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[Mission 2023] SECURE SYNOPSIS: 16 September 2022

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

 

 


General Studies – 1


 

TopicImportant Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclones etc.,

1. How can cities cope with climate change-induced floods that pose a great challenge to urban communities the world over? (15M)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Down to Earth

Why the question:

Recent years have seen increased cases of urban flooding including the recent Bengaluru flooding.

Key Demand of the question:

To understand the cause of urban floods and ways to mitigate them

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining what is urban flood and the widespread nature of this issue. Give recent examples.

Body:

Mention the causes of urban floods such as lake bed encroachments, deforestation etc. Cite data/examples to support your answer.

Next, mention the need for a city-wise strategic approach and recourse in the building codes and by-laws of cities to ensure proper drainage channels and provision for perforation of rainfall into groundwater to avoid urban floods. Also, measures like -Restoring wetlands, mapping flooded areas, and reducing emissions from cities will help.

Don’t forget to mention a few recommendations of NDMA and other Int’ll bodies to avoid urban flooding.

Conclusion:

Conclude by giving examples of a few regions that have mastered the techniques of managing floods and stressing the need for other cities to follow suit.

 

Introduction

As the incidence of climate variability and extreme weather events increases, urban flooding becomes more and more common. While the untimely heavy rains can be attributed to climate variability, the urban flooding is largely due to an unplanned urbanisation.

Recently, It was near apocalypse beyond the western outskirts of Bengaluru last weekend, as the government’s marquee project—the Bengaluru-Mysuru 10-lane express highway, to be readied in time for Dasara in October—was flooded. So were the districts of Mandya, Ramanagara and regions lying along the highway route.

Body:

Causes for the rise in urban floods

Climate change

  • Higher rainfall: As per the IMD, monsoon has become frequent and unpredictable
  • Storm surges (for coastal cities): E.g. Cyclone Amphan in 2020 flooded the streets of Kolkata. Within eastern India, the storm killed 98 people and caused $13.8 billion(2020 USD).
  • Groundwater levels:In Chennai, the replenished groundwater table across the city after rains becomes a challenge for several buildings with basements.
  • Inadequate Drainage Infrastructure: Cities like Hyderabad, Mumbai rely on a century-old drainage system, covering only a small part of the core city.
    • In the last 20 years, the Indian cities have grown manifold with its original built-up area.
    • As the city grew beyond its original limits, not much was done to address the absence of adequate drainage systems.
  • Terrain Alteration: Lasting irreversible damage has been done to the city by property builders, property owners, and public agencies by flattening terrain and altering natural drainage routes.
  • Reducing Seepage: Indian cities are becoming increasingly impervious to water, not just because of increasing built up but also because of the nature of materials used (hard, non-porous construction material that makes the soil impervious).
  • Lax Implementation:Even with provisions of rainwater harvesting, sustainable urban drainage systems, etc, in regulatory mechanisms like the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), adoption at user end as well as enforcement agencies remains weak.
  • Encroaching Natural Spaces:The number of wetlands has reduced to 123 in 2018 from 644 in 1956.
    • Green cover is only 9 per cent, which ideally should have been at least 33 per cent.

Way forward

  • Need for Holistic Engagement:Urban floods of this scale cannot be contained by the municipal authorities alone. Floods cannot be managed without concerted and focused investments of energy and resources.
    • The Metropolitan Development Authorities, National Disaster Management Authority, State revenue and irrigation departments along with municipal corporations should be involved in such work together.
    • Such investments can only be done in a mission mode organisation with active participation of civil society organisations at the metropolitan scale.
  • Developing Sponge Cities:The idea of a sponge city is to make cities more permeable so as to hold and use the water which falls upon it.
    • Sponge cities absorb the rain water, which is then naturally filtered by the soil and allowed to reach urban aquifers.
    • This allows for the extraction of water from the ground through urban or peri-urban wells.
    • This water can be treated easily and used for city water supply.
  • Wetland Policy:There is a need to start paying attention to the management of wetlands by involving local communities.
    • Without doubt, terrain alteration needs to be strictly regulated and a ban on any further alteration of terrain needs to be introduced.
    • To improve the city’s capacity to absorb water, new porous materials and technologies must be encouraged or mandated across scales.
    • Examples of these technologies are bioswales and retention systems, permeable material for roads and pavement, drainage systems which allow storm water to trickle into the ground, green roofs and harvesting systems in buildings.
  • Drainage Planning:Watershed management and emergency drainage plan should be clearly enunciated in policy and law.
    • Urban watersheds are micro ecological drainage systems, shaped by contours of terrain.
    • Detailed documentation of these must be held by agencies which are not bound by municipal jurisdictions; instead, there is a need to consider natural boundaries such as watersheds instead of governance boundaries like electoral wards for shaping a drainage plan.
  • Water Sensitive Urban Design:These methods take into consideration the topography, types of surfaces (permeable or impervious), natural drainage and leave very less impact on the environment.
    • Vulnerability analyses and risk assessments should form part and parcel of city master plans.
    • In a changing climate, the drainage infrastructure (especially storm water drainage) has to be built considering the new ‘normal’.
    • Tools such as predictive precipitation modelling can help do that and are also able to link it with the adaptive capacity of urban land use.

