Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Mission 2023] Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 21 September 2022

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

 

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization

1. How has the society changed to accommodate the aspirations and ambitions of young women? Do you think modern women have more opportunities to succeed? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian ExpressInsights on India

Why the question:

young women in India today can stand on the shoulders of the pioneering women from their mothers’ days. For, India and the world today are more congenial to women and to their success.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the changes in society which has led to accommodate women’s ambition and if it gives more opportunities for women to succeed.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving context of changing dynamics of the society with respect to women.

Body:

First, write about the major changes witnessed in the recent past that has been more accommodating of the ambitions and aspirations of young women. Cite factors responsible for such change.

Next, write about the opportunities for women and their ability to succeed in the present day. Write about the limitations or hindrances to their success.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a balanced opinion.

 

Introduction

Gender equality in India is the most desired state of form, which our Nation is craving to have for since long. Gender equality is no more a moral pressure or social issue but also a social, economic challenge.  Gender Equality leads to human development and the overall development of the Nation. India being a Nation full of achievement, still lacks few appreciations in the case of Gender Equality in India.

Body

In India, discriminatory attitudes towards males or females have existed for generations and affect both lives. Although the Indian constitution has granted both men and women equal rights, gender disparities continue to live and rule. Indian society has always been the hub of this discrimination, making women its victim. In the land where women are Goddess’s, the same Nation leaves a blot of atrocities and inequality.  It is a sad truth of society.

Challenges faced by women in India

  • Deep rooted patriarchy: The cultural baggage about women working outside the home is so strong that in most traditional Indian families, quitting work is a necessary precondition to the wedding itself.
  • Childcare responsibility solely on women: One big factor is maternity. Many women who join the workforce are unable to re-join after having a child. This is because, childcare is mainly seen as a woman’s job.
  • Bias at workplace against women: The landmark legislation, which entitles a woman to 26 weeks of paid maternity leave is becoming a big hurdle.
    • As per a study this increased cost for companies and this may discourage them from hiring women.
    • Mothers are also not given preference because they are seen to take less official responsibilities due to family.
  • Safety: The safety in metropolitan, tier 1 and tier 2 cities is the major issue. Concerns about safety and Harassment at work site, both explicit and implicit.
  • Education: Higher Education levels of women also allow them to pursue leisure and other non-work activities, all of which reduce female labour force participation.
    • When income increases, men allow Indian women to withdraw from the labour force, thereby avoiding the stigma of working (cultural factors).
  • Insufficient availability of the type of jobs that women say they would like to do, such as regular part-time jobs that provide steady income and allow women to reconcile household duties with work.
  • Unpaid work: Social norms about household work are against women’s mobility and participation in paid work. Childbirth and taking care of elderly parents or in-laws account for the subsequent points where women drop off the employment pipeline.

Changing times and opportunities for women

  • In recent times, the modern women are striving for equality and men of the new generation are accommodative to their partners aspirations.
  • Sharing the child care responsibilities are increasing. When men take care of children, it is no longer called babysitting, rather parenting. Concept of Paternity leaves have reinforced this behaviour.
  • Pregnancy discrimination is being taken up seriously and people are more vocal about it.
  • Women are leaving abusive relations and using their education to be more independent.
  • Women are also making financial decisions, climbing the career ladder and not measuring their success or worth through the society’s yardstick.
  • More and more women are going for higher education and pursuing their interests. They no longer need the permission of their male counterparts.
  • Even the bearing of marriage expenses in a wedding is changing, however a lot needs to be done to make this a norm.

 

Conclusion and way forward

  • Emancipation of women: Creating safe workplaces to bring more women to labor force should take front seat. Better targeting of education and reducing digital divide in post pandemic world should become a priority.
  • Women Empowerment: Through education, women have better access and opportunities in the workforce, leading to increased income and less isolation at home or exclusion from financial decisions.
  • Removing work place bias against working mothers: Pregnancy discrimination, hiring of women based on skill and diversity hiring after career gap, should become a norm.
  • Sharing child care: Men should become equal participants in child care, as it should be. Child rearing is a shared responsibility.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

2. The basic structure doctrine constitutes a high watermark in the assertion of the Supreme Court’s judicial power in the teeth of a determined majoritarian regime. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Indian ExpressInsights on India

Why the question:

Over the past week, the media has been faithfully reporting proceedings before a Bench of five judges of the Supreme Court as to whether the Constitution 103rd Amendment Act, 2019 violates the “basic structure of the Constitution”. After the hearing is over, the judges will render their decision

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance of doctrine of basic structure.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

To write about the importance of doctrine of basic structure.

