InstaLinks : help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 2:
1. The draft Telecommunication Bill, 2022
2. India lacks a complete pediatric cardiac-care service
GS Paper 3:
1. Holistic water management system- need of the hour
Facts for Prelims:
1. Encyclopedia of Tribes in Odisha
2. Electoral Bearer Bond Scheme
3. Global Innovation Index 2022
4. Single women get equal abortion rights
5. Russia set to annex Ukraine territory
6. World’s first CNG terminal
7. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
8. Operation Garuda
GS paper 2
Syllabus: Parliament-Structure, functioning and conduct of business, achievements of India in Science and technology etc
Directions: Important for mains, remember the provisions, it can be asked directly in mains
- The Ministry of Communications released a draft of the Indian Telecommunication Bill, 2022 for public comments.
The three main legislations that occupy this domain:
- Indian Telegraph Act, 1885
- Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act, 1933
- Telegraph Wires (Unlawful) Possession Act, 1950
What is the draft Indian Telecommunication Bill, 2022?
- Update the extant regulatory framework: The draft is to update the extant regulatory framework in keeping with the advancements and challenges in the sector.
- Repeal legislations: It looks to repeal three legislations and “restructure the legal and regulatory framework” for the telecommunications sector.
- Enabling the government to order suspension of internet power: It has been introduced through the draft Bill.
- Currently, suspension of internet services is ordered under the Temporary Suspension of Telecom Services (Public Emergency and Public Safety) Rules, 2017.
- Primary route for allocation of the spectrum is auction: when spectrum is to be allocated for certain functions of the government such as defense or transportation.
- TSP to exploit its spectrum resource fully: By enabling sharing, trading, leasing, surrendering or returning unutilised spectrum.
- Simplifies: The Bill also simplifies the process for restructuring, merging or demerging.
- Land owned by a public entity: It mandates that land owned by a public entity should be available expeditiously unless there is an express ground of refusal.
- Universal Service Obligation Fund: It allows this fund to be utilized for other purposes such as urban areas connectivity, research etc.
Over-the-top (OTT) communication services:
- It refers to services that provide real time person-to-person telecommunication services.
- Some popular examples include:
- Messaging platforms like Whatsapp, Telegram, Signal, Messenger, Duo, Google Meet etc.
How does the draft affect over-the-top communication services?
- Telecom Service Providers (TSPs): They provide network infrastructure to OTT’s.
- They allege it will cut their sources of revenue (voice calls, SMS) as they will not have to deal with infrastructure and licensing costs that they have to undertake.
- OTT telecommunication services may be subject to the same licensing conditions as TSPs: The current draft of the Bill expands the definition of “telecommunication services” to include OTT communication services.
Consumer protection measures in the draft Bill:
- The identity of the person communicating through telecommunication services: It shall be available to the user receiving such communication.
- The name of the person would also be displayed along with phone no.
- To ensure that a user provides correct details: Penalizes providing wrong identification details with a ₹50,000 fine and suspending the operation of the specific mobile number or barring the person from using the telecom service for a certain duration.
- Consent of subscribers: Commercial communications which are advertising and promotional in nature should be made only with the prior consent of a subscriber.
How does the draft Bill impact the position of the TRAI?
- Recommendatory body: Reducing it from a regulatory to a recommendatory body.
- No recommendations for licenses: The government would no longer be required to seek recommendations from the TRAI before issuing licenses.
- Requisition of information:It removes the power of the TRAI to requisition from the government information or documents that are necessary to make such recommendations.
- Reconsideration: Department of Telecommunications (DoT) will no longer be required to refer back to TRAI the recommendations for reconsideration.
Q. What is the CyberDome Project? Explain how it can be useful in controlling internet crimes in India.(UPSC 2019)
GS paper 2
Syllabus: Issues related to development of social sector involving healthcare
Directions: Totally mains based topic, you can use it as an example in issues related to healthcare.
- Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is the most common congenital disorder(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S)
- It is responsible for 28% of all congenital birth defects, and accounts for 6%-10 % of all the infant deaths in India.