Conclusion:

These can all be delivered effectively through an urban mission along the lines of the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY) and Smart Cities MissionUrban Flood management will not just help control recurring floods but also respond to other fault lines, provide for water security, more green spaces, and will make the city resilient and sustainable.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

TopicParliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, the conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

2. Analyse the reasons behind the diminishing role of the Parliamentary Standing committee as a deliberative and consensus-building body. What measures would you suggest to address it? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Qn is from the editorial of the Hindu. Recently, Competition (Amendment) Bill, 2022 and the Electricity (Amendment) Bill, 2022 were sent to the Standing Committee of Parliament for detailed examination and a report thereon.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the issues and give solutions to improve the role of these committees.

Directive word: 

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by writing about standing committees, their mandate and their functioning – discuss laws and policies by analysing them in-depth, non-partisanship, track government expenditure, scrutinise policies and bills and seek expert advice, consensus-building among parties etc.

Body:

In the first part of the body, write why the number of bills sent to the standing committees has reduced in recent years. Cite facts/data/examples to support your answer e.g. – reduced sitting, pandemic, less attendance, partisanship etc – cite stats to substantiate your points.

Suggest steps to utilise their full potential (see the steps given in the editorial). Also, cite recommendations of the Law Commission/ARC/ etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Introduction

In the Indian Parliament, a Standing committee is a committee consisting of Members of Parliament. It is a permanent and regular committee which is constituted from time to time according to the provisions of an Act of Parliament or Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business. Both houses of Parliament, Rajya Sabha, and Lok Sabha have similar Committee structures with a few exceptions. Parliamentary committees draw their authority from Article 105 (on privileges of Parliament members) and Article 118 (on Parliament’s authority to make rules for regulating its procedure and conduct of business).

Body:

Significance of Parliamentary Standing Committees:

  • Parliament is the embodiment of the people’s will. Committees are an instrument of Parliament for its own effective functioning.
  • Committees are platforms for threadbare discussion on a proposed law.
  • The smaller cohort of lawmakers, assembled on the basis of the proportional strength of individual parties and interests and expertise of individual lawmakers, could have more open, intensive and better-informed discussions.
  • Committee meetings are ‘closed door’ and members are not bound by party whips, which allows them the latitude for a more meaningful exchange of views as against discussions in full and open Houses where grandstanding and party positions invariably take precedence.
  • Members of Parliament may have great acumen but they would require the assistance of experts in dealing with such situations. It is through committees that such expertise is drawn into law-making.
  • Executive accountability to the legislature is enforced through questions in Parliament also, which are answered by ministers. However, department standing committees go one step further and hear from senior officials of the government in a closed setting, allowing for more detailed discussions.
  • This mechanism also enables parliamentarians to understand the executive processes closely.

Role of committees:

  • Support Parliament’s work.
  • Examine ministerial budgets, consider Demands for Grants, analyse legislation and scrutinise the government’s working.
  • Examine Bills referred to by the Chairman, Rajya Sabha or the Speaker, Lok Sabha.
  • Consideration of Annual Reports.
  • Consideration of national basic long term policy documents presented to the House and referred to the Committee by the Chairman, Rajya Sabha or the Speaker, Lok Sabha.

