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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

1. Swami Vivekananda’s Chicago speech in 1893

2. Why cloudburst forecast in India still remains elusive


GS Paper2:

1. We need civil society engagement in Kashmir

2. The tedious process of adoption


GS Paper 3:

1. How to read the latest Human Development Report


Content for Mains Enrichment (Essay/Ethics)

1. Bengaluru doctor runs 3 km to beat the traffic to perform crucial surgery


Facts for Prelims:

1. The Indira Gandhi Urban Employment Guarantee Scheme

2. Kushiyara river treaty between India and Bangladesh

3. Global Pandemic Treaty

4. Trees Outside Forests (TOF) in India Initiative

5. UWaIS

6. IRENA releases Bioenergy for the energy transition

7. IPEF Ministerial

8. First time, avian flu is seen in cetaceans

9. Third stealth frigate of project 17A ‘Taragiri’ launched

10. Exercise Parvat Prahar

11. Mapping


Note: You can download the compilation of Content for Mains Enrichment (CME) from June till September 10th here. This is a short 20 pages compilation and can be highly used for those giving Mains this time.


Swami Vivekananda’s Chicago speech in 1893

GS Paper 1

Syllabus: Modern India: Reform movements


Source: ThePrint

Context: Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday remembered Swami Vivekananda’s speech at Chicago in the US on this day in 1893.


On September 11 in 1893, more than a century ago, Swami Vivekananda delivered a speech at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago and introduced the world to the human values of India.


Contributions of Swami Vivekananda:

  • Swami Vivekananda is believed to have introduced the concepts and ideals of the Vedanta to the Western world. He became popular in the West after his famous speech at the World’s Parliament of Religions.
  • He was also the chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna and the founder of the Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission.
  • Swami Vivekananda was considered a major force in the revival of Hinduism in India and brought it to the status of major world religion in the late 19th century.
  • Swami Vivekananda’s birthday on January 12 is also observed as National Youth Day in the country.
  • Vivekananda is also considered a key figure in the introduction of Vedanta and Yoga to the West and is credited with raising the profile of Hinduism to that of a world religion.
  • Books written by him: ‘Raja Yoga’, ‘Jnana Yoga’, and ‘Karma Yoga’ are some of the books he wrote.



Swami Vivekananda

Prelims Link:

  1. About 1893 Parliament of World’s Religions.
  2. International modern Parliaments held so far.
  3. Contributions of Swami Vivekananda to Hinduism.
  4. About Ramakrishna Mission.

Mains Link:

Analyse the role of Swami Vivekananda in the Indian Freedom Struggle. 10M

Why cloudburst forecast in India still remains elusive

GS Paper 1

Syllabus: Geography


Source: The Hindu

Cloudbursts are defined by the amount of rainfall. According to the India Meteorological Department (IMD), 100 mm of rain in an hour is called a cloudburst. Usually, cloudbursts occur over a small geographical region of 20 to 30 sq. km.

In India, cloudbursts often occur during the monsoon season, when the southwesterly monsoon winds bring in copious amounts of moisture inland. The moist air that converges over land gets lifted as they encounter the hills.

Cloudbursts, hence, occur mostly over the rugged terrains of the Himalayas, the Western Ghats, and the northeastern hill States of India. The heavy spells of rain on the fragile steep slopes trigger landslides, debris flows, and flash floods, causing large-scale destruction and loss of people and property.





Prelims Link:

  1. Reasons for Cloudburst.
  2. Consequences
  3. Mitigation measures

We need civil society engagement in Kashmir

GS paper 2 & 3

Syllabus: Government policies and interventions for the development of various sectors and issues arising out of them etc


Directions: Important for mains, can be used as a measure in the developmental process of Jammu and Kashmir

Source: The Hindu


  • The targeting of Kashmiri Pandits and other Hindus in the Valley by militants has once again brought forward the question of their right of return as well as the safety of minorities living in the Valley.

Prime Minister’s return and rehabilitation of Kashmir migrants scheme:

  • It created government postings in the Valley for Kashmiri Pandit “migrant” youth, mostly teachers.


  • High-security enclaves: These government employees have lived in protected high-security enclaves.
  • New incidents of violence: They feel vulnerable now due to the new incidents of violence against members of the community.

What steps need to be taken?