Body:

First, write about the various features of doctrine of basic structure – rule of law, parliamentary form of government, secularism etc.

Next, write about how the above is important I upholding the supremacy of the Constitution and preventing authoritarian rule by a single party.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

 

Introduction

The Doctrine of Basic structure, one of the most important examples of judicial activism is the result of the creative interpretation of the constitution by the judiciary. It was given by the 13-judges bench of the Supreme Court in the Keshavananda Bharti case (1973), and was aimed at defining the scope of the amending power of the Parliament. It is a doctrine to examine the constitutional validity of constitutional amendment.

Body

Interpretation and relevance of Basic Structure Doctrine

  • The emergence of doctrine of ‘Basic structure’ marked asignificant shift in the role of judiciary from practice of constitutional interpretation to a creative role where judiciary go beyond the written provisions of the constitution.
  • As per the Indian constitution, Parliament has been given the constituent power to amend the constitution according to the changing needs & aspirations.
    • Being a dynamic or organic constitution, aimed at achieving a certain goal of social revolution the Indian constitution mentions special procedure for its amendment.
    • It means that there is no explicit limitation on the amending power of the Parliament; expect procedural limitations as given in Art 360.
  • However, in the Keshvananda Bharti Case (1973), on the question whether the amending power of the Parliament isunlimited and absolute,the Supreme Court held that the amending power is limited to the extent that it doesn’t alter the ‘Basic Structure’ of the constitution.
  • The court held that the word ‘amend’ under Art 368 means only changes other than altering the basic features of the constitution,which would amount to making or writing a new constitution.
  • In this way, the Supreme Court, whilegiving primacy to the unwritten feature of the constitution introduced a ‘substantive limitation’ on the amending power of the Parliament.
  • However, the judgment of the Supreme Court inventing a new doctrine of the ‘basic structure’ has been subjected to intense academic debate.
    • The opponents of the judgement claimsthat the judiciary has gone for the metaphysical approach rather than the legal approach of what is written.
    • They argue that if the government was destroying the constitution, the judiciary has gone to the extent of creating the constitution.
  • On the other hand, the proponents of the decision argue that judiciary has protected the sanctity of the constitution.

Significance of Basic Structure Doctrine

  • The basic structure doctrine is a testimony to the theory of Constitutionalismto prevent the damage to essence of COI by brute majority of the ruling majority.
  • The basic doctrine saved the Indian democracyas it acts as a limitation of constituent power or else unlimited power of parliament might have turned India into a totalitarian
  • It helps us to retain the basic tenets of our constitutionso meticulously framed by the founding fathers of our Constitution.
  • It strengthens our democracy by delineating a true separation of power where Judiciary is independent of other two organs. It has also given immense untold unbridled power to Supreme Court and made it the most powerful court in the world
  • By restraining the amending powers of legislative organ of State,it provided basic Rights to Citizens which no organ of State can overrule.
  • Being dynamic in nature,it is more progressive and open to changes in time unlike the rigid nature of earlier judgements.

Conclusion

Zia Modi, in her book ‘The Ten Judgments that changed India’, has given following arguments- Although the judiciary was wrong from the academic point of view, but from the practical point of view, it was the need of the time in the Indian context. (ii) It has proved to be a blessing in disguise as it has checked authoritarianism of the government. This has stopped India from going on the path of the other Third World countries.