Challenges faced:

  • Persistent absenteeism from meetings of department-related standing committees should cost MPs their spot on these parliamentary panels was a strong view that emerged during a meeting of chairpersons of the committees with Rajya Sabha chairman M Venkaiah Naidu recently.
  • Eleven of the 22 Bills introduced in the ongoing session of Parliament have been passed, which makes it a highly productive session after many years.
  • But these Bills have been passed without scrutiny by parliamentary standing committees, their purpose being to enable detailed consideration of a piece of legislation.
  • After the formation of the 17th Lok Sabha, parliamentary standing committees have not been constituted as consultations among parties are still under way.
  • Partly as a result of this, the Bills were passed without committee scrutiny. They were discussed in Parliament over durations ranging between two and five hours.

Way forward:

  • Parliamentary committees don’t have dedicated subject-wise research support available. The knowledge gap is partially bridged by expert testimony from government and other stakeholders.
  • Their work could be made more effective if the committees had full-time, sector-specific research staff.
  • The national commission to review the working of the Constitution has recommended that in order to strengthen the committee system, research support should be made available to them.
  • Currently, the rules of Parliament don’t require every bill to be referred to a parliamentary committee for scrutiny. While this allows the government greater flexibility and the ability to speed up legislative business, it comes at the cost of ineffective scrutiny by the highest law-making body.
  • Mandatory scrutiny of all bills by parliamentary committees would ensure better planning of legislative business.

 

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

3. Discuss the significance of the Eastern Economic Forum in India’s effort to balance its foreign policy and ensure energy security for the country. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question: 

The article came in an explainer of the Hindu. Recent geopolitics has seen many countries investing in Russia’s far east and India trying to balance its relations.

Key Demand of the question: 

To have an understanding of the significance of the Easter Economic forum.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin the answer by mentioning the recent geopolitical context, the background of EEF and its aim.

Body:

Give an account of the significance of EEF for India’s strategic and geopolitical interests. Next, list down EEF’s significance for India’s security interests.

Next, give a few challenges in pursuing these interests. (Briefly)

Conclusion:

Conclude by giving suggestions as to how these challenges can be addressed.

Introduction

The Eastern Economic Forum was established by decree of the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin in 2015. It supports the economic development of Russia’s Far East and to expand international cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region.

Russia hosted the seventh Eastern Economic Forum (EEF) Vladivostok from September 5 to 8, 2022. Prime Minister Narendra Modi virtually addressed Russia’s Eastern Economic Forum 2022 held in Vladivostok.

Body

About EEF

  • It serves as a platform for the discussion of key issuesin the world economy, regional integration, and the development of new industrial and technological sectors, as well as of the global challenges facing Russia and other nations.
  • Over the years, it has emerged as an international platformfor discussing the strategy for developing political, economic and cultural ties between Russia and Asia Pacific.
  • The Forum business programme includes a number of business dialogues with leading partner countries in the Asia-Pacificregion, and with ASEAN, a key integration organization of dynamically developing nations in Southeast Asia.
  • The EEF displays the economic potential, suitable business conditions and investment opportunities in the region.
  • Agreements signed at the EEF increased from 217 in 2017 to 380 agreements in 2021, worth 3.6 trillion roubles.
  • As of 2022, almost 2,729 investment projects are being planned in the region.
  • The agreements focus on infrastructure, transportation projects, mineral excavations, construction, industry and agriculture.

 

Significance for India

  • India is interested in expanding the level of trade with Russia.

 

  • An area of special interest for India is the exploration of hydrocarbon reserves along the coast of Russia’s Far East.
  • There are plans to connect the port of Chennai with Vladivostok, the largest city in the Russian Far East.
  • This would provide both India and Russia an alternative sea-route with respect to the Suez Canal.
  • The opening of the Chennai-Vladivostok sea route can be a suitable counter towards Chinese presence in the South China Sea and, by extension, the One Belt One Road initiative.
  • It can also benefit Russia as India’s presence can limit Chinese influence in the region
  • Prime Minister Modi has described the EEF as a “historic opportunity” to give new impetus to the cooperation between India and Russia.

Conclusion

Through the EEF, India aims to establish a strong inter-state interaction with Russia.  India is keen to deepen its cooperation in energy, pharmaceuticals, maritime connectivity, healthcare, tourism, the diamond industry and the Arctic. India has vested interests in both the EEF and the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework and has worked towards balancing its involvement.

 

Topic: India- South East Asia, India – Africa

4. Examine India’s strategic interests in the South East and East Asian region. Discuss the various strategies adopted by India in the context of this region. (250 Words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of the Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about India’s interest in the Southeast region and measures adopted by India.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with India – South east Asia relation and how it has evolved over time into strategic relations.

