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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

1. Understanding the GHI


GS Paper 3:

1. Feeding people, saving the planet

2. Securing India’s Cyberspace


Content for Mains Enrichment

1. Case Studies: Foot Soldiers of Governance

2. Manipur’s State Population Commission


Facts for Prelims:

1. Kolar Fields

2. Collegium primacy over appointments and transfers

3. Scheduled Castes panel

4. Regional languages in the legal system

5. India to take G20 presidency


7. Vision- Developed India: opportunities and expectations of MNCs

8. Filling Skill Gap

9. LEADS 2022 Survey report

10. Non-deliverable forward Market

11. Infrastrucutre Status to Data Centres

12. India’s coal mines

13. Developing Space Ecosystem

14. Durgavati Tiger Reserve

15. Lab-grown meat


17. Mapping


Understanding the Global Hunger Index

GS paper 2

Syllabus: Issues related to poverty and hunger, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection of vulnerable sections of society etc


Directions: It is the continuation of the previous article on GHI published on Saturday.

Source: The Hindu, PIB


Context: For the second time in two years, the Ministry of Women and Child Development rejected the Global Hunger Index (GHI) which ranked India 107 among 121 countries.

Issues raised by India:

  • Proportion of Undernourished (PoU) population: The report lowers India’s rank based on the estimates of the Proportion of Undernourished (PoU) population.
  • The U.S. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimate is based on the ‘Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES)’ survey: India stated that the data represented a miniscule proportion for a country of India’s size.
  • Calculating hunger based on mainly indicators relating to health indicators of children is neither scientific nor rational.
  • The report chooses to deliberately ignore efforts made by the Government to ensure food Security for the population, especially during the Covid Pandemic.


GHI website explanation to allegations:

  • GHI only uses the public data obtained through food balance sheets based on data reported by member countries, including India.
  • GHI ensures both the food supply situation and the effects of inadequate nutrition within a particularly vulnerable subset of the population are captured.
  • Recognized by the International community: All four indicators used in the calculation of global hunger are recognised by the international community, including India.


Insta Links:


Mains Links:

Q. Performance of welfare schemes that are implemented for vulnerable sections is not so effective due to the absence of their awareness and active involvement at all stages of policy process – Discuss(UPSC 2019)


Prelims Links:

  • GHI
  • Mortality
  • Stunting
  • Wasting
  • Concern Worldwide and Welthungerhilfe

Which of the following is/are indicators used by Concern Worldwide and Welthungerhilfe for measuring Global hunger index?

  1. Child mortality
  2. Child Wasting
  3. Anemia
  4. Undernourishment

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

a. 1, 2 and 3 only

b. 1, 2 and 4 only

c. 2 and 4 only

d. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans: (b)


Refer to article above

Ashok Gulati writes: Feeding people, saving the planet

GS Paper III:

Syllabus : Environmental conservation, Agriculture and cropping patterns


Source: Indian Express

Directions: This Article has been taken from the Indian Express. Although the article was long but we are providing here only those points which are important.

Context:  Feeding people while saving the planet requires a balancing act writes Ashok Gulati.

Key concern for Today’s world:

  • Access to food at affordable prices, however, remains a challenge despite the availability of ample food.
  • lack of sync between policies and technologies.
  • develop technologies that supply the food and nutritional needs of the world while also addressing climate change imperatives.

What needs to be done?

  • Developing tools to understand the impact of climate change
    • As climate shocks are getting intense with higher frequency in form of heatwaves, droughts and untimely floods, putting millions at risk of food security.
  • Promoting scientific knowledge and innovation instead of ideologies and dogmas as it has led to terrible outcomes.
    • For instance, China suffered heavily due to starvation during 1958-61 period when it tried to follow a commune-based system of communist ideology.
  • Invest not only in climate adaptation strategies but also re-work our policies that can mitigate GHG emissions for agriculture.
    • Since agriculture contributes to 28 per cent of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and also gets severely impacted by climate change.
  • Focusing on changing the behaviour of peoplee. working on policies that incentivise people to change their way of doing things, be it in agriculture or in any other field.
  • Increase Expenditure on agri-research and development and education: India’s current expenditure hovers around 6 per cent of the agri-GDP for the Centre and states combined.
    • This needs to go up to at least 1 per cent, and, preferably between 1.5 to 2 per cent of the agri-GDP.

