InstaLinks : help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 1:
1. New trends in work culture
GS Paper 2:
1. A risky new status quo
2. Rules for identifying criminals
3. More teeth and bigger muscles
1. What ails the current approach to Ayurveda
2. AI in Eduction: State of education report for India 2022
Facts for Prelims:
1. Nizam’s sword
2. Nutrition rating stars
3. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)
4. Karnataka Assembly passes anti-conversion Bill
5. Will EWS quota cut share of pie of those competing on merit
6. “Not so coupled” nature of Indian Economy
7. PLI Scheme for Solar Cell Manufacturing
8. Dharamshala Declaration
9. Green Events Tool (GET)
10. Bio-decomposer Capsules
11. Hybrid Propulsion System
GS Paper 1
Syllabus: Society/ Social Justice/ Ethics
Direction: The terms given in this article have continuously been in news. Try to understand them. These can be useful in society GS1, Social Justice GS2 and Ethics papers.
Context: In contemporary times, work, job, or labour have taken different forms giving rise to new terminologies, issues, challenges and sometimes debate.
What is Work Culture?
Attitudes, beliefs and behaviours that make up the regular atmosphere in a work environment are what we all know as work culture.
- Quiet quitting, Quiet firing, moonlighting, Hustle culture, Eighteen-hour work debate and work-life balance have appeared frequently in the past few months.
Quiet quitting refers to employees doing the bare minimum required of them.
- g. leaving work exactly at the end of one’s shift, demanding additional pay for extra work, and/or setting clear work-life boundaries.
Reasons for quiet quitting:
- Changing work culture: The pandemic introduced many challenges that both increased what is demanded of employees, and allowed them to reimagine what alternative work systems could look like.
- Impact of Remote Work: increased the number of hours employees spend working, thus contributing to increased levels of burnout.
- Apathetic attitude of employers: Dissatisfaction among employees who believe their managers have little concern for employee welfare.
Moonlighting is the act of working at an extra job beyond regular working hours, usually without the knowledge of the employer. Since the side job was mostly at night time or on weekends, it was referred to as moonlighting.
Why do people moonlight?
- Earn more money: The main reason for going above and beyond an existing job is earning more money.
- Learn new skills: working in a different role can allow a person to develop new skills, explore related domains and connect with more people.
Why are employers not happy?
- Employers are suspicious of this practice often because it can mean that a worker may not give their organisation the time it needs, and not give any extra time to either organisation.
’18 hours work’ debate and hustle culture
Hustle culture is defined as one that encourages employees to work more than normal working hours.
- Work is on their minds even when they have free time or on holidays.
- The major requirement of this culture is to complete a job on target at a faster pace than usual.
A LinkedIn post by the CEO of a company advising youngsters to work 18 hours a day, at least for four to five years initially in their career, faced a backlash and was ridiculed.
What does WHO study on long working hours say?
- 745,000 people died from a stroke and heart disease associated with long working hours in 2016
- Working 55 hours or more per week is a serious health hazard
- Capping hours would be beneficial for employers since that has been shown to increase worker productivity.
Why is it important to have a work-life balance?
Siddhartha S, an author of 5 books — ’60 Keys to Success with NLP’, ‘Thank God it’s Monday’, and many others suggest:
- Work-life balance is critical
- Put health before wealth
- Devise an incentive system if you want employees to work extra hours
- Success has different meanings for different people: Economic success is not the only yardstick to measure the success of human life.
- Entrepreneur and employee mindsets are different: If an employee has to work 70+ hours for a basic salary, then it is not a great idea. The employee may as well take the entrepreneurship path where there is an opportunity to create a company and to keep the profits.
Q. Do you think rejecting hustle culture youngsters or going for moonlighting is rejecting the idea of work is worship embedded in Indian Culture? Discuss. 10M
GS paper 2
Syllabus: Bilateral, regional and global groupings involving India and affecting India’s interests etc
Directions: This is from an editorial piece.
- India and China completed disengagement in Patrolling Point 15 (PP15), pulling troops back to create a demilitarized buffer zone.
Issues associated with buffer zone creation:
- Patrolling: It inhibits India’s ability to patrol its own territory.