Value addition

Evolution

  • Origin of debate: The question whetherFundamental Rights can be amended by the Parliament underArticle 368 came for consideration of the Supreme Court within a year of the Constitution coming into force.
  • Shankari Prasad case (1951): The constitutional validity of theFirst Amendment Act (1951), whichcurtailed the right to property, was challenged. The Supreme Court ruled that the power of the Parliament to amend the Constitution under Article 368 also includes the power to amend Fundamental Rights. The word ‘law’ in Article 13 includes only ordinary laws and not the constitutional amendment acts (constituent laws).
    • Therefore, the Parliament can abridge or take away any of the Fundamental Rights by enacting a constitutional amendment act and such a law will not be void under Article 13.
  • Golak Nath case (1967): The Supreme Court reversed its earlier stand. In that case, the constitutional validity of theSeventeenth Amendment Act (1964), which inserted certain state acts in the Ninth Schedule, was challenged.
    • The Supreme Court ruled that the Fundamental Rights are given a ‘transcendental and immutable’ position and hence, the Parliament cannot abridge or take away any of these rights.
    • A constitutional amendment act is also a law within the meaning of Article 13 and hence, would be void for violating any of the Fundamental Rights.
  • 24thAmendment Act 1971: The Parliament reacted to the Supreme Court’s judgement in the Golak Nath case (1967) by enacting the 24 th Amendment Act (1971). This Actamended Articles 13 and 368.
    • It declared that the Parliament has the power to abridge or take away any of theFundamental Rights under Article 368 and such an act will not be a law under the meaning of Article 13.
  • Kesavananda Bharati case: However, in the Kesavananda Bharati case (1973), the SupremeCourt overruled its judgement in the Golak Nath case (1967).It upheld the validity of the 24th Amendment Act (1971) and stated that Parliament is empowered to abridge or take away any of the Fundamental Rights.
    • At the same time, it laid down a new doctrine of the ‘basic structure’ (or ‘basic features’) of the Constitution.
    • It ruled that the constituent power ofParliament under Article 368 does not enable it to alter the ‘basic structure’ of the Constitution.
    • This means that the Parliamentcannot abridge or take away a Fundamental Right that forms a part of the‘basic structure’ of the Constitution.

 

Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

3. The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCOs) purpose is increasingly in question, considering the fact that there are serious internal disagreements and suspicions within the group. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the issues in SCO and its impact on the overall efficacy of the organisation.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about aims and objectives of SCO.

Body:

In the first part, write about the various disagreements withing the SCO – India-China, Russia-China, Impact of Ukraine war, lack of consensus etc

Next, Highlight the importance of SCO for India – focus on the advantages that India can gain in bilateral relations and in the larger Eurasian region.

Next, write the measures that need to be taken to enhance the efficacy of SCO.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Introduction

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is a permanent intergovernmental international organization. It’s a Eurasian political, economic and military organization aiming to maintain peace, security and stability in the region. It was created in 2001. The SCO Charter was signed in 2002, and entered into force in 2003.

Body

Disagreements within SCO

  • The SCO faces the challenges of improving cohesion, better managing relations with external parties, enlargement, variations of economic cooperation between member states, a slow pace of decision making and poor quality decision implementation.
  • In the recent summit in Samarkand, support for Russia’s agenda differed between certain countries, with Turkey, China and Iran displaying some degree of understanding. India’s agenda focussed on its concern about the impacts of the Ukrainian war on the world economy.
  • The Shanghai Cooperation Organization is often stated as a club of autocrat powers. The members follow the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states. However, China and Russia adhere this principle rhetorical basis but not in reality.
  • China and Russia are the primary drivers of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization but have different visions for this organization. Although they share common interest of regional stability within the organization but at the same time their geopolitical interests pull them in different directions.
  • India has presented consistent opposition to the violation of sovereignty and territorial integrity by the BRI’s China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) through Indian territory in Jammu and Kashmir
  • But, the meetings of SCO have endorsed Russia’s initiative to connect the SCO with the Eurasian Economic Union and ASEAN, placing the predominantly East-West connectivity alignment of China’s BRI alongside the North-South connectivity alignment of Russia’s proposal
  • Despite the establishment of the SCO’s Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS), the SCO has not taken visible counterterrorism measures against the main threat facing its members, which emanates from terrorists and terrorist entities located in the Af-Pak region
  • China and Pakistan have deliberately tried to bring bilateral issues into SCO. This violates the well-established principles and norms of the SCO Charter. Such acts are counterproductive to the spirit of consensus and cooperation that define this organisation and should be condemned.

Significance of SCO for India

  • India acquired the observer status in the grouping in 2005 and was admitted as a full member in 2017.
  • Discuss differences with other members on the sidelines: SCO hosts have encouraged members to use the platform to discuss differences with other members on the sidelines
  • Bilateral meeting with Pakistan: It was on such an occasion that the Prime Minister of India held a bilateral meeting with the former Pakistani Prime Minister in 2015 in Ufa.
  • Negotiation of five point agreement with Chinese counterpart: Foreign Minister of India negotiated a five-point agreement with his Chinese counterpart on the sidelines of the Moscow conference in 2020.
  • Strategic autonomy and multi-alignment: India is also a part of the ‘Quadrilateral’ grouping with the U.S, Japan and Australia.
    • Its association with the grouping of a rather different nature is part of its foreign policy that emphasizes on principles of “strategic autonomy and multi-alignment”.
  • Connectivity and stability across borders: India’s membership of SCO can help in achieving regional integration, promote connectivity and stability across borders.
  • Fulfilling energy demand: India being an energy deficient country with increasing demands for energy, SCO provides it with an opportunity to meet its energy requirements through regional diplomacy.
    • Talks on the construction of stalled pipelines like the TAPI (Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India) pipeline; IPI (Iran-Pakistan-India) pipeline can get a much needed push through the SCO.
  • Economic ties:Central Asian countries provide India with a market for its IT, telecommunications, banking, finance and pharmaceutical industries.
  • Geopolitical: Central Asia is a part of India’s Extended Neighbourhood, SCO provides India an opportunity to pursue the “Connect Central Asian Policy”.
    • Helps India fulfill its aspiration of playing an active role in its extended neighborhood as well as checking the ever growing influence of China in Eurasia.
    • Platform for India to simultaneously engage with its traditional friend Russia as well as its rivals, China and Pakistan.

