InstaLinks : help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 2:
1. Mission Karmyogi: An attempt to change the face of civil services
2. Importance of Human rights
3. Does India need a population policy?
GS Paper 3:
1. Living Planet Report 2022
Content for Mains Enrichment
1. Rythu Bharosa Kendras (Andhra Pradesh)
2. Adverse Impact of Social Media: Molly Russel Case
3. Making Ladakh Waste Free
4. Reverse Shopping
Facts for Prelims:
1. Supreme Court delivers split verdict on Karnataka hijab ban
2. Languages panel recommendations and a fresh ‘Hindi imposition’ row
3. MGNREGS made up for up to 80% of income lost during the pandemic’
4. EC drops order to enrol outsiders in J&K
5. Amendments to Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act
6. PADDY STRAW PELLETISATION AND TORREFACTION
7. ISRO’S NEXT-GEN LAUNCH VEHICLE
Mission Karmyogi: An attempt to change the face of civil services
GS Paper 2
Syllabus: Role of Civil Services
Source: Indian Express
Context: It is an Editorial article and gives good insights into the features and some good examples of Mission Karmyogi. You may note it down.
“Mission Karmayogi”- National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (NPCSCB)
It aims to transition civil services from ‘Rules based’ to ‘Roles based’ Human Resource (HR) Management by aligning work allocation of civil servants by matching their competencies to the requirements of the post, thereby leading to “an effective citizen-centric civil service”
Its features are:
- ‘On-site learning’ to complement the ‘off-site’ learning: will ensure a citizen-centric approach to governance.
- g. Under the Mission, nearly 95,000 railway staff, including all ticket conductors, reservation and freight clerks and station masters are being trained in better service delivery.
- Create an ecosystem of shared training infrastructure e.g. learning materials, institutions, and personnel.
- Setting up an Integrated Government Online Training-iGOT Karmayogi Platform: to provide curated digital e-learning material for capacity building.
- Using the “70-20-10” formula: Seventy per cent of adult learning comes from job experience, 20 per cent is a result of peer-to-peer sharing, and only 10 per cent comes from classroom teaching.
- Creating a Dashboard view of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) at the iGOT portal for appropriate monitoring and evaluation of civil servants
- Accountability and Transparency in Governance: through real-time evaluation and constant training
- PM’s Public Human Resources (HR) Council: will provide direction to the task of Civil Services Reform and capacity building
- Collaborative and common ecosystem: will end the culture of working in silos, reduce duplication of efforts and bring out a new work culture that will focus on the individual as well as institutional capacity building.
- Capacity Building Commission: will assist the PM Public Human Resources Council in approving the Annual Capacity Building Plans
- g. Cross immersive learning for the ministry staff in the Civil Aviation Ministry’s Annual Capacity Building Plan. Public officials were sent to private airlines/airports to observe their managerial practices.
- Ensuring efficient service delivery: work will be assigned as per specific role competencies (right man for the right job)
- Bridging the gap between generalization and specialization: which exists due to a lack of mid-level training at all levels.
- Efficient, effective and empathetic civil services: For instance, Inspector Inian, an SHO from Puducherry, after undergoing soft skills training under mission karmyogi, said that after receiving a mother’s complaint, he used his professional skills to find her lost child.
- This, he remarked. gave him far more joy compared to promotions or salary hikes.
- Mission Karmyogi is different in emphasising the democratisation of learning across all levels of civil services (all the class)
- “Whole Government” approach: Training resources are being shared across departments and silos are being broken.
Mahatma Gandhi likened public service to being a trustee of public resources. Civil servants are uniquely positioned to play a role in lifting more than 170 million out of poverty into prosperity. What is needed is professional bureaucracy i.e. bureaucratic in form and structure and non-bureaucratic in attitude and spirit.
Q. Mission Karmayogi aims at making Indian Civil Servants innovative, proactive and technology-enabled while making them empowered with specific role competencies and high efficiency. Discuss.