Only then India can be self-reliant (atmanirbhar) in food even in the face of adverse climate change.

What is the World food prize?

  • it was started by Norman Borlaugh (Noble prize for peace in 1970) for saving millions of lives through scientific research.
  • It was established in 1986 and currently, It is presented by the World Food Prize Foundation which has over 80 companies, individuals, etc. as donors.
  • Indians including M S Swaminathan, Verghese Kurien, Gurdev Khush and Rattan Lal have been recipients of the prize.
  • It is given every year on October 16 in a special ceremony in Des Moines, Iowa.


Insta Links

Prelims link

  • World food prize is released by?
  • About World Food prize foundation.
  • FAO.

Mains Links:

Q. What do you understand by climate-smart agriculture (CSA)? How can this approach helps us in maintaining food security, while mitigating the impact of climate change on agriculture?

Q. How is climate change impacting agriculture in India? Discuss the steps that are needed to adapt to the ongoing climate crisis. (250 words)

Securing India’s Cyberspace

GS Paper III:

Syllabus S&T developments and everyday applications & effects


Source: Indian Express

Directions: This Article highlights the looming threat in India’s cyber security and suggests a way forward to it. Go through it once. You can use it for value addition.

Context:  The world is moving towards an era in which the applications of quantum physics in strategic domains will soon become a reality, increasing cybersecurity risks.

What is the current threat to cyber security?

  • Outdated protocols: Current protocols like the RSA will quickly become outdated.
    • This means that quantum cyberattacks can potentially breach any hardened target.
  • Threat to digital infrastructure: China’s quantum advances expand the spectre of quantum cyberattacks against India’s digital infrastructure, which already faces a barrage of attacks from Chinese state-sponsored hackers.
    • Particularly worrying for India is the fact that China now hosts two of the world’s fastest quantum computers.
  • India’s dependence on foreign, particularly Chinese hardware, is an additional vulnerability.

Ongoing Development in India?

  • India is getting there slowly but steadily. In February 2022, a joint team of the DRDO and IIT-Delhi successfully demonstrated a QKD link between two cities in UP — Prayagraj and Vindhyachal.
  • In 2019, the Centre declared quantum technology a “mission of national importance”.
  • The Union Budget 2020-21 had proposed to spend Rs 8,000 crore on the newly launched National Mission on Quantum Technologies and Applications.
  • The Army has collaborated with industry and academia to build secure communications and cryptography applications.

How to make India’s cyberspace resilient?

  • Procurement from other nations: India must consider procuring the United States National Security Agency’s (NSA) Suite B Cryptography Quantum-Resistant Suite as its official encryption mechanism.
  • Emulating cryptographic standards: the Indian defence establishment can consider emulating the cryptographic standards set by the US’s National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) which has developed a series of encryption tools to handle quantum computer attacks.
  • Develop quantum-resistant systems: India should start implementing and developing capabilities in quantum-resistant communications, specifically for critical strategic sectors.
  • Funding: government can fund and encourage existing open-source projects related to post-quantum cryptography.
  • Participating in the global initiative: India can participate in the Open Quantum Safe project — a global initiative started in 2016 for prototyping and integrating quantum-resistant cryptographic algorithms.
  • Prioritising QKDs over long distances, especially connecting military outposts for sensitive communications, can be prioritised to ensure secure communications whilst protecting key intelligence from potential quantum cyberattacks.
  • Diplomatic partnerships with other “techno-democracies” — countries with top technology sectors, advanced economies, and a commitment to liberal democracy — can help India pool resources and mitigate emerging quantum cyber threats.

India needs a holistic approach to tackle these challenges. At the heart of this approach should be the focus on post-quantum cybersecurity.

