InstaLinks : help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 2:
1. Reforms and the task of getting teachers on board
1. IBBI Regulations Amendments
2. International Year of Millets (IYM) 2023
Content for Mains Enrichment (Essay/Ethics)
1. Water & Fire Resistant ‘Differniture’ From Waste Wood
2. Chhatisgarh’s initiatives for AWCs
Facts for Prelims:
1. Doctrine of Precedence: Article 145(5)
2. SCALE App
3. AIBD extends India’s Presidency for one more year
4. Haryana Sikh Gurdwara (Management) Act 2014
5. Kurmi stir for ST tag
6. Black Swan Event
7. Global Clean Energy Action Forum
8. Long Range Radio
9. Sensing pressure using paper
10. Lumpy Skin Disease
GS Paper 2
Syllabus: Issues related to the development of the social sector involving education etc
Directions: Reforms undertaken by Andhra Government to improve the education system. You can use it as an example in mains for measures to improve education in India
- The education system in Andhra Pradesh is changing rapidly following a slew of reforms that have been ushered in by the government.
Aim of the education reforms:
- Equitable and inclusive: To ensure that all children have access to quality education within an equitable and inclusive classroom environment
- Participation: Making them active participants in the learning process.
Objectives of reforms:
- Critical thinking: Shift the focus from content retention to building critical thinking and problem-solving abilities
- Holistic learning process: Making the learning process more experiential, holistic, integrated, enquiry-driven, and enjoyable.
Importance of app-based attendance system:
- Attendance: A platform to record the attendance of teachers in government schools across the State.
- Update on children: Parents will also receive SMS updates on their child’s arrival and departure from school.
- Teacher absenteeism: It checks teacher absenteeism.
- School restructuring programme: it calls for a merger of classes three to five in primary schools with high schools (will further contribute to the school drop-out rate)
- Reapportionment of teaching staff in the State: It will only increase their workload in addition to shrinking existing teacher posts.
- Face recognition app by the School Education Department: Asking teachers to download it on their personal mobile phones and record their daily attendance
- Teachers have Cited issues of virtual security reasons.
- Part of reforms: As teachers are central to any change in the education system, they should not be left out of the realm of the reforms underway
- Incentivisation: The government could think of employing effective motivation and small-scale incentivisation to find a middle ground and make them partners in the ongoing journey.
Q. National Electronic Policy 2020 is in conformity with the Sustainable Development Goals-4 (2030). It intended to restructure and re-orient the education system in India. Critically examine the statement. (UPSC 2020)
Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India Regulations, 2016 and Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India Regulations, 2017 Amendments:
GS Paper 3
Syllabus: Indian economy and issues related to planning, mobilization of resources development and growth, banking reforms etc
Directions: The amendments are highly technical in nature. No need to note or remember. Go through it once. Understand the basics of IBC. Know the difference between basic terms such as liquidation, bankruptcy etc.
- The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India notified the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) (Second Amendment) Regulations, 2022 and Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Voluntary Liquidation Process) (Second Amendment) Regulations, 2022.
- To enable better participation of stakeholders
- Streamline the liquidation process to reduce delays
- Realize better value
- The Committee of Creditors (CoC): It shall function as the Stakeholders Consultation Committee (SCC) in the first 60 days.
- After adjudication of claims and within 60 days of initiation of the process, the SCC shall be reconstituted based upon admitted claims.
- Mandatory meeting: The liquidator has been mandated to conduct the meetings of SCC in a structured and time-bound manner.
- Scope of mandatory consultation by the liquidator, with SCC, enlarged: Now, SCC may even propose the replacement of the liquidator to the Adjudicating Authority (AA) and fix the fees of the liquidator, if the CoC did not fix the same during CIRP.
- Claim not filed during the liquidation process: The amount of claim collated during CIRP shall be verified by the liquidator.
- Process of compromise: If CoC decides the process of compromise or arrangement during the liquidation process
- The liquidator shall file the application in such cases before the Adjudicating Authority within thirty days of the order of liquidation.
- Specific event-based timelines: Stipulated for the auction process.
- Advisory role by SCC before filing an application(dissolution or closure): The manner in which proceedings in respect of avoidance transactions or fraudulent or wrongful trading, shall be pursued after the closure of liquidation proceedings.
- Manner and period of retention: of records: Relating to liquidation and voluntary liquidation of a corporate debtor or corporate person, respectively.
Q. Public expenditure management is a challenge to the Government of India in the context of budget making during the post-liberalization period. Clarify it. (UPSC 2019)
GS Paper 3
Context: 2023 has been declared as IYM by the UN on a proposal by India with the aim to create awareness about the health benefits of millet.
Benefits of Millets:
- Nutritional Security: cheap and more nutritious. E.g. Ragi has the highest calcium content and high iron content can fight the high prevalence of anaemia.
- Climate Resilient: they are known as hardy and drought-resistant crops, which has to do with their
- Economic Security: low investment for inputs
- Against Health Issues: Millets are gluten-free and have a low glycemic index (glucose level) and therefore can help in tackling lifestyle problems and health challenges such as obesity and diabetes.
