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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

1. India Discrimination Report 2022: Oxfam India


GS Paper2:

1. The Eastern Economic Forum and India’s balancing act


GS Paper 4:

1. Assisted Suicide


Content for Mains Enrichment (Essay/Ethics)

1. Earth is now our only shareholder


Facts for Prelims:

1. Qutb Shahi tombs

2. Delay in PMAY-G to invite penalty

3. Draft Bill with 1932 as the cut-off year for domicile

4. Localization of SDGs

5. Indo-Pacific Trilateral Development Cooperation Fund

6. Growth forecast for India

7. Energy Transition and Automobile sector

8. National Programme on Advanced Chemistry Cell (ACC) Energy storage

9. IEA: World Energy Employment Report

10. Conciliation with all armed groups in northeast


12. Mapping


Best Wishes to those giving Mains this time.

Note: You can download the compilation of Content for Mains Enrichment (CME) from June till September 10th here. This is a short 20 pages compilation and can be highly used for those giving Mains this time.


India Discrimination Report 2022: Oxfam India

GS Paper 1

Syllabus: Indian Society: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues.


Source: BBC

Direction: You can easily relate the reports released by OXFAM, but no need to remember who prepared which report etc. (UPSC generally focuses on conceptual Information more)

Context: Oxfam discrimination report: Why women and marginalised communities earn less in India


Key Highlights

      • Indian women face discrimination in the job market and earn less than men even when they have the same qualifications and experience.
        • Gender Discrimination accounts for over 90% of employment and earning gap between males and females
      • Marginalized communities SC/ST, tribespeople and members of the Muslim community also face discrimination.
        • Self-employed SC/STs earn Rs5000 less than non-SC/STs.
        • Non-Muslims earned 7,000 rupees more than Muslims


FLFP: According to Indian government data, in 2020-21 women made up only 25.1% of the labour force (from 42.7% in 2004-05)

Reasons for discrimination:

      • “Societal and employers’ prejudices” is responsible for women’s lower wages.
        • A large segment of well-qualified women not “wanting” to join the labour market because of household responsibilities or social status.
      • Poor access to education or work experience



      • Incentivise participation of women in the workforce, upskill, safety, flexible workspace (including work from home)
      • More equitable distribution of household and care work
      • Implement “Living wages” as opposed to minimum wages
        • A minimum wage is the lowest amount a worker can be paid hourly as determined by law. A living wage is an amount an individual or family would need to make to avoid living in poverty. This amount is usually higher than the minimum wage and is not mandated by law.



Discrimination in the labour market is when people with identical capabilities are treated differently because of their identity or social background.


About Oxfam International

Oxfam is a global movement of people who are fighting inequality to end poverty and injustice.  It was formed in 1995 by a group of non-governmental organisations to share knowledge and resources and combine their efforts in the fight against poverty, injustice and inequality.


Insta Links

Social Justice


Mains Links

The article can be linked to GS1: Indian society as well as GS2 (social justice) and GS3 (FLFP)

 Q. Gender wage disparity in India is among the worst in the world. discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to this problem. (250 words)

The Eastern Economic Forum and India’s balancing act

GS paper 2

Syllabus: Bilateral, regional and global groupings involving India and affecting India’s interests etc


Directions: Important for Prelims and mains, you can use it as an example in mains for India’s balancing nature by being part of multiple forums

Source: The Hindu

Context: Russia hosted the seventh Eastern Economic Forum (EEF) Vladivostok.

      • The forum is a platform for entrepreneurs to expand their businesses into Russia’s Far East (RFE).

What is the Eastern Economic Forum?

      • It was established in 2015 to encourage foreign investments in the RFE.
      • The EEF displays:
        • Economic potential
        • Suitable business conditions
        • Investment opportunities in the region.
      • The agreements focus on:
        • Infrastructure
        • Transportation projects
        • Mineral excavations
        • Construction
        • Industry
        • Agriculture

Who are the major investors in the Forum?