Body:

Explain first that India’s connections with Southeast Asia are rooted in history in terms of geography, civilization, culture, economy and strategy.

Strategic interest: Providing maritime passage, Connection with North East India, Import etc.

These connections became deeper in the 1990s as India initiated the policy of ‘Look East’ that resulted in manifold growth with ASEAN and South-East Asia.

Throw light upon the recent policies of the government in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction

The end of the Cold War in 1991 brought about a major shift in the economic and strategic policies of most countries in Asia; they were compelled to make suitable policy changes to cope with the changing economic and security situations in the region. 

India’s ‘Act East’ policy is a diplomatic initiative to promote economic, strategic and cultural relations with the vast Asia-Pacific region at different levels. The country’s eastward drive since 1992 has underscored the importance of this region in its contemporary international relations. ‘Act  East’ and its early avatar, ‘Look East’ are not different; rather, they are two sides of the same coin, representing two different, but continuing phases in the evolution of India’s policy towards the Asia-Pacific region.

Body

India’s strategic interests in South East and East Asian regions

  • Myanmar: It is geopolitically significant to India as it sits at the intersection of India’s “Neighbourhood First” policy and “Act East” policy.
    • It is the only ASEAN country adjoining India and, therefore, seen as a gateway to Southeast Asia and a key component of South and South-East Asian regional cooperation.
    • Moreover, Myanmar is an important member of the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC), as well as Mekong Ganga Cooperation to impart significance in the context of our “Act East” policy.
  • ASEAN nations: India needs a close diplomatic relationship with ASEAN nations both for economic and security reasons.
    • Connectivity with the ASEAN nations can allow India to improve its presence in the region.
    • These connectivity projects keep Northeast India at the centre, ensuring the economic growth of the north-eastern states.
    • Improved trade ties with the ASEAN nations would mean a counter to China’s presence in the region and economic growth and development for India.
    • ASEAN occupies a centralised position in the rules-based security architecture in the Indo-Pacific, which is vital for India since most of its trade is dependent on maritime security.
  • South Korea: India South Korea signed Strategic Partnership in January 2010 which was upgraded to the level of ‘special strategic partnership’ in 2015 and defence cooperation lies at the heart of special strategic partnership.
    • South Korea’s New Southern Policy attached primacy to strengthening the country’s economic and strategic relations with India. It is the first time that South Korea has clearly designed a foreign policy initiative for India and officially documented it.
    • Security concerns in Indo-Pacific and changing geopolitics in the region has pushed Seoul to collaborate with India in maintaining peace and stability in the region. There is regular security dialogue between India’s National Security Adviser and the intelligence agencies of Korea.
    • Also, by aligning with India and the ASEAN, South Korea is making a subtle move to endorse the ‘IndoPacific’ geopolitical construct that helps Korea to mitigate its China-related risks.
  • Japan: India and Japan are indispensable natural partners. Both signed Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) in 2011 which helped in boosting bilateral trade.
    • India and Japan signed an “Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement” that would allow the militaries of the two countries to exchange supplies and services on a reciprocal basis during exercises in which both participate, U.N. and humanitarian assistance operations etc.
    • Both have come together, through platforms like QUAD, Asia-Africa Growth Corridor. Looming presence of China has led to the convergence of economic and strategic imperatives, especially in the India-Pacific region.

 

Various strategies adopted by India

  • Look East policy has emerged as an important foreign policy initiative of India in the post-Cold War period. It was launched in 1991 by the Narasimha Rao government primarily with the aim of increasing economic integration with countries of Southeast Asia.
  • Gradually, it evolved to incorporate developing political contacts and forging security cooperation with countries of Southeast Asia.
  • India’s ‘Act East’ policy, launched in 2014, is a diplomatic initiative to promote economic, strategic and cultural relations with the vast Asia-Pacific region at different levels.
    • Act East and Look East are continuing phases in the evolution of India’s policy towards the Asia-Pacific region.
    • The key principles and objectives of ”Act East Policy” are to promote economic cooperation, cultural ties and develop strategic relationship with countries in the Asia-Pacific region through continuous engagement at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels thereby providing enhanced connectivity to the States of North Eastern Region with other countries in our neighbourhood.