Way forward

  • Important group for India: India considers the SCO as an important regional group to promote cooperation in various fields based on universally recognised international norms, good governance, rule of law, openness, transparency and equality.
  • Addressing the concerns of members: Need of working group to address the concerns of all entities, considering the territorial integrity of each nation involved.
  • More measures against terrorism: Despite the establishment of the SCO’s Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS), the SCO has not taken visible counterterrorism measures against the main threat facing its members.
    • There is a need for the Summit to play a central and coordinating role to enforce the Council’s sanctions against concerned entities.
  • Engagement: It provides a platform for India to simultaneously engage with its traditional friend Russia as well as its rivals, China and Pakistan and provides India an opportunity to pursue the “Connect Central Asian Policy”.
  • Agreements on connectivity and high-efficiency transport corridors: Samarkand summit is expected to have agreements on connectivity and high-efficiency transport corridors and a roadmap for local currency settlement among member states.
  • SCO’s rising international influence:The significant round of expansion by inclusion of Iran and Belarus shows SCO’s rising international influence and that the principles of the SCO charter are widely accepted. 

     

    Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

    4. Do you think the Non-Proliferation of nuclear weapons (NPT) has been effective enough to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons? State your opinion. (250 words)

    Difficulty level: Tough

    Reference: Insights on IndiaInsights on India.

    Why the question:

    The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

    Key Demand of the question:

    To write about the efficacy of NPT in preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

    Directive:

    Structure of the answer:

    Introduction: 

    Begin by giving the aims and objectives of NPT and context of its inception.

    Body:

    First, write about the successes of NPT in preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons – cite examples to substantiate your points.

    Next, write about the limitations of the NPT in the checking the growth and spread of the nuclear weapons – Cite facts and examples.

    Conclusion:

    Conclude by writing a balanced opinion regarding NPT.

Introduction

The Non-Proliferation of nuclear weapons (NPT) is a multilateral treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons including three elements – Non-proliferation, Disarmament, Peaceful use of nuclear energy. The treaty was signed in 1968 and entered into force in 1970. The Treaty does not affect the right of state parties to develop, produce, and use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. India is one of the only five countries that either did not sign the NPT or signed but withdrew.

The Tenth Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) in last week of August 2022 in New York.

Body

NPT’s success and weakness:

Success:

  • Talks between the US and Russia: Arms control talks between the U.S. and Russia did take place and succeeded in bringing collective arsenals from about 65,000in the early 1980s to less than 12,000
  • Four countries have tested and developed nuclear arsenals: In the last 50 years, only four more countries have gone on to test and develop nuclear arsenals — India, Israel, North Korea and Pakistan, despite apprehensions that by the 1980s, there would be close to 25 nuclear powers.
  • Reagan-Gorbachev declaration: All that the five nuclear-weapon-states parties to the NPTreiterated at the conference., the 1985 Reagan-Gorbachev declaration that ‘a nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought’.

Weakness:

  • Consensus document: Since 1970, when the NPT entered into force, only four of the 10 review conferences have concluded with a consensus document.
  • Differences among members: the United States, the United Kingdom and Russia were earlier always on the same page, but now Russia has adopted a different point of view.
    • The difference in 2022 was that it pitched Russia against the West.
  • No discussions: No meaningful discussions or negotiations on nuclear disarmament have ever taken place in the NPT framework.
  • Failure of Disarmament Process: The NPT is largely seen as a Cold War era instrument that has failed to fulfil the objective of creating a pathway towards a credible disarmament process.
  • System of Nuclear ‘Haves’ and ‘Have-Nots’: NNWS criticizes the treaty to be discriminatory as it focuses on preventing only horizontal proliferation while there is no limit for vertical proliferation.
  • NWWS also feels that the restrictions on Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE) technology are one-sided.
  • Withdrawal from ABM treaty: S withdrew from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty in 2002on the grounds that it unduly constrained its missile defence activities.
  • US withdrawal from INF: In 2019, the U.S. decided to quit the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty.
    • It had obliged both the US andRussia to get rid of all ground-launched missiles with a range of 500-5,500 km.