- Limits activities: The buffer zones and Depsang’s status limit India’s military activities near the LAC.
Issues still persisting between India and China :
- No return back: The reinforcements that each side deployed since 2020 have not returned to the garrison.
- Military infrastructure: Both sides have raced to build permanent military infrastructure near the border.
- Claim over Arunachal Pradesh: China still claims Arunachal Pradesh as its own.
Strategic implications for India:
- Reassignment: India has reassigned one of three originally Pakistan-facing Strike Corps to the China front.
- Newest artillery and other equipment: It has deployed its newest artillery, fighter jets, and drones to the China border.
- Asian balance of power: The capabilities to project military force across the Ocean, coerce or defend smaller regional States, and establish an enduring strategic presence there, will determine the Asian balance of power.
- Continued “disengagement and de-escalation: This could be a golden opportunity for Indian planners to work towards long-term military modernisation and political influence across the Indian Ocean region.
Q. China is using its economic relation and positive trade surplus as tools to develop potential military power status in Asia” In the light of this statement. Discuss its impact on India as her neighbour. (UPSC 2017)
- India China border mapping
- Buffer Zone
- Galwan valley
GS paper 2
Syllabus: Parliament and state legislature-Structure, functioning and conduct of business, Role of different constitutional and non-constitutional bodies etc
Directions: A similar post on the same issue was made two days back in fact for prelims ( MHA notification of Convicts Biometrics). This is in continuation of that and will be the revision.
- The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) notified the rules governing The Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act, 2022 and it was passed in Parliament
What is the legislation about? (Repealed the Identification of Prisoners Act, 1920)
- Empowers Magistrate: The Act empowers a Magistrate to direct any person to give measurements
- Measurement collected in physical form or in a non-standard digital format: It shall be converted into standard digital format and thereafter uploaded to the database as per the SOP.
- Authorized users: Only authorized users could upload the measurements to the central database in an encrypted format.
- Measurements include:
- Palm-print and footprint
- Iris and retina scan
- Physical, biological samples and their analysis(including DNA profiling)
- Behavioural attributes including signatures, handwriting
- Any other examination referred to in Section 53 or Section 53A of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.
Concerns about the Act:
- Issues of privacy
- It allows the recording of samples of even political detainees.
- The rules do not mention the procedure to be adopted for convicted persons.
Repository of the data:
- The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) under MHA: Will be the agency for storing and preserving the data of arrested persons.
- State government can store data: But it shall provide compatible application programming interfaces for sharing the measurements or record of measurements with the NCRB.
Provisions for the destruction of records in case a suspect is acquitted (Yet to be specified by the NCRB):
- Nodal officer: Any request for destruction of records shall be made to the Nodal Officer who is to be nominated by the respective State Government.
- Recommendation for destruction: He will recommend the destruction after verifying that such a record of measurements is not linked with any other criminal cases.
Q. Discuss different types of Cyber crimes and measures required to be taken to fight the menace. (UPSC 2020)
The Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act, 2022
GS paper 2
Syllabus: Statutory, regulatory and various constitutional bodies etc
Directions: ED and NIA have off late been in News often for various reasons.
- Since 2014, the Directorate of Enforcement (ED) has investigated 121 prominent politicians and has arrested, questioned, raided, or filed FIRs against 115 major Opposition leaders.
Analysis of Powers with ED:
- Power Contrary to CBI: Unlike agencies, particularly the CBI, the PMLA allows the ED to take cognizance of any offence with or without the consent of state governments.
- Powers contrary to NIA: The types of offences that NIA can investigate are limited to about a dozen offences compared to ED which enjoys a wide-ranging schedule across the country.
- Wider extent: The ED’s ambit extends from serious crimes such as terrorism to the hunting of wild animals, and from the infringement of copyright to false trademarks.
- Other powers under PMLA:
- It gives investigators the power to arrest and attach properties and assets of accused
- Impose stringent bail conditions
- Make a statement recorded before an investigating officer admissible in court as evidence
Powers through various amendments:
- ‘Criminal conspiracy’ under Section 120B of IPC: It was added to the PMLA’s schedule among various other offences.