Prevalence rate in India:
- According to the Pediatric Cardiac Society of India (PCSI), congenital cardiac anomalies are one in every 100 live births.
Reasons for negligence of Pediatric cardiac-care:
- Economically unviable: Creating a comprehensive pediatric cardiology care service is usually considered economically unviable
- Resource intensive: It requires infrastructure investment that politicians and policymakers choose to evade.
- Infrastructure problems: There are 22 hospitals and less than 50 centers in India with infant and neonatal cardiac services.
- Center location: Most centers are located in regions with a lower burden of CHD.
- For instance, Kerala has eight centers offering neonatal cardiac surgeries for an estimated 5(four point five)lakh annual childbirths.
- Populous Uttar Pradesh and Bihar: They do not have a center capable of performing neonatal cardiac surgery.
- Poverty: Transporting sick neonates from States with little or no cardiac care facilities to faraway centers for accurate diagnosis and treatment burdens parents financially.
- Non-availability of equipment: There is the non-availability of crucial equipment that is essential for diagnosis of heart diseases in the unborn.
Congenital heart diseases (CHD):
- They are problems with the heart’s structure that are present at birth.
- They may change the normal flow of blood through the heart.
- Congenital heart defects are the most common type of birth defect.
- Neonatal care and management: Pediatricians say antenatal detection of congenital anomalies is crucial for neonatal care and management.
- So developing related infrastructure is a step in the right direction.
- Learning from states: Kerala’s ‘Hridayam (for little hearts)’, aimed at early detection, management and support to children with CHD
- The Tamil Nadu Chief Minister’s Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme offers free specialized surgeries.
- The National Health Protection Scheme (Ayushman Bharat): It will financially assist poor families.
- Implementing this scheme is a step forward.
- Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh have already started.
Q. Appropriate local community-level healthcare intervention is a prerequisite to achieve ‘Health for All’ in India. Explain.(UPSC 2018)
GS Paper 3
Syllabus: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.
Context: With the rapid growth of cities, water demand has exponentially increased. Even as aspirations cause people to migrate to urban areas, water depletion and scarcity remains a huge challenge staring at people’s faces in the near future.
Thus, water management needs to undergo a revolution to ensure most urban areas can be self-sufficient in the future.
Integrated urban water management system for reliable supply
- Integrated urban water management system (IUWM) is a process, which ensures water supply, used water management, sanitation and stormwater management can be planned in line with economic development and land use.
- This holistic process makes coordination among water departments easier at the local level. It also helps cities adapt to climate changes and manage water supply more efficiently.
Approaches to successful urban water management
- Collaborative action : When there is clear coordination between all the stakeholders, it is easier to define priorities, take action, implement changes and take accountability.
- Shift in perception of water : It is essential to understand how water is inseparable in its connection to economic development, city infrastructure and land use.
- Understanding water as a resource: Water is resource for various end goals thus it will be easier to treat different kinds of water based on agricultural, industrial and environmental purposes.
- Customised solutions for different cities : IUWM focuses on specific contexts and local requirements, it prioritises a rights-based solution approach over one-size-fits-all approach.
Water for all
- Integrated policies can help secure sustainable development and ensure there is innovation, efficiency and sustainability at every level.
- IUWM has proven to be a successful practice, but budget constraints, inadequate guidance from authorities and lack of awareness have limited the implementation of this solution.
- The Centre has started initiatives by implementing the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) for inclusive sanitation solutions and Jal Jeevan Mission for ensuring piped water supply.
- The government has also allowed reuse of water based on circular economy principles.
- Integrated Urban Water Management
- Water conservation
- Urban Planning
Q. Do you think there is urgent need for water management in India to undergo a revolution. Substantiate your arguments. 10M
Fact for Prelims:
Encyclopedia of Tribes in Odisha
Source: Hindustan Times
Context: Odisha became the first state in the country to start an encyclopedia on tribal communities to document their age-old and unique traditions.
