip Mahalanabis

Source: Indian Express

Context: The physician, Dr Dilip Mahalanabis, who was behind Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) passed away recently.

Dr Mahalanabis was working in refugee camps during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation war when he came up with ORS, which The Lancet called “the most important medical discovery of the 20th century.”

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), diarrhoeal diseases, such as cholera, are among the leading causes of mortality in infants and young children in many developing countries, where the patient dies of dehydration.

ORS, a combination of water, glucose and salts, is a simple and cost-effective method of preventing this.


Principles of CAA apply to Sri Lankan Hindu Tamils

Source: The Hindu

Context: Madras High Court observed that the principles of the recent amendment to the Citizenship Act (CAA) are equally applicable to Sri Lankan Hindu Tamils.

Key Highlights:

  • The court was hearing a petition: filed by S. Abirami, born in India to Sri Lankan Tamil refugees, and now staying in Tiruchi seeking Indian citizenship.
  • The judge observed though the petitioner is a descendant of “migrant parents”, she was born in India.
    • She has never been a Sri Lankan citizen, and therefore, the question of renouncing the same does not arise.


Citizenship Amendment Act 2019:


Why SC will examine the question of the age of marriage of a Muslim woman

Source: Indian Express

Context:  Recently Supreme Court has agreed to examine an order of the Punjab and Haryana High Court that allowed a minor Muslim girl to marry a person of her choice violating the provisions of The Prevention of Child Marriages Act, 2006.

Legal age of marriage in India

  • The legal age of marriage is 18 and 21 for a woman and a man respectively.
    • However, this is not uniform across communities.
  • As per law, those below the age of 18 cannot be deemed to have given

How is the age of marriage determined in India?

  • Personal laws that govern marriage and other practices for communities prescribe certain criteria for marriage, including age.
    • For example, Section 5(iii) of The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, sets a minimum age of 18 for the bride and 21 for the groom. This is the same for Christians under the Indian Christian Marriage Act, 1872 and the Special Marriage Act.
    • For Muslims, the criterion is attaining puberty, which is assumed when the bride or groom turns

Law governing Child marriage:

  • Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 and the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012.
  • Prohibition of Child Marriage Act does not have any provision that says the law would override any other laws on the issue.
    • So, there is a discrepancy between the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act and the Muslim personal law on the minimum age of marriage, and there is no clarity on what law supersedes the other.


Kerala Governor says he can sack errant Ministers

Source: The Hindu

Context: Kerala Governor threatened to remove Ministers from their posts if they continued to lower the dignity of his office.

As per the rules, no Governor can dismiss an individual Minister from a State Cabinet unless recommended by the Chief Minister

  • Appointment and dismissal: Governors were bound by the advice of the Chief Minister in matters relating to the appointment and dismissal of Ministers.

Constitutional provisions:

  • Article 163: There is a CoM with the CM at the head to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his functions, except for some conditions for discretion.
  • Article 164: Governor appoints the Chief Minister and other Ministers.
  • Chief Minister: recommends to the governor who to appoint as ministers
    • He can ask a minister to resign


Supreme Court: It had on many occasions held that a government that enjoys a majority in the House cannot be dismissed by the Governor. Thus, if the government enjoys a majority in the House, the Governor cannot say that he withdraws his pleasure.


Learning Losses

Source: PIB

Context: World Bank held a discussion on the “Learning Losses

Learning losses in terms of education due to COVID:

  • World Bank-UNESCO-UNICEF report: Learning losses from COVID-19 could cost this generation of students close to $17 trillion in lifetime earnings.
  • Learning losses were greater for students of lower socioeconomic status in countries like Ghana, Mexico, and Pakistan.
  • Larger losses among girls, as they are quickly losing the protection that schools and learning offer to their well-being and life chances.

Steps were taken by India to address “learning losses” due to COVID:

India conducted:

  • National Achievement Survey (NAS) 2021, covering 3.4 million students of grades III, V, VII and X, to evaluate learning competencies. ( It showed a 9% decline in performance).
  • National Foundation Learning Study for grade III students.
  • Alternative Academic Calender ( covering syllabus based on learning outcomes)
  • DIKSHA ( one of the 12 Digital Global Goods in India) for students and teachers
  • NISHTHA (for teacher’s training)
  • Vidyanjali 2.0 ( connecting volunteers with schools)


MPI 2022: Poverty in India

Source: DTE

Context:  As per the Mulidimensional Poverty Index 2022 (released by UNDP & OPHI) titled , ” Unpacking deprivation bundles to reduce multidimensional poverty report”, the number of poor people in India has dropped by about 415 million (over 41 crore) over the last 15 years.  


    • 1.2 billion people worldwide are multidimensionally poor.
    • India is home to the largest number of poor followed by Nigeria.
    • Poorest states reduced poverty the fastest in India
    • Poverty among children fell faster (however, India still has the world’s highest number of poor children)
    • The Incidence of Poverty dropped from 55.1% to 16.4% over 15 years (2005- 2020)
        • Out of 16.4 %, 4.2% live in extreme poverty.
    • About 21.2% poor belong to rural areas, and 5.5% live in cities.
    • India’s female-headed Households are poorer than male-headed HHs ( India being exception in South Asia).
    • Drop in poverty between 2015-16 and 2019-21 was faster at the rate of 11.9% annually compared to 8.1% between 2005-06 and 2015-16.