      • China is the biggest investor in the region as it sees potential in promoting the Belt and Road Initiative and the Polar Sea Route in the RFE.
      • China’s investments in the region account for 90% of the total investments.
      • China is also looking to develop its Heilongjiang province which connects with the RFE.

South Korea:

It has invested in:

      • Shipbuilding projects
      • Manufacturing of electrical equipment
      • Gas-liquefying plants
      • Agricultural production and fisheries.


      • It has identified eight areas of economic cooperation and pushed private businesses to invest in the development of the RFE.


      • India is keen in:
        • cooperation in energy
        • pharmaceuticals
        • maritime connectivity
        • healthcare
        • tourism
        • diamond industry
        • Arctic
      • In 2019, India also offered a $1 billion line of credit to develop infrastructure in the region.

Aim of EEF:

      • FDI: To increase the Foreign Direct Investments in the RFE.
      • Rich resources: To harness rich natural resources such as fish, oil, natural gas, wood, diamonds and other minerals.
      • Connect: The Russian government’s aim of connecting Russia to the Asian trading route.

A balance between the EEF and the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework(IPEF):

      • Investment in EEF: India has not shied away from investing in the Russia-initiated EEF despite the current international conditions.
      • Acceptance to IPEF: India has given its confirmation and acceptance to three of the four pillars in the IPEF.

Importance of IPEF for India:

      • Ideal opportunity for India to act in the region: without being part of the China-led Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership or Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership.
      • Disengage from Supply Chains: It will help in disengaging from supply chains that are dependent on China and will also make it a part of the global supply chain network.
      • New sources of raw materials and other essential products: It will further reduce India’s reliance on China for raw materials.

Indo-Pacific Economic Framework (IPEF):

 It was announced in 2021 to set regional standards for cooperation and to encourage regional economies to “decouple” from the Chinese market by leading them to alternative supply chains.


Insta Links:



Mains Links:

Q.What is the significance of Indo-US deals over Indo-Russian defence deals? Discuss with reference to stability in the Indo-Pacific region. (UPSC 2020)


Prelims Links:

      • EEF
      • IPEF
      • BRI
      • Arctic Ocean

Which of the following is/are pillars of IPEF?

      1. Supply-chain resilience
      2. Clean energy, decarbonisation & infrastructure
      3. Taxation & anti-corruption
      4. Fair & resilient trade.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

a. 1, 2 and 3 only

b. 2 and 4 only

c. 1 and 3 only

d. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans: (d)


All of them are pillars of IPEF

Assisted Suicide

GS Paper 4

Syllabus: Application of Ethics


Source: Indian Express 

Context: Jean-Luc Godard, one of the legends of French New Wave cinema, died by assisted suicide at the age of 91.

Godard had recourse to legal assistance in Switzerland for a voluntary departure as he was stricken with multiple invalidating illnesses, according to the medical report”.

Assisted suicide is allowed by Swiss law under certain conditions. Physicians and organisations are allowed to provide assistance to suicide within the framework of the law and under the medical codes of ethics, as per Le Monde, as long as there are no ‘selfish motives’. 

Why are assisted suicide and euthanasia controversial topics?

They have long been contentious topics of debate as they involve a complex set of moral, ethical and in some cases, religious questions.  

Countries that allow assisted suicide: Several European nations, some states in Australia and Colombia in South America allow assisted suicide and euthanasia under certain circumstances. 

Fig: Jean-Luc Godard


The term “euthanasia” is derived from Greek, literally meaning “good death”. Taken in its common usage, however, euthanasia refers to the termination of a person’s life, to end their suffering, usually from an incurable or terminal condition. It is for this reason that euthanasia was also coined the name “mercy killing”.

Types of Euthanasia:



We had already covered Euthanasia in detail before. Please check this Insta Link given below.