- International jurisdiction: For tracking laundered money
- Amendments in 2015 and 2018: The ED was allowed to attach properties in India equivalent to properties acquired abroad through laundered money.
- Explanations inserted into the PMLA in 2019: The government allowed the ED to attach properties earned directly or indirectly through alleged criminal activity.
Issues with the PMLA:
- Statement admissible: It is the only Act in the country in which a statement recorded before an investigating officer is admissible in court as evidence.
- Strict bail conditions: SC upheld the validity of all the provisions of the PMLA, including strict bail conditions in money laundering cases.
Q. India’s proximity to two of the world’s biggest illicit opium-growing states has enhanced her internal security concerns. Explain the linkages between drug trafficking and other illicit activities such as gunrunning, money laundering and human trafficking. What counter-measures should be taken to prevent the same? (UPSC 2018)
Q. With reference to the Directorate of Enforcement (ED), consider the following statements:
- It investigates offences of money laundering and violations of foreign exchange laws.
- It functions under the Home Ministry.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2
- The Directorate of Enforcement (ED) is a multi-disciplinary organization mandated to the investigation of offences of money laundering and violations of foreign exchange laws.
- It functions under the Department of Revenue of the Ministry of Financ
GS Paper 3
Syllabus: Basic Science/ Social Justice- Health
Source: The Hindu
Direction: It came in the opinion section of the Hindu. Go through it once.
Context: The article discusses a few challenges to Ayurveda in the present context.
What is Ayurveda?
Ayurveda is an alternative medicine system with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent. It is based on the idea that disease is caused by an imbalance or stress in a person’s consciousness.
- Ayurveda is heavily practised in India and Nepal, where around 80% of the population report using it.
Significance Of Ayurveda
- Ancient science and Indian heritage
- An alternative way of seeing diseases: In Ayurveda, it is believed living man is a conglomeration of three humors (Vata, Pitta & Kapha), seven basic tissues (Rasa, Rakta, Mansa, Meda, Asthi, Majja & Shukra) and the waste products of the body i.e. mala, mutra and sweda.
- Holistic: The treatment approach in the Ayurveda system is holistic and individualized having preventive, curative, mitigative, recuperative and rehabilitative aspects.
- Focus on Prevention
- Ineffective Treatment in Emergency Cases
- No uniformity: different medicinal plants are used in different geography for the treatment of the same disease.
- Lack of interest and promotion at the global level
- Shortage of specialised practitioners and research
- Outdated theories: Ayurveda’s ancient treatises, cannot be expected to retain relevance in their entirety in today’s time. The theories contain useful portions alongside obsolete ones.
- Simplistic details:g. On urine formation, the Ayurveda text posits that tiny ducts from the intestines carry urine to fill the bladder with no role for kidneys. This has been outdated.
- Wrong belief: the widespread belief among its academics that ancient texts, by virtue of their being divined by sages in deep yogic states, retain timeless relevance.
What needs to be done?
- A dispassionate sifting through their contents is a prerequisite for their prudent practical use.
- “Reverse pharmacology”: Using documented clinical experiences to research in ayurveda
- Ministry of AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy) in 2014
- New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI): research in Ayurveda is part of it
- Kerala has been promoting Ayurveda as a way of improving immunity in the general population
- Proposed WHO’s Global Centre for Traditional Medicine (Jamnagar, Gujurat): It will be the first and only global outpost centre for traditional medicine across the world.
As a medical system, Ayurveda is valuable immensely for its observations, only marginally for its theories, and not at all for its speculations. The sooner there is reform and updation of theories as per modern science the better people will be benefited from it.
Adaptation of Ayurveda for current use comes with its challenges which need to be acknowledged and resolved. Discuss. (250 Words)
GS Paper 3
Syllabus: Science and Technology/ Governance/Social Justice/ Indian Society
Context: UNESCO has released the State of education report for India 2022: Artificial Intelligence (AI) in education
- India has the highest relative AI skill penetration rate ( over 3 times the global average)
- AI literacy is increasing and is important for India
- India has a one-size-fits-all approach: Using personalized and intelligent AI-based tutoring will help learning become diversified
- Consider teaching Ethics of AI
- Correct Algorithmic biases and discrimination in AI
- Involve the private sector and PPP in developing AI-based products.