Importance of Human rights
GS Paper 2
Context: The Vice President stressed that human rights are quintessential for the flourishing of democracy and urged every citizen to work for the protection and promotion of the human rights of others at 30th Foundation Day celebration of the National Human Rights Commission
Human rights are moral principles or norms for certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected in municipal and international law.
Promotion and protection of human rights:
- Article 51 A (g): Every citizen to protect and improve the natural environment and have compassion for living creatures.
- Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993(as amended in 2019) provided for the constitution of a National Human Rights Commission at the Union level, which steers the State Human Rights Commission in States and Human Rights Courts.
- Universal Declaration of Human Rights: It is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). It establishes the rights and freedoms of all members of the human race.
- Human Rights Dayis celebrated on 10th December all around the world.
- Freedom in the World 2021report released earlier this year downgraded India’s status from ‘Free’ to ‘Partly Free’.
- Human Rights Council: The Human Rights Council is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations system responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights.
- Amnesty International: An international organisation of volunteers who campaign for human rights.
Steps taken for the preservation of human rights:
- Governance systemic reforms and affirmative initiatives: particularly in the Health and Economic sectors.
- Inclusive growth: It is also antidotal to violation of human rights.
- Banking network: 400 million getting into banking networks and over 200 million families benefiting out of free cooking gas connections.
Challenges to human rights:
- Conflicting definition of what forms human rights:g. while the world has condemned Chinese persecution of the Uighur community for human rights violations, China sees it as anti-terror/ anti-separatist measures.
- Silence: Silent and voiceless existence of the majority of our citizens
- Corruption: Human rights get compromised in the face of corruption.
Importance of Human rights:
- Flourishing of Democracy: Human rights are quintessential for flourishing democracy.
- Democratic values: They are of no significance in the absence of human rights.
- Dignity: Nurturing human rights is the nectar of dignity and dignified human existence.
- Positive ecosystem: Flourishing human rights generates a positive ecosystem that facilitates optimal utilisation of human talent.
- Development: It brings about holistic development.
- Indian culture: The pro-human rights foundational spirit of Indian culture, is reflected in Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad.
National Human Rights Commission of India (NHRC), is a statutory body established in 1993, under the provisions of The Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993. It is responsible for the protection and promotion of “rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants”.
- The chairperson is retired chief justice of India or a judge of the Supreme Court.
- They are appointed by the President on the recommendations of a six-member committee consisting of:
- Prime Minister (head), Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, Leaders of the Opposition in both the Houses of Parliament and Union Home Minister.
Term and removal:
- They hold office for a term of three years or until they attain the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier.
- The President can remove them from office under specific circumstances.
Q. Critically examine the roles and responsibilities of the National Human Rights Commission. (10M)
Does India need a population policy?
GS paper 2
Syllabus: Issues related to the development of the social sector, Government policies and interventions for the development of various sectors etc
The United Nations published data to show that India would surpass China as the world’s most populous country by 2023.
- According to the 2018-19 Economic Survey, India’s demographic dividend will peak around 2041.
Do we need a population policy? Yes.
- The previous Population policy was designed way back in 2000.
- Include Ageing: There is a need to tweak and add ageing to our population policy focus.
- Focus on Reproductive health: Focusing on other challenges that go along with enhancing reproductive health.
- Policy that enhances population as resources: For India’s development, and ensures that the population is happy, healthy, and productive.
- Move away from the two-child norm: Need to move away from the focus on the two-child norm.
Steps that need to be taken amid rising population:
- Family welfare: Move from a family planning approach to a family welfare approach.
- Empowering men and women: Being able to make informed choices about their fertility, health and well-being.
- Skilling: Learning new skills.
- Economic planning: that ensures good jobs, agricultural productivity, etc.
- Public policy: Making sharp changes in public policy to manage the population.
- Focus not on the fertility rate but on creating a situation in which slow changes in the family size take place in the context of a growing economy.
- Planning for equal consideration: Every fifth Indian by 2050 will be over the age of 65.
