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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

1. What happened to the Nord Stream pipelines?

2. National Education Policy prescribes no language


GS Paper 3:

1. 5G technology launched


GS Paper 4:

1. Ethical values from the life of Lal Bahadur Shastri


Content for Mains Enrichment:

1. Compassion- An important value for Civil Servants


Facts for Prelims:

1. Preventive Detention

2. India abstains on UNSC resolution

3. Swachh Survekshan Gramin, 2022 award

4. YUVA 2.0-PM’s Scheme

5. Stockholm Convention

6. Stubble burning

7. Fast-melting Arctic ice is turning the ocean acidic

8. Mapping


What happened to the Nord Stream pipelines?

GS -2 and 3

Syllabus: Bilateral, regional and global groupings involving India and affecting India’s interests, Infrastructure: Energy, ports, roads etc


Source: The Hindu

Context: Four leaks were reported at different points in the Nord Stream pipelines, linking Russia and Europe.


What are the Nord Stream pipelines?

Nord Stream 1 subsea pipeline:

  • Nord Stream 1 was completed in 2011 and runs from Vyborg in Leningrad (Russia) to Lubmin near Greifswald, Germany.
  • Majority ownership: The Russian state-owned gas company Gazprom has a majority ownership in the pipeline
  • According to Bloomberg: 40% of Europe’s pipeline gas came from Russia before the war( now 9%).

Nord Stream 2:

  • This is a 1,200-km pipeline that runs from Ust-Luga in Russia to Greifswald in Germany through the Baltic Sea.
  • It will carry 55 billion cubic meters of gas per year.
  • The Nord Stream crosses the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of several countries including:
    • Russia
    • Finland
    • Sweden
    • Denmark
    • Germany
  • Territorial waters of:
    • Russia
    • Denmark
    • Germany


What will be the impact of the leaks?

  • The pipelines are unlikely to provide any gas to Europe: In the forthcoming winter months, even if the political will to resume supply was found.
  • Gas price spike: European gas prices spiked after reports of the leaks emerged.
  • Environmental impact: Releasing GHGs(methane) will have an impact on the environment.


Impact on India: It may raise the cost of natural gas (already at its peak) for India and LPG/CNG consumers in India may have to bear the brunt.

Insta Links:

Nordic Nations


Mains Links:

Q. What are Nord Stream pipelines? Discuss the recent leakage crisis around it and the environmental effects of such a leak.


Prelims Links:

  • Mapping of Nordic states
  • Nord stream pipelines

Which of the following is/are Nordic countries?

  1. Denmark
  2. Norway
  3. Estonia
  4. Finland

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

a. 1, 2 and 4 only

b. 2, 3 and 4 only

c. 1 and 2 only

d. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans: (a)


National Education Policy prescribes no language

GS paper 2

Syllabus: Issues related to the development of the social sector involving education


Source: The Hindu

Context: The Ministry of Education constituted a high-powered committee, the Bharatiya Bhasha Samiti for the promotion of Indian languages.


Objective of the committee:

  • Preparing an action plan: For the growth of Indian languages as prescribed under the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020.


Key focus areas for promoting Indian languages:

  • Bilingual: Prepare teachers to be bilingual.
  • Qualification: Incorporating languages as a qualification.


Needs for the development of a language:

  • Using it as a medium: For instruction or communication or entertainment or science and technology
  • Developing contemporary literature or content: Such as current developments, thoughts or daily creation of knowledge globally in Indian languages
  • New words generation: Need for a continuous process of generation of new words
  • Technology: Languages adapt to technology as 2,000 to 3,000 languages that didn’t adapt to print technology disappeared
  • Material: Teaching and learning material
  • Patronage: which can be from corporates, society and governments.


How will it create Job opportunities?

  • Communication in local language: Multinationals as well as corporates and governments need to communicate in local languages in order to increase their reach.
    • Only 10.4(ten points four)% know English.
  • Interpreters: Need for interpreters
  • Translators: In tourism, there will be a need for translators
  • Technology tools: such as apps are now being developed in local languages which will open more avenues.


Power of states:

  • There is flexibility given to States to choose the languages under the three-language formula.


Push for Sanskrit:

  • NEP: Push through NEP
  • The Central Sanskrit University: It will be developing simple, standard Sanskrit which can be used as a medium of instruction and communication.
  • Sanskrit Knowledge Systems: Reservoir of knowledge in Sanskrit texts, which will be researched and published and made accessible.


Insta Links:

NEP 2020


Mains Link:

Q. National Electronic Policy 2020 is in conformity with Sustainable Development Goals-4 (2030). It intended to restructure and re-orient the education system in India. Critically examine the statement. (UPSC 2020)


Prelims Links:

  • NEP
  • SDG4
  • Regional Languages

With reference to National Education Policy(NEP) 2020, consider the following statements:

  1. The NEP proposes three language policy to continue with a preference for local language up to class 5.
  2. There is no proposal to cap fees charged by private institutions of higher learning.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (d)



5G technology launched

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, and robotics.