- Use AI for equality, equity, inclusion and improved learning outcomes
- Use AI for the inclusion of linguistic diversity
- India lacks policies for AI in education
- Lack of digital infrastructure
- Increasing use of AI for fakes, cheating
- Focus on memorization-based education (instead of critical thinking)
- NEP 2020 emphasises using digital tools ( including AI) in education for meeting the skill-based demands of Industry 4.0.
- CBSE has AI as an elective subjectfor its ninth-grade classes.
- National Program on AI
- AIRAWAT (Artificial Intelligence Research, Analytics and Knowledge Assimilation Platform)
- National Strategy for AI
Government should consider AI with the aim of 5 ‘I’s that stand for Inclusiveness, Indigenization, Innovation, Investment in infrastructure & International cooperation.
About the report:
It is the 4th edition of the annual report of UNESCO with the aim of increasing the application of AI in education in India.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (founded in 1945, Hq: Paris) is a specialised agency of the United Nations aimed at promoting world peace and security through international cooperation in education, arts, sciences and culture.
AI can be connected with GS1 (society), GS2, and GS3 as well as in ethics. Do related various dimensions of AI and the issues concerned.
As with most technologies, there will be positive and negative impacts on society as artificial intelligence continues to transform the world that we live in. Examine. (15M)
Facts for Prelims
Source: The Hindu
Context: A 14th-century ceremonial sword that was sold in Hyderabad to a British General in the early 20th century is set to return to India.
The sword, shaped like a snake, has serrated edges and a damascene pattern, with gold etchings of an elephant and tigers.
According to the museum documentation, the sword was “exhibited by Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI, Nizam of Hyderabad (1896-1911) at the 1903 Delhi or Imperial Durbar, a ceremonial reception held to commemorate the coronation of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra as Emperor and Empress of India.”
Nutrition rating stars
Context: The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), has released a draft notification for front-of-pack labelling to discourage consumers from buying packaged food high in sugar, salt, and fat, which will require pre-packaged food to carry a star graphic — ranging for 0 to 5 — next to the brand name.
Like the star-rating system for energy efficiency of electronic products, the ‘Indian Nutrition Rating (INR)’ will see the unhealthiest food items carry a 0-star rating and the healthiest carry a 5-star rating.
To generate the star-rating logo for the product, food businesses have to submit nutritional profiles of the products concerned on FSSAI’s FoSCoS (Food Safety Compliance System) portal.
Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)
Source: The Hindu
Direction: Learn the basics of ECCE and some of the programmes for it.
Context: Government expenditure on early childhood education a mere 0.1% of GDP: report by Centre for budget and governance and Save the Children
- The government expenditure in India on ECCE for children between the age of three years and six years is a mere 0.1% of the GDP (the USA is 0.33%, Finland is 0.71% of GDP)
- India has nearly 99mn children in the age group of 3-6 years.
- Allocation of children is highest in Himachal Pradesh and lowest in Meghalaya
Meaning of ECCE:
Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) in the Indian context is generally defined as the care and education of children from birth to eight years. It includes Early stimulation programmes through crèches/homes stimulation for 0-3-year-olds.
- The National Education Policy 2020 aims to universalise ECE by 2030 in line with Sustainable Development Goal 4
- NCERT will create a National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework for ECCE (NCPFECCE) to guide teachers and stress the need for developing a workforce trained for ECE.
- SARTHAQ:- ‘Students’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement through Quality Education – (Implementation plan for National Education Policy 2020) School Education
- Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan, ICDS and National Health Mission
Karnataka Assembly passes anti-conversion Bill
- The Karnataka Legislative Assembly passed the Karnataka Protection of Right to Freedom of Religion Bill, 2022, (popularly called the anti-conversion Bill) by voice vote.
- Imprisonment: It proposes imprisonment from three to five years with a fine of Rs 25,000
- Minors, SC/ST and Women: Any violation of provisions with respect to minors, women, SC/ST, the offenders will face imprisonment from three to ten years and a fine of not less than Rs 50,000.