  • Conditions on the ground: The government can enable it, but individuals and civil society can create conditions on the ground.
  • Restore trust and acknowledge mistakes: Individuals or communities will have to search their hearts for where they have wronged the other, and build the courage to acknowledge mistakes and restore trust.

Importance of Shared Witness’, a Pandit-Muslim dialogue series:

  • Participants from both communities: Public intellectuals and other influential persons from both communities were participants.
  • Prime Minister’s job Scheme: The dialogue coincided with the launching of the Prime Minister’s job scheme.
  • Social environment: These dialogues created a social environment that enabled Kashmiri Pandits to take up government postings in the Valley.
  • Displacement of Kashmiri Pandits: They focused on the events in and around 1990, and the incidents that triggered the displacement of the Pandit community.


  • Urgent civil society engagement: Between communities in Kashmir
    • This alone can create confidence, restore trust and strengthen inter-community bonds.
  • Return in peace with dignity: Engagement could also enable Pandits to fulfil the long-cherished dream of returning in peace and with dignity.


Insta Links:

Re-settling Kashmiri Pandits: ​Enclaves or assimilate


Mains Links:

Q. The banning of ‘Jammat-e-Islami’ in Jammu and Kashmir brought into focus the role of over-ground workers (OGWs) in assisting terrorist organizations. Examine the role played by OGWs in assisting terrorist organizations in insurgency-affected areas. Discuss measures to neutralize the influence of OGWs.(UPSC 2020)

The tedious process of adoption

GS paper 2

Syllabus: Government policies and interventions for the development of various sectors and issues arising out of them etc


Source: The Hindu


  • District Magistrates (DM) have been empowered to give adoption orders instead of courts.
    • All cases pending before courts have to be transferred.


Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Amendment Bill, 2021:

  • Section 61 of the JJ Act: Authorizing District Magistrates and Additional District Magistrates to issue adoption orders by striking out the word “court”.
  • Empowerment of DM: The District Magistrates can:
    • Inspect child care institutions
    • Evaluate the functioning of district child protection units, child welfare committees, juvenile justice boards etc.


Concerns over the revised rules:

  • Start cases afresh: Cases already before courts for the past several months will have to be transferred and the process will have to start afresh.
  • Issues with parents registering for adoption: A delay in such an order can often mean that a child can’t get admission into a school because parents don’t yet have a birth certificate.
  • Awareness about the cases: Parents and lawyers claim that neither judges, nor DMs are aware about the change in the JJ Act leading to confusion in the system and delays.


What is the adoption procedure in India? Adoptions in India are governed by two laws:

  • Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 (HAMA): A “dattaka hom” ceremony or an adoption deed or a court order is sufficient to obtain irrevocable adoption rights.
  • Juvenile Justice Act, 2015: Parents have to register on CARA’s portal after which a specialized adoption agency carries out a home study report.


What are the challenges?

  • Adoption pool: According to the latest figures there are only 2,188 children in the adoption pool, while more than 31,000 parents waiting to adopt a child
  • Trafficking: Less availability allows traffickers to take advantage of loopholes in HAMA.


What is the Hague Convention?

  • The Hague Convention protects children and their families against the risks of illegal, irregular, premature or ill-prepared adoptions abroad.



  • Need for child-centric laws: Optional, enabling and gender-just” special adoption law like in other countries.
  • Check malpractices: There is a need to check malpractices and improve monitoring


Insta Links:

Child Adoption Regulatory Authority (CARA)

JJ Amendment Act


Mains Links:

Q. Examine the main provisions of the National Child Policy and throw light on the status of its implementation. (UPSC 2016)


Prelims Links:

What is the Hague convention?

Eligibility criteria for prospective adoptive parents in India.

Overview of JJ Act.

About CARA.

With reference to Hague Convention, consider the following statements:

    1. The convention applies only to children below the age of 14 years.
    2. India has not signed the Hague Abduction Convention.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (b)


  • The Hague Abduction Convention specifically deals with the issue of the international abduction of children by parents.
  • The convention was signed in 1980 and entered into force in 1983.
  • India has not signed the Hague Abduction Convention.
  • The convention applies only to children below the age of sixteen.

How to read the latest Human Development Report

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Economy: Human Development


Source: Indian Express 

Direction: This is in continuation to the article on HDI and came in the ‘Explained’ section of Indian Express. Go through the six indices and understand what each represents. 

Context: The Human Development Report for 2022 details six different human development indices that were released recently by UNDP.