  • An integrated policy to tackle deprivation in nutrition, cooking fuel, housing and sanitation.
  • Enable access to subsidized food, early childcare centers and mid-day meals in schools.

Multi-Dimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

Global MPI is an international measure of multidimensional poverty covering 107 developing countries first developed in 2010 by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

It is computed by scoring each surveyed household on 10 parameters (in comparison National MPI (by Niti Aayog) is based on 12 parameters (MPI parameter + Bank Account+ Ante-natal care).

    • It was first launched in 2010 by the OPHI (Oxford Poverty and
      Human Development Initiative)and the Human Development Report Office of the UNDP.
    • A person is multidimensionally poor if one is deprived in one third or more of the weighted indicators.  Those who are deprived in one half or more of the weighted indicators are considered living in extreme multidimensional poverty.


PYQ Q.The Multi-dimensional Poverty Index developed by Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative with UNDP support covers which of the following? (UPSC 2012)

  1. Deprivation of education, health, assets and services at the household level
  2. Purchasing power parity at the national level
  3. Extent of the budget deficit and GDP growth rate at the national level

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3



MPI bases its estimation on education (years of schooling and attendance in schools), health (child mortality and nutrition) and standard of living (electricity, sanitation, drinking water, flooring of the house, cooking fuel and asset ownership).


Digital banking units (DBUs)

SOURCE Indian Express

Context: PM dedicated 75 digital banking units to the nation. This plan was announced in Budget 2022-23.

About DBUs:

A digital banking unit is a specialised unit or hub having a certain minimum digital infrastructure for delivering digital banking products and services such as ATM, access to internet banking, digital account opening etc.

  • It is joint initiative of RBI, Indian Banks Association and participating banks.

As per RBI:

  • Commercial banks (other than regional rural banks, payment banks and local area banks) with past digital banking experience are permitted to open DBUs.
  • DBUs will be treated as banking outlets.


Advantages: Neo-banks or digital banks excel at product innovation and offer far better digital solutions, compared to conventional banks. It will further provide 24X7 banking, paperless banking and ensure digital literacy.

Concerns: Only 27% of our population is digitally literate, with a lack of good connectivity infrastructure. Also, they lack independent existence and are in a partnership with NBFCs and scheduled banks.



Which of the following is a most likely consequence of implementing the Unified Payments Interface (UPI)? (UPSC 2017)

(a) Mobile wallets will not be necessary for online payments.

(b) Digital currency will totally replace the physical currency in about two decades.

(c) FDI inflows will drastically increase.

(d) Direct transfer of subsidies to poor people will become very effective.



FDI in India

Source: The Hindu

Context: It is a report, brought out by the Confederation Of Indian Industries and EY, India has the potential to attract, $475 billion of FDI in the next 5 years. 


  • India is 5th most attractive manufacturing destination
  • India has received $58.8 billionin foreign direct Investment (FDI) in the financial year 2022 (highest from Singapore) (FY22) in spite of headwinds in the global and domestic economic environment

CONFEDERATION OF INDIAN INDUSTRIES- (CII): It is a non-governmental trade association and advocacy group headquartered in New Delhi, India, founded in 1895, and registered under the Societies Registration Act, of 1860.


RELATED NEWS – Strengthening dollar, weakening rupee.

Why the US dollar is strengthening: Due to greater fiscal tightening and rising interest rates, instability triggered by Russia- Ukraine war.

Impact: India’s forex reserve is at 2 year low; increased import bill; increased CAD

However, not only the Indian rupee, but other global currencies have depreciated too against the dollar and the Indian rupee has performed better compared to other currencies.


How does tokenisation prevent online card fraud?

Source: Livemint

Context:  The RBI’s deadline for the tokenization of cards used in online payments passed on 30 September.

What is tokenisation?

Tokenisation refers to the replacement of actual credit and debit card details with an alternate code called the “token”, which will be unique for a combination of card, token requestor and device.

How it prevents online fraud?

  • Actual details not revealed: A tokenised card transaction is considered safer as the actual card details are not shared with the merchant during transaction processing.
  • Currently, card tokenization is not mandatory and customers who don’t tokenize their cards have to enter their card details manually every time they have to make a transaction from Oct 1, 2022.

Benefits of card tokenisation:

  • Enhanced safety and security: Tokens generated on a card will be unique to a single card at a specific merchant.
  • Quicker checkouts
  • No more ‘False Declines’: since the usage of tokens for payments confirms the security of the highest order.
  • Easy card management
  • No need for a physical card as one can have a virtual version of the card on their smartphone


National Intellectual Property Conference 2022

Source: PIB

Context: National Intellectual Property Conference 2022 was held recently.

Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs; and symbols, names and images used in commerce that is “Novel, Inventive, has Industrial application, not relating to atomic energy ( they are not patentable under Patents Act, 1970)”.

Issues: India lacks strict enforcement, piracy is rampant, patent processing is cumbersome and lacks a grievance redressal mechanism (after the Intellectual property appellate board was abolished).