- So planning for this segment merits equal consideration.
- Invest: In adolescent well-being to reap the benefits
- Improve employment opportunities: For young women and increase the female employment rate.
- Social support: Elderly women need economic and social support networks.
India to surpass China as the most populous country in a year
Q. Despite Consistent experience of high growth, India still goes with the lowest indicators of human development. Examine the issues that make balanced and inclusive development elusive. (UPSC 2021)
- United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
- Fertility rate
Which of the following is/are the principal UN organs?
- UN Security Council
- The Economic and Social Council
- The Trusteeship Council and the Secretariat
- World Health Organization (WHO)
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
a. 1, 2 and 3 only
b. 2, 3 and 4 only
c. 1 and 2 only
d. 1, 2, 3 and 4
The United Nations (UN) has six main organs:
- The General Assembly
- The Security Council
- The Economic and Social Council
- The Trusteeship Council
- The International Court of Justice
Living Planet Report 2022
GS Paper 3
Syllabus: Biodiversity and Environment.
Source: DTE, Indian Express
Directions: This Article has been taken from the Down to Earth and Indian Express. Go through it once, you can use it for value addition.
Context: Recently WWF released its biennial Living Planet report 2022 showing trends in global biodiversity and the health of the planet.
Key highlights of the report:
- Population decline in wildlife: There has been a 69 per cent decline in the wildlife populations of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fish, across the globe in the last 50 years.
- Freshwater species populations globally were reduced by 83 per cent.
- Cycads — an ancient group of seed plants — are the most threatened species, while corals are declining the fastest, followed by amphibians.
- Region-specific Assessment: The highest decline (94 per cent) was in the Latin America and the Caribbean region.
- Africa recorded a 66 per cent fall in its wildlife populations from 1970-2018.
- Mangroove: it continues to be lost to aquaculture, agriculture and coastal development at a rate of 13 per cent per year.
- Mangrove loss represents a loss of habitat for biodiversity and the loss of ecosystem services for coastal communities.
- Corals: About 50% of warm water corals have already been lost and warming of 5 degrees Celsius will lead to a loss of 70-90% of warm water corals.
- Sharks: The global abundance of 18 of 31 oceanic sharks has declined by 71% over the last 50 years.
- By 2020 three-quarters of sharks and rays were threatened with extinction.
- Other highlights:
- Rivers: Only 37% of rivers that are over 1,000 km long remain free-flowing in their natural state.
- The Himalayan region and the Western Ghats are the most vulnerable regions in the country in terms of biodiversity loss.
- Sundarbans: 137 km of the Sundarbans mangrove forest have been eroded since 1985, reducing land and ecosystem services for people living there.
- The country has seen a decline in the population of the likes of honeybees and 17 species of freshwater turtles in this period.
Challenges cited by Report:
- Habitat loss and barriers to migration routes
- Six Key threats to Biodiversity loss – are habitat degradation and loss, exploitation, the introduction of invasive species, pollution, climate change and disease.
- Land-use change is still the biggest current threat to nature.
- Overexploitation and pollution: Many mangroves are also degraded by overexploitation and pollution, alongside natural stressors such as storms and coastal erosion.
- Climate change will impact key areas, such as water resources, agriculture, natural ecosystems, health and the food chain.
- Agriculture is the most prevalent threat to amphibians whereas hunting and trapping are most likely to threaten birds and mammals.
What needs to be done?
- Interlinkage: biodiversity loss and climate crisis should be dealt with as one instead of two different issues as they are intertwined.
- All-inclusive collective approach: so as to put us on a more sustainable path and ensures that the costs and benefits from our actions are socially just and equitably shared.
- A nature-positive future needs transformative, game-changing shifts in how we produce, how we consume, how we govern and what we finance.
What is the Living Planet Report?
Published by the international non-profit World Wide Fund for Nature every 2 years. Prepared in collaboration between WWF International and the Zoological Society of London. ZSL was founded in 1826 and is an international conservation charity.