- Millets have antiaging and antioxidant
- Preference for Wheat as staple food: Wheat because of gluten makes softer food and is more liked.
Government policies:g. National Food Security Act promotes wheat and rice
- Lack of awareness about the benefit of Millet.
- Other challenges: lack of input subsidies and price incentives, and changing consumer preferences.
Initiatives in India:
- Government declared (in 2018) millets as “Nutri-Cereals”, considering their “high nutritive value” and also “anti-diabetic properties”.
- The 2018 year: ‘National Year of Millets”.
- Increase in MSP for millets
- Government has included millets in the public distribution system (PDS) and POSHAN Abhiyan.
- Millet Mission (under the National Food Security Mission): It will help develop farm-gate processing and empower farmers using FPOs.
- Kerala State Agriculture Department: Millet Village scheme
- Millet Startup Innovation Challenge
- A contest for designing a comic story, with the theme ‘India’s Wealth, Millets for Health’
Other Initiatives for millets:
- SCO: India proposed to organize the “Millet Food Festival’
In view of the impact of climate change and government aim for climate-smart agriculture, Millets deserves encouragement. It can also help in providing nourishment to people across all income categories and supporting climate adaptation of rainfed sustainable farming systems.
Q. Millets have enormous potential to form a core component in climate-smart agriculture whilst offering nutritional and food security benefits. Elaborate. (15M)
Content for Mains Enrichment (Essay/Ethics)
Water & Fire Resistant ‘Differniture’ From Waste Wood
It’s no secret that wood contributes majorly to climate change in the form of mass deforestation. When you add to this the fact that landfills receive close to 12.2 million tonnes of waste wood a year, you’re forced to reckon with the unsustainable manner in which we use this material.
Aakriti Kumar from New Delhi established Differniture, which makes sustainable furniture out of waste wood. They create a wide range of pieces including chairs, tables, sofas, consoles, outdoor furniture, lighting, bars, kids’ furniture, and more, all using discarded wood.
She says she does not use any synthetic polishes or toxic materials to make the pieces, and that the resultant furniture is fire and water-resistant.
In 2018, the young designer decided to use the piling scraps of wood from her other projects to create the ‘Tesselate’ series, wherein she makes furniture by repeating a single shape. Her work has also earned her a place on Forbes’ 30 Under 30 list.
Chhatisgarh’s initiatives for AWCs
At the Anganwadi Centres:
The Bari project is an innovative welfare scheme that promotes organic backyard farming in the centres.
- Vegetables and fruits grown in the Badi (field) are being consumed at the centre itself.
- Milk obtained from the Gauthan was provided to the children free of cost. This would prove useful in eradicating malnutrition among children.
- It will improve facilities in the field of early childhood care and education (ECCE).
Also, the Karnataka govt is likely to follow Chhattisgarh’s model of child care in ECCE.
Facts for Prelims
Doctrine of Precedence: Article 145(5)
Source: Hindustan times
Direction: Just understand the matter. No need to remember.
Context: Majority view of a larger bench will prevail over a judgement passed by a lesser strength bench in case of conflict, even if a lesser strength bench saw a greater number of judges agreeing with each other.
- Simply put, the court verdict establishes that a 4-3 majority view will overrule a unanimous view of a bench of 5 judges — only because the former is a numerically superior bench.
Doctrine of Precedence: Under this, courts refer to their older ruling as precedence on related matters. The precedential legitimacy of a larger bench ruling must be considered a thumb rule for stability in the law.
Article 145(5) states that no judgment shall be delivered by the Supreme Court without the concurrence of a majority of the judges present at the hearing of the case, but nothing in this clause shall prevent a judge from delivering a dissenting judgment.
Source: Live Mint
Context: SCALE (Skill Certification Assessment for Leather Employees) app has been launched which provides a one-stop solution for the skilling, learning, assessment, and employment needs of the leather industry
Agency: Leather Skill sector council under the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship
Status: India is the second largest producer and consumer of footwear in the world. The Leather industry in India accounts for around 13% of the world’s leather production of hides/skins.
AIBD extends India’s Presidency for one more year
- India’s Presidency of the prestigious Asia-pacific Institute of Broadcasting Development (AIBD) has been extended for one more year.
The Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development (AIBD):
- It was established in 1977 under the auspices of UNESCO.
- Electronic media development: It is a regional intergovernmental organization servicing countries of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-ESCAP) in the field of electronic media
- Objectives: Achieve a vibrant and cohesive electronic media environment in the Asia-Pacific region through policy and resource development.
- Members: The AIBD currently has 26 countries as full members represented by 43 organizations, and 52 affiliate members.
- The 47th AIBD Annual Gathering / 20th AIBD General Conference and Associated Meetings were held in New Delhi.
Supreme Court upholds validity of Haryana Sikh Gurdwara (Management) Act 2014
- The Supreme Court upheld the validity of the Haryana Sikh Gurdwara (Management) Act 2014, declaring that the law has left “the affairs of the Sikh minority in the State to be managed by the Sikhs alone”.
- Articles 25 and 26:The court declared that the law did not violate the religious freedom of the Sikh community protected under Articles 25 and 26 of the Constitution.