Insta Links

Prelims link

Mains Links:

Q. What do you understand by Quantum computers and explain how will it revolutionize computing? (250 words)


The term ‘Sycamore’ sometimes mentioned in the news recently is related to

a)       Humanoid Robot

b)      Fastest Cloud Computing technology

c)       Quantum Computer

d)      Communication technology


Answer: C


Conent for Mains Enrichment

Case Studies: Foot Soldiers of Governance

Astik Kumar Pandey

MISSION CLEAN MORNA RIVER-A Citizen Driven Mass Movement to Clean River Morna in Akola District of Maharashtra.

The river had accumulated hyacinths and sewage waste. When the collector first floated the idea, there was fear of infection if people themselves cleaned. Collector’s office published newspaper ads inviting participation. It turned out to be a huge success. Several local corporators also got down to clean the river.

Lesson learnt: Community involvement is an essential tool for change.


Ashish Saxena

Sathidar Abhiyan-A joint initiative for empowerment of women and children through eradication of social evils in Jhabua, Madhya Pradesh.

The dowry system was rampant in Jhabua district. After multiple consultations, the social leaders became mediators, reaching out to the villagers and making them aware. A tadvi in a village holds a very important social position. He is an influencer and people tend to pay heed to whatever a tadvi has to say, so the village tadvis started to be saathidaars.

Began by convincing people to cap the dowry amount to Rs 50,000 or less as against the conventional Rs 2.3 lakhs which went up to Rs 5 lakh and above.

Lesson learnt: Good social leaders can help fight evils prevalent in society.


Dr. Madhavi Khode Chaware

Creating Awareness About Child Rights And Prevention Of Sexual Harassment In Tribal Ashram schools

Sexual harassment in ashram schools is a common occurrence across India. It is underreported like malnutrition

This is when Jiwhala was rolled out , providing training and orientation to all stakeholders as also providing video and reading material, the boys and girls are now speaking out openly about these sensitive issues.

The thought behind it is basically two-fold – empowering children and sensitizing the school administration about their responsibilities.


Lesson learnt: Empowerment, sensitisation and awareness are tools for good governance.



Dr. S. Lakhmanan 

DEBO NA NEBO NA “ An Anti-Corruption Movement along with Mobile Phone Application by the District Administration Cachar, Silchar.

Debo Na, Nebo Na’ — the Bengali for “Won’t Give, Won’t Take” — the project was launched in May 2017.

The simple motive behind the project is to ensure that there is no absence of facilities to communicate about a corrupt practice or its possibility immediately from the point of occurrence

Drop-boxes are in place outside the offices of all government departments in the districts.

Lessons learnt: Innovative minds of administrators can help to monitor the efficiency and integrity of governance.


Kartikeya Misra 

Kaushal Godavari Skill Development and Entrepreneurship Promotion Project/ Kaushal Godavari (KG)

Under this innovative and unique programme, the district administration is arranging for skill development, skill enhancement, job placements and aiding private companies in recruitment. The programme is so successful that by 2019, 16,000 youths have found jobs.

Lessons learnt: Empowering youth through skill is at the core of good governance.


Dr Shahid Iqbal Choudhary

Project “Rahat”: Connecting Lives, Securing Education (A convergence project planned at the District level)

Providing connectivity in the villages to 170 bridges have been built under this project

Right vision with the right execution has the power to change the lives of people.


Raj Kumar Yadav 

District Administration Adopted Village (DAAV)

Under the DAAV scheme, six schools were selected. Infrastructure was enhanced and locals were trained to undertake maintenance of the establishments.

Lessons learnt: Good governance at grass root level mean the availability and accessibility of basic amenities and services.


Manipur’s State Population Commission

Context: To help control the population, the Manipur government has announced no government benefits or jobs for those couples having more than four children and established State Population Commission to implement it.

Previously, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat have similar laws

India is poised to overtake China as the most populous country in 2023 ( India: 18% of the world population)


Facts for Prelims

Kolar Fields

Source: Hindu Business Line

Context: Government will revive mining of Gold, Palldium and other minerals form Kolar fields in Karnataka.

Previously it was closed in 2001 for environmental and economic reasons.



Why does the SC Collegium hold primacy over appointments and transfers?

Source: The Hindu


  • There is an increasing trend of the government unilaterally delaying or segregating names recommended by the Supreme Court Collegium.


