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EDITORIAL ANALYSIS:The coalition of the world

Source: The Hindu


  • Prelims: Current events of international importance, UNGA
  • Mains GS Paper II: Bilateral, regional and global grouping and agreements involving India or affecting India’s interests, Important international institutions etc



  • The League of Nations, set up in 1920, was the first intergovernmental organization with the aim to promote international cooperation and outlived its utility with World War II.





  • Popularly known as the parliament of the world, where all the 193 UN member states are represented
  • The UNGA is the deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the UN.

Roles and functions:

  • Takes a decision on important matters: such as peace and security, discusses various global issues and budgetary matters.
  • Admission of members: Decides on matters such as the admission of new members.
    • Decisions are taken through a vote.
  • Voting by majority: Admission of new members and budgetary matters require a two-thirds majority, while the decision on other issues are taken by a simple majority.
  • One vote one country: Each sovereign state gets one vote and the votes are not binding on the membership, except in budgetary matters.
  • No binding veto powers: The Assembly has no binding votes or veto powers like the UN Security Council.
  • Opinion and recommendations: The UNGA can express world opinion, promote international cooperation in various fields and make recommendations to the UNSC and elect the Security Council’s non-permanent members.


Upcoming opportunities for India to showcase leadership:

  • India’s Presidency of the Group of 20
  • UN Security Council (UNSC) in 2022
  • Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in 2023


Challenges to Multilateralism:

  • The United States: It opted for partnerships, with the most important areas being the worst affected.
  • The G7 Summit: It endorsed the goals of a cooperative international Climate Club to accelerate climate action outside the UN.
  • The dispute settlement mechanism of the WTO: without the quorum of its members has rendered the institution dysfunctional.
  • Climate funding: The promise made in 2009 to provide at least $100 billion per year in climate finance remains unfulfilled.


China’s Stand:

  • Multilateral institutions: China has opted for a rival set of multilateral institutions.
  • China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI): It seeks to achieve policy, infrastructure, trade, financial, and people-to-people connectivity by building a new platform.
  • China’s Global Development Initiative, 2021 and linked Global Security Initiative, 2022: It is developing a conceptual frame responding to an urbanizing world, i.e. digital governance and non-traditional security.


Other Challenge:

  • Clash of institutions: It reflects the deepening divide between the Atlantic powers and the Russia-China combine is the diffusion of wealth, technology and power.



Way Forward

  • Time is ripe for a ‘big idea: that both keeps away from the current multilateral focus on global rules, amount of aid and inviolability of IPR’s.
  • Recognising role for competing institutions: Countries can now secure the best terms themselves without bargaining.
  • Vasudhaiva kutumbakam(world as one family): focusing on comparable levels of wellbeing can be the core of a set of universal socio-economic principles for a dialogue between the states.
  • Lifestyle for Environment: seeing climate change as a societal process and combating it devoid of trade-offs characteristic of the Climate Treaty.
    • India has also offered India’s payments and linked digital ID technology without IPR restrictions.
  • Redefining ‘common concerns: In terms of felt needs of the majority rather than interests and concerns of the powerful.
    • It will shift the focus of a much slimmed down United Nations squarely to human wellbeing.




  1. The long-sustained image of India as a leader of the oppressed and marginalized Nations has disappeared on account of its new found role in the emerging global order” Elaborate. (UPSC 2019)

(200 WORDS, 10 MARKS)