Unveiled by chief minister Naveen Patnaik, the five edited volumes of ‘Encyclopedia of Tribes in Odisha’ has 418 research articles on the tribals, including 13 particularly vulnerable groups
The encyclopaedia was published by Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Research and Training Institute (SCSTRTI) and Odisha State Tribal Museum.
The purpose of this book is to preserve the rapidly changing cultural identity of tribal communities in the state. It brings together both published and unpublished data regarding the tribes’ ethnography and development over the years, covering their past as well as the present.
Electoral Bearer Bond Scheme
Directions: Important for Prelims and mains, can be asked directly in prelims
- The Government of India has notified the Electoral Bond Scheme 2018.
Who can purchase it?
- Citizen of India: Electoral Bonds may be purchased by a person who is a citizen of India or incorporated or established in India.
- Single or jointly: A person being an individual can buy Electoral Bonds, either singly or jointly with other individuals.
- Political Parties registered under Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951: Which secured not less than one percent of the votes polled in the last General Election to the House of the People or the Legislative Assembly of the State.
- Authorized bank: The Electoral Bonds shall be encashed by an eligible Political Party only through a Bank account with the Authorized Bank.
- State Bank of India (SBI): Ithas been authorized to issue and encash Electoral Bonds.
Global Innovation Index 2022
Source: Business Standard
Context: India rose to 40th among 132 countries in the Global Innovation Index 2022, jumping six places from a year ago, according to the rankings released by the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO).
Reasons: Improvement in information and communication technologies (ICT) services exports, venture capital recipients’ value as well as finance for start-ups.
Switzerland, the US, Sweden, the UK and the Netherlands are the world’s most innovative economies, with China on the threshold of the top 10.
Single women get equal abortion rights
Directions: Important for mains, you can use it as an example in women empowerment
- In a historic judgment, the Supreme Court allowed unmarried and single women whose pregnancies are between 20 and 24 weeks to access safe and legal abortion care on par with their married counterparts.
- The rights of reproductive autonomy under Article 21: It gives an unmarried woman the right of choice as to whether or not to bear a child on a similar footing as that of a married woman,” court held.
- Violation of the right to equality before law and equal protection (Article 14): Prohibiting single or unmarried pregnant women while allowing married women with the same term of pregnancy.
Russia set to annex Ukraine territory
Directions: Important for Prelims, remember the names of territories and their mapping, can be asked directly in prelims
- Russia released vote tallies showing overwhelming support in four provinces to join it.
The four regions are:
World’s first CNG terminal
Source: Indian Express
Context: Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone for the “world’s first CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) terminal” at Bhavnagar in Gujarat.
- The Bhavnagar port is in close vicinity to the Dholera Special Investment Region (SIR) and is expected to serve the industries that set up base in the region.
- It is already connected to the northern hinterland through a railway line that extends to the existing berths at the port.
National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
Context: The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) celebrated its 18th Formation Day on September 28, 2022, in New Delhi. Theme for this year’s Foundation Day was “Volunteerism in Disaster Management”.
What is NDMA?
- The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is India’s apex statutory body for disaster management.
- The Prime Minister is its chairperson and it has nine other members. One of the nine members is designated as Vice-Chairperson.
- The primary responsibility for the management of disaster rests with the State Government concerned. However, the National Policy on Disaster Management puts in place an enabling environment for all i.e., the Centre, state and district.
- India is also a signatory to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) that sets targets for disaster management.
Context: The Central Bureau of Investigation has launched a multi-phase ‘Operation Garuda’ against illicit drug trafficking network, registering 127 new cases, arresting 175 people and seizing huge quantities of narcotic drugs.
A CBI release said the operation seeks to disrupt, degrade and dismantle drug networks with international linkages through rapid exchange of criminal intelligence on drug trafficking and coordinated law enforcement actions across international jurisdiction through Interpol.
This global operation was initiated in close coordination with Interpol and Narcotics Control Bureau, for combating the smuggling of illicit drugs and psychotropic substances, with special focus on Indian Ocean region.
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