GS paper 2
Syllabus: Bilateral, regional and global grouping involving India, Important international institutions and their structure and mandates, etc
Context: The number of fatalities among United Nations Peacekeeping Forces (UNPKF) in direct attacks is growing, said U.N. Undersecretary-General Jean-Pierre Lacroix.
- India: It is among the highest contributors of troops to the UNPKF, and has the highest fatality suffered by any country among “blue helmets.
Reasons for the Sudden increase in deaths:
- Deteriorating geo-security environment during peacekeeping operations.
- Increasing distrust in the global body such as the UN
India’s 10-point formula to address challenges UN peace missions face:
- Clear and realistic mandates: Peacekeeping missions should be given “clear and realistic mandates” that are matched with adequate resources.
- Mission mandates: Instead of the Security Council setting the mandate, countries involved in peacekeeping operations must set the agenda.
- Peacekeeping missions should be “deployed prudently(carefully): with full recognition of their limitations”.
- All-out effort: There should be “all-out efforts to bring the perpetrators of crimes against peacekeepers to justice.
- Establishing trust and smooth coordination: Between a peacekeeping mission’s leadership and the host state to achieve the goals of operations.
- Introducing advanced technology: In peacekeeping missions to overcome security challenges.
- Collective endeavors and performance: Of all mission components, the military, civilians, and its leadership should be considered while evaluating a mission.
- Need for addressing the insecurity of civilians caused by terrorist groups cannot be ignored: The host government has the primary responsibility to protect civilians from non-state groups across its territory.
- Regional approach and UNSC support: It is imperative for resolving armed conflicts and building collective security against transnational threats.
- Exit strategy: Peacekeeping missions should factor in an “exit strategy from their very inception.
UN Peacekeeping (founded in 1945):
It deploys troops and police from around the world, integrating them with civilian peacekeepers to address a range of mandates set by the UN Security Council (UNSC) and the General Assembly.
Q. The proposed withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) from Afghanistan in 2014 is fraught with major security implications for the countries of the region. Examine in light of the fact that India is faced with a plethora of challenges and needs to safeguard its own strategic interests. (UPSC 2013)
- UN Peacekeeping