Source: Economic Times

Context: Government has launched commercial 5G Services

Key Highlights from the launch event:

  • PM called the launch “a revolution”: A new India – the country is no longer just a consumer of technology but a contributor to its development too.
    • At the time of the launch of 2G, 3G and 4G services, India was dependent on other countries. But with 5G, the country is setting foot in a new historical era and is leading globally.
    • 5G technology will provide seamless coverage, high data rate, low latency, and highly reliable It will increase energy efficiency, spectrum efficiency and network efficiency.
  • 5G as technology multiplier: 5G is much more than the next generation of technology. It actually unlocks the potential of other technologies like Artificial Intelligence, the Internet of Things, Robotics, Blockchain, and Metaverse.
  • Other applications: 5G will help in real-time monitoring of disasters, precision agriculture, and minimising the role of humans in dangerous industrial operations such as in deep mines, and offshore activities, the government has underlined.
  • National Digital Communications Policy 2018: Emphasis on integration of digital ecosystem (including 5G) with economic and societal growth.
  • Focus area for India should be: Price of the device, digital connectivity, cost of data, and the idea of ‘digital first’


Demonstration of practical use of 5G services:

  • Education: 5G facilitate education by bringing teachers closer to students (through effective virtual classes), obliviating the physical distance between them.
  • Education: A girl from Uttar Pradesh will witness a lively and immersive education experience to learn about the solar system with the help of Virtual reality and Augmented reality.
  • Safety: Safety of workers in an under-construction tunnel of Delhi Metro through the creation of a Digital Twin of the tunnel on the.

What is 5G?

  • 5G is the next generation of mobile broadband that will eventually replace, or at least augment 4G LTE connection.

Features and benefits of the 5G technology:

  1. Operate in the millimetre wave spectrum (30-300 GHz) which has the advantage of sending large amounts of data at very high speeds.
  2. Operate in 3 bands, namely low, mid and high-frequency spectrum.
  3. Reduced latency (means higher speed) will support new applications that leverage the power of 5G, the Internet of Things (IoT), and artificial intelligence.
  4. Increased capacity on 5G networks can minimize the impact of load spikes, like those that take place during sporting events and news events.

Current Affairs


What are the potential health risks of 5G?

To date, and after much research performed, no adverse health effect has been causally linked with exposure to wireless technologies.

  • Tissue heating is the main mechanism of interaction between radiofrequency fields and the human body. Radiofrequency exposure levels from current technologies result in negligible temperature rise in the human body.
  • As the frequency increases, there is less penetration into the body tissues and absorption of the energy becomes more confined to the surface of the body (skin and eye).
  • Previously, Bollywood actor Juhi Chawla had moved the Delhi High Court seeking a scientific study on any adverse effects of radio-frequency radiation emitted by cellular telecommunications using 5G technologyon ‘health, life, organ or limb of adult or child, or to flora and fauna’ before its official rollout in the country.

Provided that the overall exposure remains below international guidelines, no consequences for public health are anticipated.

What are the international exposure guidelines?

Two international bodies produce exposure guidelines on electromagnetic fields. Many countries currently adhere to the guidelines recommended by:

  1. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.
  2. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, through the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

These guidelines are not technology-specific. They cover radio frequencies up to 300 GHz, including the frequencies under discussion for 5G.

International efforts- International Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Project:

WHO established the International Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Project in 1996. The project investigates the health impact of exposure to electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range 0-300 GHz and advises national authorities on EMF radiation protection.



Do you know what Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing is? (Read Briefly Here)


Mains Link:

Q. Discuss the significance of 5G technology.


Prelims Link:

  1. What is 5G?
  2. Differences between 3G, 4G and 5G.
  3. Applications.
  4. What is a spectrum?
  5. About EMF Project.

Q.With reference to Visible Light Communication (VLC) technology, which of the following statements are correct? (UPSC 2020)

  1. VLC uses electromagnetic spectrum wavelengths 375 to 780 nm.
  2. VLC is known as long-range optical wireless communication.
  3. VLC can transmit large amounts of data faster than Bluetooth
  4. VLC has no electromagnetic interference.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 1, 2 and 4 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only

(d) 2, 3 and 4 only

Answer: C

Visible Light Communication (VLC) technology is a wireless method that enables high-speed transmission of data with visible light. This data is transmitted by modulating the intensity of light given off by a light source. The spectrum range is 380nm to 750 nm.

VLC is used for short-range indoor environments as light waves cannot pass the opaque walls. VLC systems operate at optical frequencies and emit no electromagnetic interference.

