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Reduction of Child Mortality

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Social Justice/Governance/ Health


Source: PIB

 Direction: No need to remember the data. Observe the trend and know the basic definitions of terms.

 Context: As per the recently released Sample Registration System (SRS) Statistical Report 2020, India has witnessed a progressive reduction in IMR, U5MR and NMR since 2014.

  • The report is released by the Registrar General of India (RGI)
INDICATOR SRS 2014 SRS 2019 SRS 2020
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) 21.0 19.7 19.5
Total Fertility Rate 2.3 2.1 2.0
Early Neonatal Mortality Rate (ENMR) – 0- 7 days 20 16 15
Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR) 26 22 20
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) 39 30 28
Under 5 Mortality Rate (U5MR) 45 35 32


Other findings:

  • Six (6) States/ UT have already attained the SDG target of NMR (<=12 by 2030):  Kerala (4), Delhi (9), Tamil Nadu (9), Maharashtra (11), Jammu & Kashmir (12) and Punjab (12).
  • Eleven (11) States/UT has already attained the SDGs target of U5MR (<=25 by 2030)
  • U5MR for females is higher (33) than for males (31).



Basic Terms:

  • Crude Birth rate: It is expressed as births per 1,000 population.
  • The total Fertility Rate is the average number of children a woman would bear at her reproductive age.
    • The current fertility rate for India in 2022 is 2.159 births per woman, a 0.92% decline from 2021
  • Neonatal deaths (deaths within the first 28 days of life of an infant)
  • U5MR: The mortality rate of children aged under 5 years
  • The infant mortality Rate is the number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births.


About SRS 

  • The SRS is a demographic survey for providing annual estimates of IMR, BR, DR and other fertility at the national and sub-national levels. It was started in 1964-65 by the Registrar General of India.


About RGI 

  • It was founded in 1961 by the Government of India under the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • It conducts and analyses the results of the demographic surveys (including the Census of India and the Linguistic Survey of India).


SDG Target 3| Health:

  • By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age
  • Aim: To reduce neonatal mortality and under5 mortality


Insta Links:

SDG Report 2022

Child mortality


Mains Links:

Q. Besides being a moral imperative of the Welfare State, primary health structure is a necessary precondition for sustainable development.” Analyze. (UPSC 2021)


Prelims Links:

  • IMR
  • U5MR
  • NMR
  • Registrar General of India

Consider the following statements: (UPSC CSE 2016)

  1. The Sustainable Development Goals were first proposed in 1972 by a global think tank called the ‘Club of Rome’.
  2. The Sustainable Development Goals have to be achieved by 2030.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (b)


  • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were born at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 2012.
  • The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 to end poverty, reduce inequality and build more peaceful, prosperous societies by 2030.