Conclusion

With the PM’s adoption of the Act East policy, the strategic factor has assumed greater salience. India has now forged strategic partnerships with Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Japan, South Korea and Australia. In addition, it has also established close links with countries of the BIMSTEC group of countries and the IOR.

 

5. Discuss the importance of India- Africa partnership for addressing the challenges of the changing world. 150 Words

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of the Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

Talk about India’s priority with respect to Africa in its foreign policy and the need for revamping India-Africa policy to deepen its ties for mutual benefits.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with a brief background of India’s foreign policy.

Body:

Briefly discuss the ties between India-Africa from the past to the present.

In the 21st century, Africa has transformed from a lost continent to a continent of hope. Subsequently, in recent years, Africa occupies a central place in the Indian government’s foreign and economic policy.

How in the current world of rising challenges, India and Africa can work towards addressing them.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Introduction

Africa is considered a foreign policy priority by India. The Indian government has designed a forward-looking strategy to deepen India-Africa relations further. Even during the COVID-19 times, India took new initiatives to assist Africa through prompt dispatch of medicines and later vaccines. This shows the strategic importance of Africa for India in the current geopolitical situation.

Body

Importance of India-Africa relations

  • Resource rich region: Africa is very resource-rich and has moved from being an underdeveloped continent to having several fast-growing economies, and new democracies.
  • Economic Growth: The economic growth of the continent that is estimated to be 3.2 per cent in 2018. It also houses six of the world’s fastest growing economies as per world bank estimates. Additionally, several African countries have been providing incentives to attract foreign investors and partners in growth thus providing an opportunity for India.
  • Reform in global institutions: India’s ambition to become a permanent member of the UN Security Council makes it imperative that it engages with all 54 countries of the continent.
  • Investment opportunities for private sector: A number of Indian multinationals already have significant interests and investments in the region, with strategic sectors including agribusiness, pharmaceuticals, information and communications technology (ICT), and energy.
    • Africa has emerged as an important market for Indian goods and services, as well as a vital element in India’s quest for strategic minerals and other natural resources needed to feed its burgeoning economy.
    • India can also unleash massive possibilities in digital penetration in the continent.
  • Convergence of interest: Two partners are aligned on the outstanding issues at the World Trade Organization (WTO) and are in favor of multilateral trading systems.
    • At the Bali Ministerial in 2013 too, Africa and India had united in seeking an interim mechanism for safeguarding minimum support prices to farmers against WTO caps till a permanent solution is found and adopted.
  • Cooperation to tackle terrorism: India strongly advocated stepped-up cooperation through intelligence exchange and training with 54 African countries.
    • There’s a convergence of interest for reforming the Security Council. It is imperative for both sides to speak in “one voice” for Security Council reforms.
  • Peace keeping operation: India is the largest contributor to UN-mandated peacekeeping and other operations in Africa, with more than 30,000 personnel involved in 17 of 22 total missions in the region since 1960.
  • India provides a useful model for African nations of democratic development. India is increasingly responding to requests from African governments to share its democratic experience, offering training on electronic voting systems, parliamentary procedures, federal governance, and an independent judicial system to strengthen the rule of law.

India-Africa relations so far

  • Economic: Trade between India and Africa has increased more than eight-fold from US$7.2 billion in 2001 to US$63 billion in 2017-18. It further has the potential to grow threefold to $150 billion in next five years.
    • India is the fifth largest country investing in the continent, with investments over the past 26 years amounting to $54 billion.
  • People to people contact: There has been a welcome surge in people-to-people contacts as large numbers of African entrepreneurs, medical tourists, trainees and students have started coming to India and Indian experts and entrepreneurs have headed there.
  • Business-to-business: Indian businesses are active across geographic spaces and sectors in Africa like agri-business, engineering, construction, film distribution, cement, plastics, and ceramics manufacturing, etc.
  • Asia-Africa Growth Corridor: It is an economic cooperation agreement between India and Japan that envisages closer engagement between Asia and Africa for “sustainable and innovative development” and will be anchored to four pillars.