- Living planet report is released by?
- About WWF International.
- Highlights of the 2022 report.
- What is an ecological footprint?
- About Global Footprint Network.
Write a note of the key findings of Living Planet Report 2022.
Content for Mains Enrichment
Case Study: Agriculture: Rythu Bharosa Kendras (Andhra Pradesh)
Set up for the first time in the country, the RBKs are unique seeds-to-sales, single-window service centres for farmers that have been set up across the state. RBKs facilitate interaction between farmers, agriculture scientists, and agriculture extension officers right at the village level.
Facilities: sell pre-tested quality seeds, certified fertilisers, and animal feed, can hire farm equipment, give a sample for soil testing, process crop insurance, support systems of e-cropping, geo-tagging and even sell their produce at the prevailing MSP in the RBKs.
Success: Several farmers have changed their cropping patterns, and helped in the elimination of spurious seeds and uncertified and dangerous fertilisers. Over 10,700 RBKs — multi-functional kiosks with digital Aadhar authentication equipment — have been set up across the state.
The Centre has recently nominated the RBK concept for the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s “Champion’’ award.
Adverse Impact of Media on Young
Making Ladakh Waste Free
Direction: This can be used as an example in GS3, Essay etc as good and innovative practices for waste management.
Context: PlanetFirst Recycling, a waste management social enterprise, decided to tackle the growing problem of waste in Ladakh. PlanetFirst has set up a scrap buying and selling network and organic waste composter connected to all satellite Solid Resource Management Centres, run by the administration of the Union Territory.
The team was able to pull in TOMRA, inventors of Reverse Vending Machine(RVM), a Norwegian company to present this unique and modern collection mechanism being followed all over Europe for efficient waste recovery.
The model involves setting up a deposit for consumers on all packaging materials. Once the packaging material is returned, the deposit collected will be returned to the consumer. This system encourages source segregation and collection of scrap from all strata of society.
Source: Hindustan Times
Context: In a bid to promote, reverse shopping, sporting goods giant Decathlon has decided to reverse its name for a month. Now three cities in Belgium will have stores with a board that will read “NOLHTACED”!
Reverse shopping basically means that customers can resell old or unused sporting goods back to the store, and the company will then repair the item and resell them in some form under warranty. The move is to promote general awareness of environment-friendly practices.
Facts for Prelims:
Supreme Court delivers split verdict on Karnataka hijab ban
Source: The Hindu, Indian Express
- The Supreme Court delivered a split verdict on whether Muslim students should shed their hijabs at their school gates.
- Split verdict:The split verdict means that the matter will now be placed before the Chief Justice of India for further directions
- Ban to continue: The ban on the hijab in Karnataka classrooms will remain in place.
Justice H. Gupta upheld Karnataka’s prohibitive government order:
- Apparent symbols of religious belief: cannot be worn to secular schools maintained from State funds.
- Secularity’ meant uniformity: manifested by parity among students in terms of uniformity.
- Not amount to the denial of education: However, if the students were refusing to attend classes, it would not amount to the denial of education by the state.
Justice Sudhanshu Dhulia:
- Secularity: meant tolerance to “diversity”.
- Wearing or not wearing a hijab to school: It is ultimately a matter of choice (Article 19(1)(a))
- Asking the girls to take off their hijab:
- It is an invasion of their privacy (Article 21)
- It is an attack on their dignity
- It is a denial to them of secular education.
- Article 25:
- It does not speak of Essential Religious Practice.
- If the belief is sincere, and it harms no one, there can be no justifiable reasons for banning the hijab in a classroom.
Bijoe Emmanuel & Ors vs State Of Kerala & Ors)(1986): The court allowed the claim of some students following the Jehovah’s Witnesses faith to remain silent during the singing of the national anthem in their school in Kerala on account of their religious belief.
Languages panel recommendations and a fresh ‘Hindi imposition’ row
Source: Indian Express
Context: A report submitted by the Official Language Committee headed by Home Minister (though not released yet to the public ) to President Droupadi Murmu has triggered angry reactions.