- Compensation: The bill also makes provisions for the accused to pay up to Rs five lakh as compensation to those who were made to convert.
- Mass conversion: With regards to cases of mass conversion there shall be a 3 to 10-year jail term and a fine of up to Rs one lakh.
- Family court: Any marriage which has happened for the sole purpose of unlawful conversion or vice-versa by the man of one religion with the woman of another, shall be declared null and void by the family court.
- Declaration for conversion: Persons who wish to convert to another faith shall give a declaration in a prescribed format at least 30 days in advance to the District Magistrate or the Additional District Magistrate.
Other states which have passed such laws:
- Arunachal Pradesh
- Himachal Pradesh
- Madhya Pradesh
- Uttar Pradesh
- Article 25: It guarantees the freedom to profess, propagate, and practise religion, subject to public order, morality, and health.
- However, no person shall force their religious beliefs and consequently, no person should be forced to practice any religion against their wishes.
Will the EWS quota cut the share of the pie of those competing on merit
Directions: Continuation of previous articles on EWS
- Has the government ended up “diminishing” the opportunities of candidates who compete for jobs and seats in government institutions purely on merit by carving out a 10% quota for ‘economically weaker sections’ (EWS) from the general category, a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court asked the Center.
Key Highlights of SC observations:
- Open to all: A five-judge Bench led by the Chief Justice of India said that 50% of academic seats and jobs in the general category are open to all.
- Including the creamy layer of the Other Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and forward classe
- BPL one-sixth of total: The Bench noted that those in the general category who were below the poverty line came to only one-sixth of the total general population.
Cut from remaining 50%: Center submitted that the EWS quota was not an “addition” to the 50% caste-based quota already available to backward classes
- It was cut from the remaining 50% seats in the “general, open or non-reserved category.
“Not so coupled” nature of Indian Economy
Context: Global rating agency S&P said that even though the US and the Eurozone are headed to recession, India is unlikely to face the impact given the “not so coupled” nature of its economy with the global economy.
Indian economy is not fully integrated into the world economy due to partial capital account convertibility, managed currency rate and trade restrictions.
Advantages of the Indian Economy
- Large domestic demand
- Enough forex reserves
- Healthy fiscal balance sheets
PLI Scheme for Solar Cell Manufacturing
Context: The Union Cabinet on Wednesday cleared a ₹19,500-crore scheme to incentivise the manufacturing of domestic solar cell modules to reduce the industry’s reliance on China-made panels.
- This is under the National programme on High-Efficiency Solar PV Modules
- The PLI will be disbursed to firms after they set up their manufacturing units and the money disbursed over five years.
Nodal body: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
- Create about 2 lakh direct jobs
- Save on imports
- Give impetus to MSMEs
- Secure energy security through renewable source
About PLI Scheme:
- The PLI scheme was launched in 2020 to scale up domestic manufacturing capability, accompanied by higher import substitution and employment generation.
- The incentives, calculated on the basis of incremental sales (range from as low as 1% for electronics to as high as 20% for the manufacturing of APIs and bulk drugs)
Source: Hindustan Times
Direction: Remember that “Dharmshala Declaration: India wants to be the global leader in tourism by 2047”
Context: At the National Conference of State Tourism Minister, the “Dharamshala Declaration” was adopted for developing “sustainable and responsible tourism” and positions India as a “global leader in the tourism sector by 2047”.
- India is ranked 54th/117 countries on the latest WEF Travel and Tourism Development Index. (down from 46 in 2019).
- Its current contribution is 6.8% of the Indian GDP
- Creates over 39mn jobs
- Draft National Tourism Policy: Targets to achieve USD 1 Trillion by the sector in 2047.
- Ministry of Tourism: National Strategy for sustainable tourism and responsible traveller Campaign
- Schemes: PRASHAD, NIDHI 2.0, Swadesh Darshan etc.
Green Events Tool (GET)
Direction: There are so many such tools. Not all are important. This one you can remember by focusing on the keyword ‘Event’ in “Green Events Tool”. ‘event’ stand for reducing carbon footprint in events.