Way forward

  • Rising energy demands have led to a growing number of countries pursuing nuclear energy, and many countries wish to be energy-independent, in order to ensure a sustainable and dependable domestic energy supply. As clean energy, development, and peaceful coexistence are essential for every country.
  • Thus, the challenge for the international community will be to reconcile states’ desire for energy independence with their desire to both reduce the intrusiveness of IAEAsafeguards and diminish the possibility of proliferation.
  • Also, NNWS welcomesNew START and other initiatives, but is anxious to see more concrete actions on reducing the role of nuclear weapons in national security doctrines, reducing alert levels, increasing transparency, and other steps.
  • More regions in the world (preferably comprising NWS) should enter into an arrangement of establishing Nuclear-weapon-free zones.
  • Further, Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons is a step in the right direction for nuclear disarmament.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

5. Discuss the role of New Logistics Policy (NLP) in reduction of overall logistics cost and increase the competitiveness of domestic goods in the global market. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Saturday unveiled the National Logistics Policy that seeks to address challenges facing the transport sector and bring down the logistics cost of businesses from 13-14 per cent to a single digit.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the advantages of NLP in boosting up exports and Indian economy.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving aims and objectives of New Logistics Policy (NLP).

Body:

First, write about the various features of New Logistics Policy (NLP) launched by the government.

Next, write about the various issues plaguing the logistic sector in the country.

Next, write about the benefits that the New Logistics Policy (NLP) will bring to improve exports, reduce logistic cost, generate employment etc.

Next, write about the limitation of the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

Introduction

Recently, the Government has launched a National Logistics Policy (NLP) 2022, aiming to achieve ‘quick last-mile delivery’, end transport-related challenges. Logistics encompasses planning, coordinating, storing, and moving resources —people, raw materials, inventory, equipment, etc., from one location to another, from the production points to consumption, distribution, or other production points.

The term “logistics” describes the total process of controlling the acquisition, storage, and delivery of resources to their intended location.

 

Body

At the launch of the PM Gati Shakti-National Master Plan for multi-modal connectivity in October 2021, PM had said: “According to a study, the logistical cost in India is about 13% of GDP. Such a situation does not exist in developed countries. Due to high logistical cost, the competitiveness of India’s exports is greatly reduced”.

Need for a logistics policy

  • Logistics costs have to be cut by half to be near global benchmarks by 2030 by reducing the cost of logistics from 14-18% of GDP to global best practices of 8%.
    • Countries like the US, South Korea, Singapore, and certain European nations have such a low logistics cost-to-GDP ratio.
    • The current cost is 16% of GDP.
  • Being the 5th largest economy in the world, India aims to be among the top 10 in the LPI (Logistics Performance Index) by 2030. It has to match the pace of South Korea.
    • In 2018, India was ranked 44th in the LPI.
  • Creating data-driven Decision Support Systems (DSS) to enable an efficient logistics ecosystem.
  • The policy’s target is to ensure that logistical issues are minimised, exports grow manifold, and small industries and the people working in them benefit significantly.

 

National logistics Policy: Role in reducing cost and increasing competitiveness

Objectives

  • The policy focuses on key areas such as process re-engineering, digitisation, and multi-modal transport.
  • It is a crucial move as high logistics cost impacts the competitiveness of domestic goods in the international market.
  • The need for a national logistics policy was felt since the logistics cost in India is high as compared to other developed economies.

Features

  • Digital Integration System: It will lead to seamless and faster work-flow, making logistics significantly more efficient.
  • Unified Logistics Interface Platform: It aims to collapse all logistics and transport sector digital services into a single portal, thereby freeing manufacturers and exporters from the present tyranny of long and cumbersome processes.
  • Ease of Logistics Services: E-Logs, a new digital platform, will allow industry to directly take up operational issues with government agencies for speedy resolution.
  • Comprehensive Logistics Action Plan: The Comprehensive Logistics Action Plan comprising integrated digital logistics systems, standardisation of physical assets, benchmarking service standards, human resource development, capacity building, development of logistics parks, etc.