- Sikh Gurdwaras Act, 1925: The Act had left the religious affairs of the Sikhs, exclusively “in the hands of the Sikhs in the same manner as was under the 1925 Act”. Court said.
Haryana Sikh Gurdwara (Management) Act 2014:
- Separate juristic entity: For the management of the historical gurdwaras in Haryana
- Gurdwaras with income both over and under ₹20 lakh.
- Objective: To provide a legal procedure by which the gurdwaras were brought under the exclusive control of the Sikhs of Haryana for their proper use, administration, control and financial management reforms.
- Judicial Commission: It provides for Haryana Sikh Gurdwara Judicial Commission.
Kurmi stir for ST tag(continuation of the previous article on ST status)
Directions: Important for Prelims, read about the geographical distribution of kurmis and eight schedule
- Kurmis blocked railway tracks in various parts of eastern India demanding Scheduled Tribe (ST) status and inclusion of Kurmali language in the eighth schedule of the Constitution.
- Kurmi is traditionally a non-elite tiller caste in the lower Gangetic plain of India.
- They are present in southern regions of Awadh, eastern Uttar Pradesh and parts of Bihar.
- It lists the official languages of the Republic of India.
- Part XVII of the Indian constitution deals with the official languages in Articles 343 to 351.
- Official Languages: The Eighth Schedule to the Constitution consists of the following 22 languages.
- The Sindhi language was added by the 21st Amendment Act of 1967.
- Konkani, Manipuri, and Nepali were included by the 71st Amendment Act of 1992.
- Bodo, Dogri, Maithili, and Santhali were added by the 92nd Amendment Act of 2003.
Black Swan Event
Source: Indian Express
Context: FM at the FICCI event has highlighted that the future of finance as “VUCA — volatile, uncertain, complex and totally ambiguous”, and to be ready for it, one has to think within the available parameters and “be ready to prevent any black swan event”.
Global Clean Energy Action Forum (GCEAF)
Source: Live Mint
Context: India will participate in Global Clean Energy Action Forum (GCEAF) at Pittsburg, US. It is 1st of its kind of meeting of over 30 countries to promote policies and programmes that advance clean energy technology.
- India will highlight efforts made in the fields of bio-refineries, sustainable aviation fuels, materials accelerated platforms, carbon capture, and hydrogen valley platforms to expedite clean energy solutions.
Long Range Radio (LoRa)
Source: Business Line
Direction: It is a simple concept of using radio waves for banking. Know the basics.
Context: Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology (IDRBT, an Institute under the RBI) has developed a new low-cost financial network to take banking to remote areas.
LoRa technology is a wireless modulation technique in the physical layer, allowing long-range communication using a chirp spread spectrum. LoRa technology uses dedicated radios, which are not usually present in end-user devices, limiting interferences from other devices.
- Banks can use this as their own dedicated private network instead of using a third-party network which is presently based either on a satellite link or wired (fibre).
- IDRBT is the first in the world to develop this network based on LoRa (Long Range Radio) technology
- It will make it possible for people in remote hilly and forest areas without satellite signals to access banking services.
- Lower threat of cyber hacking
- Cheaper: The cost of the LoRa financial network is estimated to be 20 per cent cheaper than alternative network technologies with an additional advantage of almost no maintenance and portability of devices.
Sensing pressure using paper
Context: A team of researchers at the Bengaluru-based Indian Institute of Science (IISc) has now fabricated pressure sensors that use paper as the medium.
Several industrial, automotive and healthcare applications rely on accurate and precise measurement of pressure. Pressure sensors are used for this purpose. They detect the physical pressure and convert it into an electrical signal that is displayed as a number indicative of the magnitude.
Many applications require flexible and wearable pressure sensors. They are typically fabricated using petroleum-based polymers. But, these are non-degradable and solid waste generated from using them is harmful to the environment.
The sensor is made of plain and corrugated cellulose papers coated with the chemical tin-monosulfide (SnS), stacked alternatively to form a multi-layered architecture. Tin-monosulfide is a semiconductor that conducts electricity under specific conditions.
Lumpy Skin Disease:
Source: The Hindu
What is it?
- Lumpy Skin Disease is a viral illness that causes prolonged morbidity in cattle and buffaloes.
- Caused by the poxvirus Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV).
- LSD affects the lymph nodes of the infected animal, causing the nodes to enlarge and appear like lumps on the skin, which is where it derives its name from.
- The disease was first observed in Zambia in 1929, subsequently spreading to most African countries extensively
- It is not a zoonotic virus, meaning the disease cannot spread to humans, and therefore it is safe to consume milk from the affected animal.
- It is a contagious vector-borne disease spread by vectors like mosquitoes, some biting flies, and ticks and usually affects host animals like cows and water buffaloes.
What are the economic implications?
The spread of the disease can lead to “substantial” and “severe” economic losses according to FAO and the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH). The disease leads to reduced milk production as the animal becomes weak and also loses appetite due to mouth ulceration.
- There is no treatment for the virus, so prevention by vaccination is the most effective means of control.
- ‘Goat Pox Vaccine’ is “very effective” against LSD.
- Two institutes of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) have developed an indigenous vaccine for LSD
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