Some reports suggest that the reports seek to make Hindi a medium of instruction in higher education, in High Courts and in official use.
However, States like Tamil Nadu and Kerala are exempt as per The Official Languages Act, 1963 and the Rules and Regulations (of the Act), 1976.
- The law is implemented only in ‘A’ category states, in which the official language is Hindi.
Constitution had decided that both Hindi and English should be used as official languages for the first 15 years of the Republic. But, in the wake of intense anti-Hindi agitations in the south, the Centre announced that English would continue to be used even after 1965.
With the active promotion of Hindi being mandated by Article 351 of the Constitution, the Official Language Committee was set up to review and promote the use of Hindi in official communications. The first Report of the Committee was submitted in 1987.
Categories of states for official language implementation:
- Category ‘A’ – It includes states which have Hindi as their official state language like Bihar, Rajasthan etc.
- Category ‘B’ – it includes mainly those state which has Hindi as its second official language. E.g. Punjab, Gujarat etc.
- Category ‘C’- Other states, where the use of Hindi is less than 65 per cent. Tamil Nadu, Kerala etc.
MGNREGS made up for up to 80% income loss during the pandemic’
Source: The Hindu
Context: A study conducted by the Centre for Sustainable employment, on the impact of MGNREGA during the COVID-19 pandemic, has revealed that the wages earned under the Act helped compensate for income loss by 20 to 80%.
However, around 39% of all job card-holding households interested in working under the MGNREGA did not get a single day of work in the COVID year of 2020-21.
- As of 2022-23, there are 4 crores, active workers, under the MGNREGA.
- MGNREGA is a right-to-work programme that guarantees 100 days of employment to every rural household (not individual) that demands work.
- Implementation: The Ministry of Rural Development (MRD) in association with state governments. It is a centrally-sponsored scheme.
- Within 15 days of submitting the application or from the day work is demanded (demand-driven scheme), wage employment will be provided to the applicant, and allowances in case employment are not provided.
- Social Audit of MGNREGA works is mandatory
- Gram Sabha and the Gram Panchayat approve the shelf of works under MGNREGA and fix their priority.
EC drops order to enrol outsiders in J&K
Source: The Hindu
Context: The Jammu election officer has withdrawn an order directing tehsildars to enrol outsiders living in the Jammu district for over a year as voters for the upcoming assembly election.
Why are electoral rolls being revised?
- Delimitation Commission: The ECI is working on fresh electoral rolls in J&K after the J&K Delimitation Commission earlier this year carved out seven new Assembly constituencies in the UT, six going to the Jammu division and one to Kashmir, under the Jammu & Kashmir Reorganisation Act adopted in 2019.
- Jammu now has 43 seats against 47 in Kashmir.
- The ECI has decided that it will also include any person who has attained the age of 18 years on or before October 1, 2022, in the fresh electoral rolls.
J&K has been under governor’s rule since 2018 and saw the last Assembly elections in 2014.
Amendments in the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act
Context: The Union Cabinet has approved the Multi-State Cooperative Societies (Amendment) Bill, 2022, which seeks to amend the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act, 2002, to bring transparency in the sector and reform the electoral process.
- 97th Constitutional Amendment: The Bill will incorporate the provisions of the 97th Constitutional Amendment.
- Improve the composition: It seeks to improve the composition of the board and ensure financial discipline
- Raising of funds: Enabling the raising of funds in the multi-state cooperative societies.
- Setting up of:
- Cooperative Election Authority
- Cooperative Information Officer
- Cooperative Ombudsman
- The amendments have been introduced to:
- Improve governance
- Reform the electoral process
- Strengthen monitoring mechanisms
- Enhance transparency and accountability.
97th Amendment Act:
- Article 19(1) (c): The word “cooperatives” was added after “unions and associations” in Article 19(1)(c) under Part III of the Constitution.