Context: UNFCC, UNEP and Gulf organization for research and Development (GORD) has unveiled GET with the aim to encourage actions to reduce the negative impacts of various events on climate.
- It will help in calculating the carbon footprint for any planned event at its planning stages itself and recommends solutions for lowering the footprint as well as suggesting carbon credit for unavoidable ones.
- It was proposed 1st in COP26 (Glasgow last year)
Source: Economic Times
Direction: Indirect Qn on Stubble burning, its impact (e.g. smog was asked this year in mains) and policies related to it have been asked in UPSC several times.
Context: Delhi government will spare bio-decomposer capsules to curb stubble burning.
About the Capsules
- It will accelerate the decomposition from stubble to manure in 15-20 days.
- It comprises a Dormant form of decomposing Bacteria and cell mass of Fungal spore, accelerating the process of decomposition under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
- The capsules have been developed by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)
About Stubble Burning:
Stubble burning is a process of setting on fire the straw stubble, left after the harvesting of grains, like paddy, wheat, etc.
Farmers in the Indo-Gangetic plain do it as they get a very short time between the harvesting of rice and the sowing of wheat.
Stubble burning causes- loss of nutrients and micro-organisms in the soil. toxic pollutants to be released into the atmosphere.
- Stubble burning is made crime under IPC and Air and Pollution control act (1981)
- National Policy on the management of crop residues 2014
- Promotion of machines– Rotavators, Happy seeders, use of stubble in cattle feed and bio-ethanol
Hybrid Propulsion System
Source: Live Mint
Direction: Know the basics of the Propulsion system
Context: The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has successfully tested a hybrid motor, which will pave way for a new propulsion system for the upcoming launch vehicles.
About the system:
- Unlike solid-solid or liquid-liquid combinations, a hybrid motor uses solid fuel and liquid oxidiser.
- The motor used Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) as fuel and liquid oxygen (LOX) as the oxidiser.
- The use of liquids facilitates throttling (regulated supply of fuel), and the control over the flow rate of LOX enables the re-start capability.
- It is scalable and stackable, potentially paving the way for a new propulsion system for the forthcoming launch vehicles
- The test was supported by ISRO’s Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC).
Context: eSIMs have come again in the news as the new Apple iPhone 14 will be completely dependent on eSIMS in the US.
An eSIM is an embedded SIM, essentially the same hardware as a regular SIM card chip, but now a permanently embedded part of the motherboard of a watch or smartphone.
eSIMs were first established a decade ago in 2012, but despite their futuristic use-cases, have not completely made physical SIMs obsolete yet.
Advantages of eSIMs
- Being attached to the motherboard also allows re-programming, letting users switch operators without having to replace any physical SIM cards
- Convenience: The ability to store multiple SIM profiles in your eSIM also means you can switch between profiles easily.
- Security: There is no physical element to pull out and use in another device.
Disadvantages of eSIMs
- Emergencies: If your phone stops working, runs out of battery or simply, falls and gets a cracked screen, your communication is brought to a complete standstill with eSIMs.
- Unusable in countries with no eSIM support: You cannot use an eSIM phone in a country where the telecom operators simply don’t support the technology yet.
- Support only available in premium phones:In India, eSIM support is currently available on more expensive devices like the Apple iPhones, and Google Pixel series.
- Telcos have more control
Source: The Hindu
Context: Hotbeds of left-wing extremism have been cleared in the Bihar States and greatly reduced in Jharkhand using Operations Octopus, Double Bull, Thunderstorm and Chakarbandha.
Who are Naxalites?
Naxalites are a group of far-left radical communists, supportive of Maoist political sentiment and ideology. Their origin can be traced to the splitting in 1967 of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), leading to the formation of the Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist).
- Number of districts affected by violence stood at 39, down from 60 in 2010.
- These districts are mostly in Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Telengana and Andhra Pradesh.
- Incidents of violence have come down from the highest level of 2,258 in 2009 to 509 in 2021.
- The death rate due to violence has come down by 85%.
- “zero tolerance” for terrorism and left-wing extremism
- For the first time, permanent camps of security forces have been established by successfully evacuating Maoists
- Increased allocation of funds and latest equipment
- Soft policing: Winning the trust of locals to shun violence
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