  • India ranks 132 out of 191 countries in the Human Development Index (HDI) 2021, after registering a decline in its score over two consecutive years for the first time in three decades.
    • China 79th positions
  • For the first time in its history — the HDR has been compiled since 1990 — the global HDI value has declined two years in a row, erasing the gains of the preceding five years


HDR compiles:

  • HDI

  • Inequality-adjusted HDI (The IHDI “looks beyond the average achievements of a country in longevity, education and income to show how these achievements are distributed among its residents)
      • India’s HDI fell by 25% when adjusted for inequality. That’s because the share of income held by the richest 1% of the population is more than the income held by the poorest 40%.

  • Gender Development Index: The GDI essentially estimates HDI values for women and men and then looks at the ratio.
      • India is significantly behind the world average as well
  • Gender Inequality Index: The GII looks at the issue of gender inequality by preparing a composite measure using three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market.
      • India is behind major countries and is unequal for its female citizens.
  • Multidimensional Poverty Index: The Multidimensional Poverty Index captures the multiple deprivations that people in developing countries face in their health, education and standard of living.
        • India lags here too.
  • Planetary pressures-adjusted Human Development Index: Planetary pressures-adjusted Human Development Index, adjusts the HDI for planetary pressures in the Anthropocene to reflect a concern for intergenerational inequality — similar to the Inequality-adjusted HDI adjustment — which is motivated by a concern for intragenerational inequality.


Insta Links

Human Development Index

Mains Links:

Q. HDI and other measures are important to cite in your argument. Sometimes direct Qn has been asked mainly on HDI and Multi-dimensional poverty index.


Q. Despite the Consistent experience of high growth, India still goes with the lowest indicators of human development. Examine the issues that make balanced and inclusive development elusive. (2016)


Prelims link

The Multi-dimensional Poverty Index developed by Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative with UNDP support covers which of the following? (2012)

  1. Deprivation of education, health, assets and services at the household level
  2. Purchasing power parity at the national level
  3. Extent of the budget deficit and GDP growth rate at the national level

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3


Ans: A

/ HDI, indian economy, Sep 12 CA, Today's Article, UNDP


Content for Mains Enrichment (Essay/Ethics)

Bengaluru doctor runs 3 km to beat the traffic to perform crucial surgery

The traffic gridlock prevented Dr Govind Nandakumar, a gastrointestinal surgeon at Manipal Hospitals, from performing urgent laparoscopic gallbladder surgery. Dr Nandakumar abandoned his car and rushed three kilometres to complete the necessary surgery because he realized that if he didn’t, the female patient may be put in danger.

As soon as he entered the operating room, Dr Nandakumar’s team—which was prepared to put the patient under anaesthesia—started the procedure. In order to do the treatment right away, the doctor quickly changed into surgical garb. The procedure went well, and the patient received a prompt discharge.

This example can be used to show dedication to work, work ethics, compassion etc.


Facts for Prelims

The Indira Gandhi Urban Employment Guarantee Scheme

 Source: The Hindu


  • The Indira Gandhi Urban Employment Guarantee Scheme has rolled out in Rajasthan
  • Objective: Providing economic support to the poor and needy families living in the cities through work to be provided on demand for 100 days a year.
  • Eligibility: Age group of 18 to 60 years residing within the limits of urban local bodies are eligible.
  • Income limit: There is no income limit, though the poor and destitute people will be given preference.
  • Categories of tasks:
    • Environment protection
    • Water conservation
    • Heritage conservation
    • Removal of encroachments and illegal boards etc


Similar Schemes in other states:

  • Ayyankali Urban Employment Guarantee Scheme in Kerala
  • Urban Wage Employment Initiative under UNNATI in Odisha
  • Mukhya Mantri Shramik Yojana in Jharkhand
  • Mukhya Mantri Yuva Swabhiman Yojana in Madhya Pradesh.


Kushiyara river treaty between India and Bangladesh

 Directions: Important for Prelims and mapping

Source: The Hindu


  • A memorandum of understanding (MoU) was signed on sharing of the waters of the Kushiyara river(distributary of the Barak river)which flows through Assam, and then on to Bangladesh.

What is the Kushiyara agreement?

  • Under the agreement, Bangladesh will be able to withdraw 153 cusecs (cubic feet per second) of water from the Kushiyara which will solve the water crisis for farmers of Sylhet.