Ethical values from the life of Lal Bahadur Shastri

GS Paper 4


Context: The second Prime Minister of India, Lal Bahadur Shastri, whose birth anniversary is being observed on 2nd October was known as a statesman par excellence. He is best remembered for his slogan, ‘Jai Jawan Jai Kisan’.

Shastri’s leadership was laden with values and ethics.

Ethical lessons from Shastriji’s life:

  • Against societal prejudice and discrimination: Shastri was born Lal Bahadur Shrivastava – being against the prevailing caste system, he decided to drop his surname.
    • The title ‘Shastri’ refers to a ‘scholar’ or a person, adept in the holy scriptures. During the adverse situations too, he came forward, made himself accountable and showed the signs of a true leader- one who leads from the front.
  • Accountability: He served as the Railway Minister in Jawaharlal Nehru’s Cabinet and was so conscientious that he resigned following a train accident at Ariyalur in Tamil Nadu in 1956.
    • His gesture was hailed by all including Nehru, whom he considered his “hero”.
  • Leadership Qualities: When the Opposition brought a motion of no-confidence against his government in September 1964, Shastri candidly accepted its successes and failures – thus taking it as constructive criticism.
  • Practice before preaching: In 1965, India was embroiled in a war with Pakistan and the country was facing an acute food shortage. He asked his family to give up a meal a day. It is only after he was sure that his own family could survive this he announced on All India Radio, urging the public to sacrifice one meal at least once a week. 
  • Moral public and private life: Shastriji had a Chevrolet Impala car for official use, which his son once used for a drive. When Shastri learned about it, he asked his driver to check the distance the car was used for and later deposited the money in the government account.
  • Believed in “Sheelam Param Bhushanam”: In his maiden independence day speech, he had laid emphasis on character and moral strength – not only for personal growth but for the development of the nation.

/ Oct 3 CA, Today's Article


Content for Mains Enrichment (Ethics/Essay)

Compassion- An important value for Civil Servants

Source: Indian Express

Direction: This incident can be written as an example of the importance of compassion for civil servants.

Context: A video of the incident shows Lucknow Divisional Commissioner, Dr Roshan Jacob, trying to comfort the injured child and his mother at a hospital in Lucknow.

While calling for a doctor, Jacob’s voice seems to crack and she wipes her eyes with the corner of her saree.

At least 10 people were killed and 41 injured after a private bus collided with a mini-truck in Lakhimpur Kheri.


Fact for Prelims:

Preventive Detention

Source: Financial Express

Context: SC has ruled that “preventive detention” is a serious invasion of personal liberty, and therefore whatever little safeguards the Constitution and the law authorizing such action to provide must be strictly adhered to.

  • Over a lakh, people were kept under Preventive detention in 2021.



SC (Ashok Kumar Vs Delhi Administration, 1982): Preventive detention is devised to afford protection to society. The object is not to punish a man for having done something but to intercept before he does it and to prevent him from doing it.

SC (Ram Manohar Lohia Case): Only the most severe of the acts should justify preventive detention

What is Preventive Detention?

  • Preventive detention is the detention of a person on a mere reasonable apprehension of him doing an activity dangerous to public order and security.
  • Here, the person is confined in custody without undergoing a trial. Section 149-153 of CrPC as well as NDPS Act, and UAPA Act deals with the Preventive actions of the Police.


Constitution under articles 22 (1) and (2) gives protection from preventive detention, but these protections are not available to a person arrested or detained under preventive detention laws (Article 22(3)).

  • SC had said that there must be a “live and proximate link” between the grounds of detention and the purpose of detention, in order to detain and keep the person in detention.


India abstains on UNSC resolution

Source: The Hindu

Context: India abstained on a draft resolution at the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) condemning referenda organized by Russia across four regions of Ukraine.

Four regions annexed by Russia:

  • Kherson
  • Zaporizhzhia
  • Luhansk
  • Donetsk

Key Highlights:

  • The UNSC resolution, sponsored by the United States and Albania, failed to pass the 15-member Council
    • Russia used a veto to block it.

Other countries which abstained from voting:

  • China
  • Brazil
  • Gabon

UNSC resolutions: They are formal expressions of the opinion or will of United Nations organs.


Swachh Survekshan Gramin, 2022 award

Source: The Hindu


  • Telangana won the first prize under the Large States category under Swachh Survekshan Gramin (SSG) 2022 followed by Haryana and Tamil Nadu.


Key Highlights:

  • The Swachh Survekshan Gramin-2022 award: It ranks States and districts on the basis of their performance attained on key quantitative and qualitative Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin (SBM-G)
  • Among the smaller States and Union Territories: Andaman and Nicobar secured the first position followed by Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu and Sikkim.

Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) Phase-II:

  • Emphasizes: On the sustainability of achievements under phase I and provides adequate facilities for Solid/Liquid & Plastic Waste Management (SLWM) in rural India.
  • Implementation: It will be implemented from 2020-21 to 2024-25 in a mission mode:
  • Funding Pattern: The fund sharing pattern between Centre and States will be 90:10 for the North-Eastern States and the Himalayan States and UT of J&K; 60:40 for other States; and 100% for other Union Territories.
  • Implementation: SBM is being implemented by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (M/o HUA) and by the Ministry of Jal Shakti for urban and rural areas

Related article:

Indore bags cleanest city award

Source: The Hindu

●        Indore has been adjudged the cleanest city in India for the sixth year in a row, while Madhya Pradesh is the cleanest state in the country.

●        The awards were given by President as part of the Azadi@75 Swachh Survekshan 2022

●        Tirupati: Best city award in Safai Mitra Suraksha category.

●        Haridwar: Best Ganga town

●        Shivamogga(Karnataka): Fast mover city award.


YUVA 2.0-PM’s Scheme

Source: PIB

Context: The Ministry of Education, Department of Higher Education launched YUVA 2.0 – Prime Minister’s Scheme for Mentoring Young Authors.


Key Highlights:

  • Author Mentorship programme: To train young and budding authors (below 30 years of age) in order to promote reading, writing and book culture in the country.
  • YUVA 2.0: It is a part of the India@75
  • THEME: ‘Democracy (institutions, events, people, constitutional values – past, present, future)’ in an innovative and creative manner.
  • Importance:
    • Develop a stream of writers: who can write on a spectrum of subjects to promote Indian heritage, culture and knowledge system.
    • Window to the aspiring youth: To articulate themselves and present a comprehensive outlook of Indian Democratic values on domestic as well as international platforms.
  • Implementation: By the National Book Trust, India, under the Ministry of Education


Stockholm Convention

Source: UNEP Stockholm Convention

Context: 18th meeting of the Persistent Organic Pollutants review committee (POP) concluded

Key highlights

  • It listed ‘Dechlorane Plus’ (flame retardant) and UV-328 (stabilizer) under Annex A of the Stockholm Convention.
  • Deferred its consideration of the draft risk profile on chlorpyrifos, after members were unable to agree that the pesticide was likely to lead to adverse effects.

 Stockholm Convention is a global treaty to protect human health and the environment from POPs. It is legally binding and ratified by India (2006). In view of this ratification, India notified “Regulation of POP Rules” (2018) under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (also called “forever chemicals”) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.

 Other similar treaties are:

  • Basel Convention on the control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (1989)
  • Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (1998)


Stubble burning

Source: Economic Times

Context: Stubble generation (2022-23) is set to increase by over 1 mn tonnes and over 6 mt may be burned says the government review data.

What is Stubble burning?

Stubble burning is the practice of intentionally setting fire to the straw stubble that remains after grains, such as rice and wheat, have been harvested.


Why burn stubble?

  • Mechanized harvesting: Combine harvesters used in India’s green belt leaves stubble in the field.
  • Due to less time between the harvesting of the Kharif crop and the sowing of Wheat, farmers often burn the stubble.

Issues with stubble burning:

  • In addition to its effects on air quality, stubble burning also affects soil fertility (through the destruction of its nutrients), economic development and climate.
  • It is a key contributor to air pollution in Delhi-NCR.


Remedial measures taken:

  • Implementation of the Action plan on management of stubble burning by Delhi adjoining states and submitted to CAQM- Commission for Air Quality management.
  • Delhi Government’s ’15-point winter action plan’.
  • In the field: Bio-decomposer, Crop residue management
  • Taking stubble outside the field: Biomass Power Projects, Co-firing in Thermal Power Plants, Feedstock for 2G Ethanol plants, Feed stock in Compressed Biogas plant, fuel in industrial boilers, WTE plants, packaging materials etc. Prohibition of stubble/crop residue burning. Effective monitoring/enforcement.


Fast-melting Arctic ice is turning the ocean acidic

Source: Indian Express

Context: A team of researchers has flagged the changing chemistry of the western region of the Arctic Ocean after discovering acidity levels increasing three to four times faster than ocean waters elsewhere.

The team also identified a strong correlation between the accelerated rate of melting ice and the rate of ocean acidification.

Seawater is normally alkaline, with a pH value of around 8.1.

How does melting ice decreases pH value?

  • First, the water under the sea ice, which had a deficit of carbon dioxide, now is exposed to the atmospheric carbon dioxide and can take it up freely, thus becoming acidic.
  • Second: The seawater mixed with meltwater is lighter and can’t mix easily into deeper waters, which means the carbon dioxide is concentrated at the surface.
  • Third: The meltwater dilutes the carbonate ion concentration in the seawater, weakening its ability to neutralise the carbon dioxide into bicarbonate and rapidly decreasing ocean pH.



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