India stands at 40th/130 countries in the Global Innovation Index 2022. The government wants to bring it within the rank 10 countries.

Initiatives for IPR in India: Facilitating Start-Ups Intellectual Property Protection; Patent facilitation programme; KAPILA scheme ( funds for colleges/universities for filing patents); National IPR Policy 2016 ( aims for “Creative India; Innovative India”)


World Food Day (16th Oct)

Source: FAO

World Food Day (16th Oct) is celebrated to commemorate the establishment of the UN FAO on 16th October 1945. FAO is a specialised agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

Hunger Hotspot Outlook 2022-23 by FAO and World Food Programme had previously highlighted key hunger hotspot regions such as Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Horn of Africa Etc.

Reasons for continued hunger: Geopolitical instability, Climate change, Economic vulnerability, Political instability and Disasters such as a tropical cyclones.


PM Modi inaugurates ‘One Nation, One Fertilizer’ scheme

Source: TOI, Mint

Context:  PM Modi launched Pradhan Mantri Bharatiya Jan Urvarak Pariyojana, also known as ‘One Nation One Fertiliser’ during the two-day event PM Kisan Samman Sammelan 2022.

One Nation, One fertilizer scheme.

  • Under it, fertilizer companies must market all subsidised fertilisers under a single brand ‘Bharat’.
  • With the launch of this scheme, India will have a common bag design across the country like Bharat urea, Bharat DAP, Bharat MOP, Bharat NPK, and so on.
  • Rationale behind the scheme: The rationale is that since fertilizers of a particular category must meet the nutrient-content specifications of the Fertilizer Control Order (FCO), there is no product differentiation among different brands for each type of fertilizer.
    • Also, brand preferences by farmers have resulted in fertilizer-supply delays to farmers and an extra burden on the exchequer due to increased freight subsidies needing to be paid for the long-distance crisscross movement of fertilizers.

Drawbacks of the scheme

  • It will disincentivise fertiliser companies from undertaking marketing and brand promotion activities.
  • Blame on the government: Currently, in case of any bag or batch of fertilisers not meeting the required standards, the blame is put on the company.
    • But now, that may be passed on fully to the government.


Aluminium Freight Train Rake

Source: The Hindu

Context: First indigenously manufactured aluminium freight train rake inducted into Railways

A rake in a train is a line of coupled passenger coaches, freight wagons, or railcars (excluding the locomotive) that typically move together. One rake can have around 40 to 58 wagons attached to it.

Previously, made of steel, Aluminium rakes have the following advantages:

  • Lighter: More speed, lower energy consumption and higher freight-carrying capacity
  • Lower CO2 footprint
  • Recyclable 100%

Made in collaboration with Besco Limited Wagon Division and aluminium major Hindalco (a subsidiary of Aditya Birla Group).


Tiger Relocation

Source: Hindustan Times
Context: A tiger (T-113) has been shifted from Ranthambore TR to Sariska TR, as the majority of Tigers in Sariska have aged. Previously, 1st tiger reintroduction was done in STR in 2008, after tigers disappeared from it in 2005.

Ranthambore TR is famous for diurnal tigers (active during the day and night) (generally tigers nocturnal, i.e active only during the night). The TR is enclosed by Chambal and Banas Rivers.

National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) is a statutory body (under Wildlife Protection Act 1972) for Tiger conservation and relocation.


Green crackers

Source: Indian Express

Context: Chandigarh allows the use of green crackers.

Difference between green crackers and traditional crackers

Both green crackers and traditional crackers cause pollution and people should refrain from using either. However, the only difference is that green crackers cause 30 per cent less air pollution as compared to traditional ones.

Green crackers reduce emissions substantially, absorb dust, and don’t contain hazardous elements like barium nitrate. Toxic metals in traditional crackers are replaced with less hazardous compounds.

Green crackers fall under three categories- SWAS, SAFAL and STAR: the crackers developed by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).

SWAS – “safe water releaser” should have small water pockets/droplets that are released when burst, in the form of vapour.

STAR – a safe thermite cracker, which does not comprise potassium nitrate and Sulphur, emits reduced particulate matter disposal and reduced sound intensity.

SAFALsafe minimal aluminium which has minimum usage of aluminium, and used magnesium instead. It ensures a reduction in sound in comparison to traditional crackers.



At DefExpo, India to pitch military tools to Africa, IOR countries

Source: The Hindu

Context:  The India-Africa Defence Dialogue (IADD) and the Indian Ocean Region (IOR)-plus conclave being organised at Gandhinagar will see India pitching its military hardware to various countries.

Defence exports of India

  • The government has set an ambitious target to achieve a manufacturing turnover of $25 billion, or ₹1,75,000 crore, including exports of $5 bn in aerospace and defence goods and services by 2025.
  • India’s defence exports touched ₹13,000 crores for 2021-22. For this financial year, they have reached ₹8,000 crores.
  • The first IADD was held in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, during DefExpo 2020 and the ‘Lucknow Declaration was adopted.
    • A similar ‘Gandhinagar document’ will be adopted at the IADD.



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