Insta Links:

Ethics of Euthanasia

/ ETHICS, Euthanasia, Sep 16 CA, Today's Article


Content for  Mains Enrichment  (Essay/Ethics)

Earth is now our only shareholder

Source: Indian Express

Yvon Chouinard, the billionaire owner of American outdoor apparel firm Patagonia, has decided to give away ownership of the company, valued at nearly $3 billion, to fight climate change.

Patagonia has been associated with climate issues for years; it has been giving away 1 per cent of its annual sales (worth $100 billion) to environmental activists for years.

Now, Chouinard, his wife and two adult children have transferred the company’s entire non-voting stock to a non-profit organisation. All profits earned henceforth by Patagonia, which is famous for its hiking gear and outdoor clothes, will go to Holdfast Collective, an American charity working towards saving the environment.

According to Chouinard, “Hopefully, this will influence a new form of capitalism that doesn’t end up with a few rich people and a bunch of poor people.


Facts for Prelims

Qutb Shahi tombs 

Context: Six walls of Qutb Shahi Tombs Complex in Hyderabad have been restored recently and it will help make a strong case for Unesco World Heritage City. 

The Qutub Shahi Tombs are located in the Ibrahim Bagh (garden precinct), close to the famous Golconda Fort in Hyderabad, India. They contain the tombs and mosques built by the various kings of the Qutub Shahi dynasty.

Quṭb Shāhī dynasty, (1518–1687), rulers of the kingdom of Golconda in the southeastern Deccan of India, one of the five successor states of the Bahmanī kingdom. The founder was Qulī Quṭb Shah.


Delay in PMAY-G to invite penalty

 Source: The Hindu


      • The Union Ministry of Rural Development has come up with a set of penalties that the State governments will have to bear for any further delay.
      • West Bengal, Chhattisgarh and Odisha and Assam are the leading four laggard States who are far behind their targets.


      • Sanction of the house is delayed for more than one month from the date of issue of the target: the State government will be penalized ₹10 per house for the first month of delay and ₹20 per house for each subsequent month of delay.
      • The first instalment to the beneficiary is delayed for more than seven days from the date of sanction: State governments will have to pay ₹10 per house per week of delay.
      • No penalty: If the central funds are not available with the State.


      • Under the Ministry of Rural Development.
      • Aim: Provide a pucca house, with basic amenities, to all houseless householders and those households living in kutcha and dilapidated houses, by 2024.
      • Target: Construction of 2.95 crore houses with all basic amenities by the year 2024.
      • Cost sharing: Shared between Central and State Governments in the ratio of 60:40 in plain areas and 90: 10 for North Eastern and the Himalayan State
      • Objectives:
        • Training of Rural Masons
        • Improving workmanship and quality of construction of houses
        • The increasing availability of skilled masons
        • Enhancing the employability of such masons.
      • Selection of beneficiaries: Based on housing deprivation parameters of Socio-Economic and Caste Census (SECC), 2011, subject to 13-point exclusion criteria, followed by Gram Sabha verification.



Draft Bill with 1932 as the cut-off year for domicile

 Source: Indian Express


      • Jharkhand Cabinet approved the draft ‘Local Resident of Jharkhand Bill’ of 2022, keeping 1932 as the cut-off year for “proof of land records” for defining a local.

Key Highlights:

      • Increases reservation: The second draft legislative approved by the Cabinet seeks to increase reservation from the current 50% to 67% in Jharkhand.
        • As per the Bill, reservations for STs will be increased to 28%, for OBCs to 27%, and SCs to 12%.
      • Ninth Schedule: The state legislature after approval will send them to the Center (apart from the Governor), seeking an amendment placing the two laws in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution to avoid judicial scrutiny.

 Ninth Schedule:

      • First Amendment Act, 1951: The Schedule contains a list of central and state laws which cannot be challenged in courts and was added by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951.
      • It was created by Article 31B, which along with Article 31A was brought in by the government to protect laws related to agrarian reform and for abolishing the Zamindari system.
      • Judicial review: SC in 2007 ruled that laws included in this schedule after April 24, 1973, are now open to Judicial Review.