Segregation and delays:

  • Recommendation of transfer by Collegium: Government chose to notify Justice Mithal’s transfer to the Rajasthan High Court while keeping a silence about Justice Muralidhar.
  • Justice Singh’s recommendation lies in limbo with the government: While the other judges recommended by the Collegium in the same batch for elevation were notified by the government.


Issues associated with delays:

  • Seniority of judges: It not only affects the primacy of the Collegium, but also impacts the seniority of a judge and even his/her prospects to be appointed to the Supreme Court.
  • Segregation with the Collegium’s list amounts to tinkering(improving something in a casual way): As collegium is the final arbiter of judicial appointments.


Importance of Judges case:

  • Primacy of collegium: The Three Judges Case establishes the primacy of the Collegium, led by the CJI, in making judicial appointments.
  • The Three Judges Case: It recognised the significance of maintaining the “inter-se seniority amongst judges in High Courts and their combined seniority on an all-India basis.


Way forward:

  • Memorandum of Procedure (MoP): A new MoP could bring in a clause to clear names for judicial appointments within a reasonable time to avoid delay.

To read about:The Court and the problem with its collegium: click here



Scheduled Castes panel cannot initiate an inquiry on unsubstantiated complaints

 Source: The Hindu

Context: The Delhi High Court ruled that the National Commission for Scheduled Castes cannot initiate an inquiry based on any “specious complaint and unsubstantiated allegations” made by a person belonging to a Scheduled Castes.

  • The plea was of a company against which the commission had initiated an inquiry over the termination of an engineer who belonged to a Scheduled Caste.


Key Highlights:

  • The commission is empowered to initiate an inquiry: Provided a member of a Scheduled Caste is able to establish that he had been ill-treated or discriminated against solely on account that he belonged to that class.
  • Article 338: the commission has no authority to assume jurisdiction or initiate an inquiry under Article 338 based on such a specious complaint and unsubstantiated allegations”, the court said.

National Commission for SC:

  • NCSC is a constitutional body: works to safeguard the interests of the scheduled castes (SC) in India.
  • Article 338: It deals with this commission
  • It consists of:
    • Vice-chairperson.
    • Three other members.
  • They are appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.


PM bats for use of regional languages in the legal system

Source: The Hindu

Context: People’s faith in Constitutional institutions gets strengthened when justice is seen to be delivered, the Prime Minister said.

Key Highlights:

  • Delay in getting justice: One of the major challenges faced by the people of the country.
  • New laws should be written in regional languages: To bring in “ease of justice, and legal language doesn’t become a barrier for citizens.
  • State governments adopt a humane approach towards undertrial prisoners.
  • ADR: Alternative dispute resolution in villages can be adopted at the State level as well.
  • e-Courts Mission: Systems like virtual hearing and production has become a part of our legal system.
    • e-filing of cases is also being encouraged.

 e-Court Mission:


India to take G20 presidency

Directions: Important for Prelims and mains, it can be asked directly in prelims

Source: The Hindu


  • India would be taking over the Group of Twenty (G20) presidency at “a time when there are so many challenges”, the Finance Minister said.

Current Affairs


Key Highlights:

  • The Common Framework: 2020 G20 initiative for debt sustainability, was not performing as much as expected, she said.
  • Monetary tightening in the U.S.: It has created interest rate differentials between the U.S. and other countries
    • It is the primary reason for Asian currencies depreciating “quite sharply”, the IMF’s Asia and Pacific Department said.



  • The G20 is an informal group of 19 countries and the European Union, with representatives of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
  • The G20 Presidency rotates annually: according to a system that ensures a regional balance over time.
  • For the selection of the presidency: 19 countries are divided into 5 groups, each having no more than 4 countries.
    • The presidency rotates between each group.
  • Every year the G20 selects a country from another group to be president.
    • India is in Group 2 which also has Russia, South Africa, and Turkey.
  • The G20 does not have a permanent secretariat or Headquarters.



Context: Chinese aggressive posturing and tough approach to international relations is called Wolf Warrior diplomacy.