- Article 43B: It was added in the Directive Principles of State Policy (Part IV) regarding the “promotion of cooperative societies”.
PADDY STRAW PELLETISATION AND TORREFACTION
Source: The Hindu, PIB
CONTEXT- MoEFCC has released guidelines for the grant of financial support (of Rs50 Cr) for the establishment of paddy straw pelletisation and torrefaction plants.
Features of the grant:
- Under the scheme, the Centre will fund new pelletisation plants (the usual cost is ₹35 lakh) to a maximum of ₹70 lakh subject to capacity.
- Torrefaction plant(usual costs ₹70 lakh), is eligible for maximum funding of ₹1.4 crores.
THE NEED – Every year, over 27 million tonnes of paddy straw is generated in Punjab and Haryana, many of which are usually burnt which adds to the air pollution.
PELLETISATION – Pelletizing is the process of compressing or molding a material (rice straw) into the shape of a pellet.
TORREFECTION – Torrefaction is a thermal pre-treatment technology. It produces a solid biofuel product that has superior handling, milling and co-firing capabilities compared to other biomass fuels. Torrefaction is costlier but it can deliver a product whose energy content is much higher and can substitute for more coal in a power plant.
- Paddy straw made into pellets or torrefied can be mixed along with coal in thermal power plants. This saves coal as well as reduces carbon emissions
- Will reduce straw burning and improve the AQI in NCR and states like Punjab and Haryana.
- Employment generation and energy security
ISRO’S OWN NEXT-GEN LAUNCH VEHICLE
CONTEXT-ISRO is developing a Next-Gen Launch Vehicle(NGLV) intended to replace PSLV.
FEATURES OF NGLV:-
- 3 Stage, reusable heavy lift vehicle.
- Use semi-cryogenic propulsion for booster stages.
- 10-tonne payload capability to Geostationary Transfer Orbit.
- Cost efficient
- Simple, robust design allowing bulk manufacturing.
- Launching communication
- Deep space missions.
- Future human space flight and cargo missions.
- ISRO is intending to develop a business model for NGLV to launch commercial as well as national
ISRO’S LAUNCH VEHICLES: –
- Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV): first rocket developed by ISRO for a small satellite
- Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV): 1st launch was in 1994. It is the first Indian launch vehicle to be equipped with liquid stages.
- Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV): The indigenously developed Cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS), forms the third stage of GSLV Mk II.
- Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV): SSLV is targeted at rising global demand for the launch of small and micro-satellites. SSLV is meant to offer cost-effective launch services for satellites up to 500 kg.
- Reusable Rockets: ISRO has also developed a reusable rocket, called RLV-TD (Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstrator) which had a successful test flight in 2016.
ISRO has proposed to create dedicated satellites for supporting agriculture under Bharat Krishi Satellite Programme and Earth Observation Council.
- A minimum of two satellites will be needed for adequate coverage of the country’s agricultural area.
- Currently used satellites for agriculture: Resourcesat (for crop production forecast); Cartosat (topographic mapping); RISAT (weather imaging)
- Earth Observation Council will address current deficiencies like a discontinuity in observation, low utilization of available remote sensing data, and lack of data processing and dissemination.
With reference to India’s satellite launch vehicles, consider the following statements: (UPSC 2018)
- PSLVs launch satellites are useful for Earth resources monitoring whereas GSLVs are designed mainly to launch communication satellites.
- Satellites launched by PSLV appear to remain permanently fixed in the same position in the sky, as viewed from a particular location on Earth.
- GSLV Mk Ill is a four-staged launch vehicle with the first and third stages using solid rocket motors; and the second and fourth stages using liquid rocket engines.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
- 1 only
- 2 and 3
- 1 and 2
- 3 only
Ans: 1) 1 only
Satellites launched by GSLV, not by PSLV appear to remain permanently fixed in the same position in the sky due to their geosynchronous nature. GSLV Mk lll is a 3 staged launch vehicle with two solid strap on motors, one liquid core stage and a high thrust cryogenic upper stage.
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