Localization of SDGs

Source: PIB

Direction: Go through once.

Context: Institute of Rural Management (Anand, Gujarat) will collaborate in making Gram Panchayat Development Plan (GPDP) to localize and customize SDG goals for villages in India.

 Why is localizing SDGs important?

Localizing the SDGs can provide a framework for local development policy, esp. as the 14th Finance commission devolved more funds for Local bodies and over 65% of India’s population still lives in rural areas.

 GPDP: Panchayats have been mandated the preparation of the Panchayat Development Plan (PDP) for economic development and social justice by utilizing the resources available to them.

 How can we develop Gram Panchayat?

The Gram Panchayat Development Plan (GPDP) should be comprehensive and based on a participatory process involving the community, particularly Gram Sabha, and will be in convergence with schemes of all related Central Ministries / Line Departments related to 29 subjects listed in the Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution.

The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) (a UN body) is the most inclusive intergovernmental platform in the Asia-Pacific region, promoting the localization of SDGs.


Indo-Pacific Trilateral Development Cooperation Fund

Source: Business Line

Direction: Do keep a note of important areas of cooperation between major powers and India.

Context: India and France have agreed to work on the establishment of this fund to support India-based innovators and start-ups in taking their innovation to third countries (esp. in the Indo-Pacific region) and cooperate on other programmes such as Int’ll Solar Alliance and its STAR-C Project (Solar Technology Application Resource Centre)

      • Also, India and France have decided to resume cooperation under the India-France-Australia trilateral mechanism and India-France-UAE Trilateral Framework.

 Other Areas of cooperation:

      • Defence: Exercise Shakti (Army), Exercise Varuna (Navy), and Exercise Garuda (Air Force). French Rafale multi-role combat aircraft, Scorpene submarines in India.
      • Economic relations:The India-France Administrative Economic and Trade Committee (AETC)
      • Space: “Joint Vision for Space Cooperation”, India and France have signed an agreement for the cooperation on Gaganyaan Mission.
      • Civil nuclear cooperation was signed between India and France in 2008; the 9,900 MW Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project (JNPP)


Growth forecast for India

Source: Financial Express

Context: Global rating agency Fitch cut India’s gross domestic product (GDP) growth forecast for 2022-23 to 7% from the earlier 7.8% due to the impact of the global economic slowdown, elevated inflation and tighter monetary policy.


It expects the Indian economic growth to slow down given the European gas crisis, high inflation and a sharp acceleration in the pace of global monetary policy tightening are taking a heavy toll on economic prospects.

What is a Rating Agency?

Rating agencies assess the creditworthiness or potential of equity, debt or country.

Their reports are read by investors to make an informed decision on whether or not to invest in a particular country or companies in that geography.

Lowered rating of a country can potentially cause panic selling or offloading of investment by a foreign investor.

The three prominent rating agencies are, Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s and Fitch.


Energy Transition and Automobile sector

Source: The Hindu, The Hindu

Direction: We have combined a news article and an editorial from today’s Hindu. Go through it once.

Context: PM: Amrit Kaal’ is an opportunity to achieve self-sufficiency in every sector and the automobile sector is no exception.

 Targets by Auto sector:

      • The automobile industry has set a target of becoming near 100% self-reliant in the entire manufacturing value chain by 2047
      • Auto sector aims to become one of the two largest producers in every segment of automobiles in the world.
      • Ambition to have 50,000 e-buses on the country’s roads by 2030

Case Study:

‘Grand Challenge 1’ for electric buses (unified tender for union and state procurement of electric buses)


      • Lower cost: On a cost-per-kilometre basis, the prices discovered through this unified tendering were 40% lower than diesel and 34% less than CNG.
      • Success of Cooperative Federalism: a tender for 5,450 buses (across five major Indian cities — Kolkata, Delhi, Bengaluru, Hyderabad and Surat)
      • Convergence Energy Services Limited (CESL) acted as a nodal agency for the programme.
      • It enabled collaboration, pace and transparency.