Wolf Warrior diplomacy:

  • It is an unofficial term used to describe the aggressive and confrontational style of carrying out diplomatic communication, especially with Western Countries and also with India.
  • The term is derived from the 2015 Chinese movie sequel called Wolf Warrior, which portrayed hard nationalism in the face of the western mercenaries.


Why is Chinese diplomacy becoming aggressive?

The emergence of Wolf Warrior diplomacy is primarily attributed to increasing authoritarianism in China and the deterioration in China-US relations.


How is Wolf Warrior diplomacy being used?

It is manifested in Chinese diplomats taking hostile stances in host countries, such as not showing up on receiving the summons, not being apologetic for lapses etc.



Report – “ Vision- Developed India: opportunities and expectations of MNCs”

 CONTEXT-  It is a report, brought out by the Confederation Of Indian Industries and EY. It has been held that India has the potential to attract, $475 billion of FDI in the next 5 years. 




Report has sighted the following grounds-

  1. India’s emergence as a global manufacturing hub– India is 5th most attractive manufacturing destination now, with its 20 crores strong middle class and growing consumer market.
  2. Digital transformation of the country. Ex- schemes like Digital India etc.
  3. India is an important destination for their global expansion, 71% of MNCs, working in India feel so.
  4. Focus on infrastructure and manufacturing. Ex-National Infrastructure Pipeline, Production linked Incentive schemes.
  5. Reduction in regulatory barriers. Ex- PARIVESH Portal for single window environmental clearances, new labour codes etc.


It is a non-governmental trade association and advocacy group headquartered in New Delhi, India, founded in 1895, and registered under the Societies Registration Act, of 1860.


Filling Skill Gap

Context: To improve employability skills up to international standards, National Skills Development Corporation (NSDC) under the Skills India Mission have roped in Foreign Universities.

Skill gaps are the greatest barrier to employability. As per India Skills Report 2022, only about 46% of youth are employable and the majority lack awareness about their roles and requirements in jobs.

Government initiatives: PM Kaushal Vikas Yojana, PM Kaushal Kendras, Craftsmen training scheme, Apprenticeship training policies, Skill loan schemes, etc.


LEADS 2022 Survey report

Source: The Hindu

Direction: The specific content of the report is technical and not needed for UPSC exams.

Context:  To assess logistics infrastructure, service and human resources across India, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry released the LEADS survey report.

Logistics is the management of the flow of things between the point of origin and the point of consumption to meet the requirements of customers or corporations.

Categories for ranking: Achievers; Fast Movers and Aspirers.

The benefit of good logistics: Improves trade competitiveness, ease of doing business and economic growth.

Recommendations:  Draft state-specific logistics policy ( in line with National Logistics Policy 2022); Develop Grievance Redressal System (in line with Ease of Logistics (E-LogS) portal; establish a dedicated land bank.

PM GatiShakti National Master Plan has the potential to save more than Rs. 10 lakh crores (US$ 120.98 billion) per year by enhancing logistical efficiency.


Non-deliverable forward (NDF) Market

A non-deliverable forward (NDF) is a two-party currency derivatives future contract to exchange cash flows/ currencies. The difference between the pre-agreed rate and the prevailing spot rates at the time of maturity of the contract is settled.

The largest NDF markets are in the Chinese yuan, Indian rupee, South Korean won, New Taiwan dollar, and Brazilian real.

Importance: Useful for dealing with non-fully convertible currencies such as Indian Rupee.


Infrastrucutre Status to Data Centres

Source: Economic Times

Context: Data centre with a minimum capacity of 5 MW of IT load will be eligible for infrastructure status

A data centre is a building, a dedicated space within a building, or a group of buildings used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. Presently, India has nearly 500 MW installed capacity for data centres.

Significance: Giving ‘Infrastructure status’ enables get easier access to institutional credit at lower rates and for a longer time.


Draft Data Centre Policy (2020): It aims to make India a global hub for the data centre.

Data localization rules make it mandatory to set up a data centre in India.



India’s coal mines are severely under-utilised amid the push for new ones’

Source: The Hindu

Context:  Though the country experienced a supply crunch twice last year, a report suggests new projects under development could be ‘unnecessary’ as only two-thirds of the current capacity is under use.