Significance

  • PM Gati Shakti will get further boost and complementarity with the launch of the National Logistics Policy.
  • The Policy will help make the sector an integrated, cost-efficient, resilient, and sustainable logistics ecosystem in the country as it covers all bases of the sector along with streamlining rules and addressing supply-side constraints.
  • The policy is an endeavor to improve the competitiveness of Indian goods, enhance economic growth and increase employment opportunities.

 

Conclusion

Multimodal connectivity with last mile options are the goals to be achieved. This will boost manufacturing in India, and will make Indian products competitive in the global market. Currently government offsets the inefficiencies through incentives and scrips which can be done away with.

 

  •  

    General Studies – 4


     

    Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

    6. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

    “The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated.” ― Mahatma Gandhi

    Difficulty level: Moderate

    Why the question:

    The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

    Structure of the answer:

    Introduction: 

    Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

    Body:

    Write about as to how animal ethics can serve as an indicator of the moral progress of the nation. Write about the various underlying factors behind it. Cite examples from the recent past and measures taken by India in this regard.

    Conclusion:

    Summarise by highlighting the importance of the honesty in the present day.

     

Introduction

Animals have always been the constant companion of human beings since the beginning of life on planet. The start of civilization started from the domestication of animals, and in the earlier times , people took good care of animals and consider them as part of their families. But increasingly with commercialization, man resorted to the exploitation of animals, sometimes even subjecting them to utmost cruelty.

Body

In this context, the statement of mahatma Gandhi holds utmost importance. Animals can’t express themselves, can’t complain and can’t agitate for their rights. This result in unabated abuse of their rights

  • Chicken is kept in narrow confinement, debeaking of them
  • Buffaloes and cows are transported in open trucks without any provision of fodder or water
  • Traditions like Jallikattu, camel race where ox and camels are forced for public entertainment
  • Captivity of elephants by temples and keeping them in chains.

Conclusion

Therefore, true moral progress can only be reflected by how much we care about fellow living beings. Though there are enabling legislations like prevention of cruelty against animal act, organizations like PETA etc., still the real welfare of animals would begin from removal of general public apathy. That would be the first step in achieving moral greatness of a nation

 

 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. What does this quote means to you? (150 words)

We see morality in speeches and writings. We do not find it in practice.” ― Periyar E.V. Ramasamy

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Quotes Wednesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining the literal meaning of the quote.

Body:

Write about the theoretical aspect of morality and how it is preached but not practised, mention the factors that lead to this. Write about the ways how one can practice what is preached. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Summarise by highlighting the importance of the quote in the present day.

Introduction

Mahatma Gandhi always stated “Practice what you preach”. During the freedom struggle, Gandhi stressed on a national participation for freedom struggle which would involve suffering. He himself underwent fasting and taking the British oppression with full force which motivated people for the cause of freedom. His message had a ‘backbone’ to it. So, the closer you are to mirroring whatever the message is that your communicating, the more powerful the message will come across.

Body

Ethics is difficult to practice because it’s not always white and black, there’s always a lot of grey. Sometimes its easy to choose the shorter path or the easy path rather than the difficult path. For instance, being honest is a virtue we preach. But when it comes to us admitting a wrong doing we shy away from it instantly.

Reasons why we preach but not practice ethics

  • Upholding high moral principles is not easy
  • Strength of Character is tested
  • Avoiding Temptations diverting towards an easy solution
  • Stick to Integrity, Self-control. Discipline etc.

In a society, everyone knows corruption is bad and affects society as a whole but when it comes to their own situation people defend being corrupt saying it is part of the society. Similarly, untouchability is a crime. People say one should respect anyone irrespective of ascriptive criteria however when their own child wants to marry a scheduled caste person, relatives and parents oppose.

Likewise In the digital world there are thousands of blogs out there that teach personal development, yet only a select few that actually give sound advice. The reason behind that is that it’s simple to read information and rewrite it but putting oneself in one’s shoes is difficult.

Even in international relations, same is the case. USA always take a moral high ground of doing the right things. The way it left Afghan people to scramble for their lives after making a deal with Taliban will always be a black mark in history.

Conclusion

Walk the talk, practice what you preach is the philosophy when it comes to ethics. However, in real life in real situations people tend to take the easy way out. It is widely believed that we ought not to criticize others for wrongs that we ourselves have committed.  This is the message of the quote.

 


Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE

Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE

Join our Twitter Account HERE 

Follow our Instagram  Account HERE