Conclusion and way forward

  • Development partnership guided by Africa’s priorities with focus on building local capacity and create local opportunities.
  • Harnessing India’s experience with the digital revolution to support Africa’s development; improve delivery of public services; extend education and health etc.
  • Partnership on improving agriculture, addressing climate change, strengthening cooperation and mutual capabilities in combating terrorism and extremism; keeping cyberspace safe and secure etc.
  • Work together to ensure that Africa does not once again turn into a theatre of rival ambitions, but becomes a nursery for the aspirations of Africa’s youth.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

TopicIndian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

6. “India’s service-led economic growth has circumvented manufacturing-led growth phase”, examining the causative factors, suggest measures to boost the manufacturing sector in India. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The question has come from opinion piece of the Hindu.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the role of the service sector and in what way India’s economic growth surpassed the manufacturing-led growth phase. Suggest solutions.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss in brief the background of the sector-led growth in the recent decades. Give data/facts to support your answer.

Body:

After 1991, the share of industries stagnated at around 30% of GDP. This is mainly because the service sector has grown at a more rapid pace than industries. Give reasons for Service led growth. Why manufacturing sector couldn’t catch up as it did in the case of China or ASIAN countries.

Discuss then, how India’s system promoted service and discouraged industrialization in the later stages.

Suggest a solution to boost the manufacturing sector.

Conclusion:

Conclude by pointing out the issues that may arise due to such a skewed dependence on a single sector and suggest solutions to accommodate both manufacturing and service sectors in the coming future.

 

Introduction

Structural transformation that involves a shift from agriculture straight to services, is a cause of concern to many scholars as an expanding service sector might be a pale substitute to technical progress in manufacturing as the main engine of growth

Body

Causative factors for service-led economic growth

  • Stagnation in manufacturing output and employment contraction: Less jobs were created due to stagnant manufacturing output and contraction of labour-intensive segment of the formal manufacturing sector.
    • This is due to excessive rigidity in the manufacturing labour market and rigid labour regulations has created disincentives for employers to create jobs.
    • According to world bank study Industrial Disputes Act has lowered employment in organised manufacturing by about 25%.
  • Service sector driven growth: The biggest employer in India is the agriculture sector, employing 45% of the population but it contributes only 15% to the GDP, whereas Service sector is the biggest contributor to the GDP but employs less than 30%.
    • IT and Financial services are drivers of service sector growth in last 2 decades however both of these sectors are not employment intensive.
    • This is contributing to jobless growth in India.
  • Import-oriented economy: Excessive imports have been damaging Indian manufacturing industry.
    • India has failed to witness a strong growth in the labour-intensive segment of the manufacturing sector, as it did not move from the import to an export-oriented development strategy.
    • If India had followed Labour intensive goods export-led model like Southeast Asian countries, it would have created many jobs in the MSME sector.
  • Low demand: Low demand has led to slow economic growth and led to loss of jobs of many due to loss to companies. This is mainly due to less lower purchasing power and concentration of wealth in hands of few.
  • Infrastructure Bottlenecks: Infrastructural bottlenecks (especially in access to electricity), lack of backward and forward linkages between agriculture, industry and service sector has failed to create jobs and also hindered growth of labour intensive sectors.
  • MSME problems: The labour intensity of MSME is four times higher than that of large firms. But they face many problems. They have poor access to credit and are plagued by many serious problems which has limited there growth potential.
  • Skill Mismatch: Indian labour is not skilled as per industrial demands. Lesser skill levels of workers limit them the job opportunities. Also various programs by government like Skill India and stand up India are launched recently only. Industry focussed skills are needed to be inculcated.

Measures needed to boost manufacturing

  • Labour reforms: Labour Laws should be reformed as due to the stringent Labour Laws Corporates in India are preferring Capital intensive mode of Production in a country where labour is abundant.
  • Promoting labour Intensive sectors:Labour intensive sectors like food processing industry, leather industry, apparel, electronics, gems and jewellery, financial services, and tourism etc. should be encouraged. Appropriate subsidies and tax incentives should be given to incentivise them. Make in India initiative a great step forward which will boost the manufacturing.
  • Strengthening MSME: MSME sector should be promoted and supported. Easing regulations, subsidies will help. Also easy available of credit should be the priority. MUDRA has a potential to create required jobs in India.
  • Implementing Niti Ayog action agenda: The Action Agenda has provided several good ideas for job creation, including labour law reforms at the state level. The report emphasizes the role of exports in job creation and recommends establishing coastal employment zones (CEZs), similar to China’s special economic zones (SEZs). This agenda must be implemented in letter and spirit.
  • Entrepreneurship: The focus of economic policy must be on creating an enabling policy for youth to take up entrepreneurship and create more jobs in the market. India does not need five companies worth 5000 crores turnover but needs 5000 companies of 5 crore turnover.