Why did Coal India fail to reach its production targets last year?

  • Competition from renewables
  • Infrastructure impasses and
  • land-use concerns.

What are the issues associated with the development of new coal mines?

  • Displacement concerns: Coal mines under development threaten to displace at least 165 villages and affect 87,630 families.
    • Out of these 41,508 families live in areas where the predominant population is tribal communities.
  • Usage of Agricultural land: 22,686 hectares (ha) of agricultural land will be diverted.
  • Environmental concerns: it threatens 19,297 ha of forest, and will consume at least 168,041 kilolitres of water per day, comparable to the daily water needs of over one million people.
  • Hinders India’s climate target goal: it increases India’s likelihood of delay in a clean energy future.

India’s 427 MTPA ((a million tonnes per annum)of planned new coal mine capacity place it second in the world after China with 596 MTPA.


Developing Space Ecosystem in India

Source: The Hindu

Context: A report has been released by ISpA and Ernst&Young (report name not so important )


  • India’s Space sector accounts for only 2% of the global space economy but has the potential to touch 8%.
  • ISRO generated over the US $167 mn revenue (2014-2019)

ISRO’s heaviest rocket LVM3 (previously called GSLV Mk III) will launch British start-up OneWeb’s 36 broadband satellites.

India has supported private participation through INSPACe, NSIL (a central public sector enterprise under the Department of Space and the commercial arm of ISRO), proposed Indian Space policy and the Indian Space Association (ISpA, formed in 2021).


Durgavati Tiger Reserve

Source: Hindustan Times

Context: Madhya Pradesh (MP) wildlife board has approved a new reserve for tigers as over 25% of the Panna Tiger Reserve will be submerged by the linking of the Ken-Betwa rivers.

A green corridor linking Panna with Durgavati will be developed to allow the movement.


Start-ups to tap the potential of lab-grown meat

Source: The Hindu, Indian Express

Context:  Recent years have witnessed a spurt of celebrity interest in ‘plant-based’ meat and dairy products.

What are plant-based meat and dairy products?

  • Plant-based” refers to products that bio-mimic or replicate meat, seafood, eggs, and milk derived from animals — by looking, smelling, and tasting like them.

How are these made?

  • Plant-based meat can be produced using various things utilizing plant proteins or soy proteins.
    • The challenge lies in replicating muscle tissue that plants don’t have.
  • As for plant-based dairy, the main products are milk from oats, almonds, soybean, coconut, and rice. Among these, oat milk is considered the closest to regular milk.

How is lab-grown or cultured meat different from plant-based meat?

  • The latter is made from plant sources such as soy or pea protein, while cultured meat is grown directly from cells in a laboratory.

Why they are getting endorsed by a celebrity?

  • They offer alternatives to traditional meat products that could feed a lot more people, reduce the threat of zoonotic diseases, and mitigate the environmental impact of meat consumption.

What are the hurdles facing this industry?

  • Dealing with consumer mistrust.
  • Resistance from traditional meat producers.

How big is the market?

  • According to a report retail sales of plant-based animal product alternatives in the US stood at $7.4 billion in 2021 (has grown from $4.8 billion in 2018).

What is the scope in India?

  • Probably not much, at least in dairy, and Plant-based meat can have only a niche market relevant for the top 1%.

India’s annual per capita consumption of fish and chicken is at 6 kg and 4.5 kg respectively, as against only 700-800 gm for mutton.



Context: Iranian-made Kamikaze drones were deployed by Russia in the capital city of Ukraine Kyiv.

What are Kamikaze drones?

These are drones containing explosives that can be flown directly at targets such as a tank or a group of troops that are destroyed when it explodes.

How did Kamikaze originate?

  • The drones derive their name from the Kamikaze pilots of Japan during World War 2 primarily against the US.
  • These pilots conducted suicide attacks by intentionally crashing their planes filled with explosives into enemy targets.


What are its advantages?

These drones provide a greater advantage as there is no risk of losing the operator, unlike the WW2 Japanese Kamikazes.



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