A note on FAME:

Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India (FAME-India) Scheme was launched under the National Mission on Electric Mobility in 2011/National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 and unveiled in 2013. The scheme encourages the progressive induction of reliable, affordable and efficient electric and hybrid vehicles.


National Programme on Advanced Chemistry Cell (ACC) Energy storage

Source: Niti Aayog

Context: NITI Aayog has released a report on the ‘National Programme on Advanced Chemistry Cell (ACC) Energy storage’.


Key highlights

The reports emphasise the role of Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) schemes in this programme to meet India’s battery demand by 2030.

About the Scheme (also see infographic below)

      • Under the PLI scheme, the Manufacturer will source at least 25% of value addition from domestic sources (within 2 years) and at least 60% (within 5 years)
      • Background: Government had approved PLI Scheme for the ‘National Programme on ACC Energy storage’ with the aim to achieve a manufacturing target of 50 GWh of ACC.



      • Advanced chemistry cells are the new generation technologies that can store electric energy either as electrochemical or as chemical energy and convert it back to electric energy as and when required.
      • Shoonya Campaign: Consumer awareness campaign to reduce air pollution and use of EVs.
      • EV 30@30 goals: Aim to reach a 30% sales share for EVs by 2030.


IEA: World Energy Employment Report

Source: D2E

Direction: These reports are important to see the trends in various sectors and sometimes UPSC (in Mains) asks for such a trend.

Context: International Energy Agency (IEA) report highlights that over 65mn people in 2019 were employed in the energy sector, with over 50% of them in clean energy sectors.


UN Global Congress of Victims of Terrorism 2022

Source: UN

Direction: Just go through once.

Context: 1st UN Global Congress of Victims of Terrorism was held in UN HQ (New York) so that victims can share their experiences, challenges, stories of resilience and contribution in a socially connected setting.

India initiated the ‘Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism’ (CCIT) is yet to be adopted by the UN body.


Conciliation with all armed groups in northeast

Source: The Hindu


      • Central government signed a historic tripartite memorandum of settlement between the Government of India, the Assam government and eight armed Adivasi groups of Assam.

Key Highlights:

      • Union Home Minister said that it was the government’s aim:
        • To resolve inter-boundary disputes in the northeast
        • Strike a conciliation with all armed insurgent groups in the region before 2024.


Security Situation:

      • Assam: About 60% of Assam is now free from the AFSPA.
      • Manipur: 15 police stations in six districts were taken out of the periphery of the disturbed area.
      • Arunachal Pradesh: AFSPA remains in only three districts and two police stations in one district.
      • Nagaland: The disturbed area notification was removed from 15 police stations in seven districts
      • Tripura and Meghalaya: AFSPA was withdrawn completely.


Key points of Tripartite Agreement:

      • Abandon violence: Eight tribal groups had consented to abandon armed group violence.
      • Fulfilling Aspirations Fulfilling political, economic, and educational aspirations and protecting, preserving, and promoting social, cultural, linguistic, and ethnic identities.
      • Adivasi Welfare and Development Council: would be established by the Government of Assam
      • Rehabilitation of cadres of armed groups: measures would be taken for the rehabilitation of cadres of armed groups and for the welfare of tea garden workers.
      • Special development package of ₹1,000 crores: It would be provided over a period of five years for infrastructure development in Adivasi-populated villages and areas.




Source: PIB 

Context: Reinforcing the Indian Navy’s commitment to maritime security, INS Tarkash is currently mission deployed in the Gulf of Guinea (GoG) for anti-piracy operations.

      • As part of the deployment, the ship undertook Joint Maritime Exercise with Nigerian Navy Patrol Ships NNS Kano, Osun, Sokoto and Nguru
      • The exercise marks the first joint operational deployment by India and Nigeria, in support of Anti-piracy operations, in the GoG.


About INS Tarkash

INS Tarkash is the second Talwar-class frigate constructed for the Indian Navy. She was built at the Yantar shipyard in Kaliningrad, Russia.




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