 

Conclusion

With higher growth rates not having translated into more jobs, the government should formulate a National Employment Policy that takes these trends into account. Expansion of public employment and a national skilling programme could boost employment.

 


General Studies – 4


 

7. You are a young police officer who has taken charge after probationary training. The area under your jurisdiction in the city is a mix of residential occupants and commercial establishments. There has been an increasing number of restaurants and pubs opening up in your area. Even though the city permits restaurants to run 24*7, recently local residents in the area have barged into pubs and have tried to forcefully stop the functioning of these establishments after 1 am. Many girls who visit the pub have complained of moral policing by the locals blaming the girls for dressing “inappropriately”. The girls are often harassed for roaming at night with boys. The locals in return complain of increasing disturbances due to these establishments operating the whole night. They also point out increasing instances of vandalism by drunken boys and girls in and around the area. The hoteliers want police protection at night for running their business, but the locals have tried to pressurize you to close these establishments after 1 am. The locals have contacted the police commissioner and he is highly critical of these pubs and youth consuming alcohol and girls wearing western clothes. He has asked you to close these restaurants and pubs after 1 am. Even though your personal views differ from that of the commissioner, you fear going against a senior officer’s request as it’s your initial posting. At the same time, you feel that the young girls need protection, and forcing the establishments to close by 1 am is against the law and could have judicial consequences.

      1. Discuss the ethical issues in this scenario, highlighting the issue of moral policing.
      2. What are the options available to you in this scenario? Discuss its merits and demerits.
      3. What would be your course of action? How would you lighten the friction between the youth and the locals? 20Marks

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving the context. Bring out the key stakeholders in the above case study and the major ethical issues present.

Body:

In the body, write about the issue of moral policing involved in this case study.

Next, give valid options that are available to you. Evaluate its pros and cons in detail.

Next, write about the course of action you will take and justify that ethically.

Then, give a logical solution on how to lighten the friction between the youth and the locals.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing the importance of rationality in decision making.

 

Introduction

The case involves balancing between the menace faced by local residents which is true to an extent and at the same time allowing businesses to run smoothly without causing law and order issues. This case will involve bringing all disputing parties to a table and chalk out solutions that are mutually beneficial.

Body

The residents maintain that the burgeoning pubs and bars have been a source of constant nuisance — parking, pollution, garbage and anti-social activities. Same time businesses must be allowed to run in a lawful manner.

  • Issues of moral policing

There are many times when moral policing hinders the basic fundamental rights of the citizen enshrined in the constitution such as the right to freedom of speech & expression, right to privacy, right to live with dignity etc. For example, due to moral policing, the LGBT community faces extreme consequences and their basic right to life and liberty has been threatened. Another example in the context of this case is Bajrang Dal members beating up youth in Mangalore pubs during valentine’s day. It is a gross violation of rights of people.

Various extra constitutional actors like Anti Romeo Squads imposes their subjective belief through use of physical violence. People with a patriarchal mindset views the security of women as their duty, for they are perceived as weaker sex and gullible. Due to this, they would impose restrictions on women in terms of speech, attitude, clothing, public behaviour etc.

  • Options available

Option 1: Close down the pubs by 1 am as directed by the Commissioner

Merits:  It will mean that i will be following the orders of the Commissioner and the residents will also be happy.

Demerits: Businesses may go into loss and pub goers will be harassed unnecessarily if found late at night.

 

Option 2: To allow businesses and pubs run as usual and ensure strict law and order

Merits: It will protect the youth from moral policing of people and police patrol will be around to prevent any altercations.

Demerits: Local residents may be angered and may take things into their own hands.

 

Course of action

First course of action is to bring the local residents and pub owners in the same room to identify the issues and problem areas and find mutually agreeable solutions. Loud music over certain threshold decibel will be banned, so as to not create public nuisance. Patrol vehicles will be in place to avoid any law-and-order situation. CCTV cameras will be installed in most of the places to have the areas under surveillance even remotely.

A dedicated help-line for the area will be created to tackle issues on spot without any delay.  Monthly meeting between residents and pub owners can help smoothly co-exist without creating a public mayhem.

Conclusion

Bans closures and threats are not solutions to any problems. Cooperation between all stakeholders is essential to come to a permanent solution. No vigilante group must be able to enforce a code of morality on people that is not the law of the land.

 


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