How will Bangladesh use the water?

  • The water of Kushiyara will be channelled through the Rahimpur Canal project in Sylhet.
  • Rahimpur canal is the only supplier of water from the Kushiyara to the region.

India’s objection to the Rahimpur Canal:

  • Security issues: The dyke and other infrastructure along the canal interfered in border security as Kushiyara itself forms part of the border between the two sides.


Global Pandemic Treaty

Context: UN voted in favour of fair, long-lasting solutions for global inequities and negotiation toward the Global Pandemic Treaty (GPT)


WHO in Dec 2021 had agreed to start a global process to draft the pandemic treaty

The pandemic treaty is expected to cover aspects like:

    • Data sharing and genome sequencing of emerging viruses
    • Equitable distribution of vaccines and drugs
    • Related research throughout the world.


Trees Outside Forests (TOF) in India Initiative

Source: The Print

Direction: No need to remember the names of states involved. Just have a rough idea. 

Context: It was launched by MoEFCC and USAID with the aim to expand tree coverage outside of traditional forests by 28 lakh hectares.

In India, FSI has defined TOF as “All trees growing outside recorded forest areas irrespective of the size of the patch”. 

Benefits:  Enhance carbon sequestration, support local communities and strengthen climate resilience. 

Implementation: In seven states – AP, Assam, Haryana, Odisha, Rajasthan, TN and UP, through a partnership between farmers, companies and private institutions.

Trees outside forests (TOF) in India, mainly growing on private land, are the main source of wood in the country for industry and domestic wood fuel. The total forest and tree cover of the country is 24.62 per cent of the geographical area of the country.



Source: PIB 

Context: MoHUA (with help from National Remote Sensing Centre) has launched Urban Waterbody Information System (UWaIS) portal for providing satellite images of water bodies for proper water management planning in the cities.

Start-ups selected under the ‘India Water Pitch-Pilot-Scale Start-Up Challenge’ will be provided with financial support of up to 20 lakh each to work for water management and rejuvenation.


Zero-Emission Vehicle Transition Council (ZEVTC)

Source: Niti Aayog: e-Amrit

Context: Niti Aayog led India into the 4th ministerial dialogue of the ZEVTC.

About ZEVTC:

It is a global forum (formed in 2020) to accelerate the pace of the global transition to zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs)

Status: Cars, vans, buses, and trucks account for 21% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by as much as 80% over the vehicle’s life cycle.



IRENA releases Bioenergy for the energy transition

Source: IRENA

Context: International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) has released the “Bioenergy for the energy transition: ensuring sustainability and overcoming barriers report” with the aim to provide the status of sustainable bioenergy development.

Bioenergy: Bioenergy is a form of renewable energy generated when we burn biomass fuel E.g. biofuels for transportation. Bioenergy currently accounts for two-thirds of all renewable energy consumption worldwide.

 Benefits: Modern applications of bioenergy can provide for electricity generation, heating in buildings, transport fuels or industrial uses. They can also play a major role in the energy transition, especially in sectors with limited renewable alternatives.

Issues:  Bioenergy can incur negative environmental, social and economic impacts such as biodiversity loss, food insecurity and deforestation.


  • Countries need strong policy frameworks tailored to local contexts.
  • Policy measures are also urgently required to overcome the various political, financial, technical and supply chain-related barriers.
  • Cross-sector coordination for bioenergy
  • Integration of bioenergy policy-making with SDGs

IRENA (HQ: Bonn) was founded in 2009 and is an intergovernmental organization that supports countries in their transition to a sustainable energy future. It includes 168 members.


IPEF Ministerial

Source: PIB

Context: Indo-Pacific Economic framework (IPEF) ministerial summit concludes.

About the IPEF

It is the US-led economic grouping of 14 countries in the Indo-Pacific region, intended to counter Chinese aggressive and non-transparent trade and economic policies.

  • Members: Four QUAD countries, South Korea, New Zealand, Fiji and seven out of the ASEAN members (see map)
  • The IPEF framework has four pillars: Supply-chain resilience, Clean energy, decarbonisation & infrastructure, Taxation & anti-corruption (anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and tax), and Fair & resilient trade (strong labour and environment standards etc.)
  • It aims to define the rules of trade among countries which belief in fair play, transparency, and rules-based trading in the future

Outcome of the ministerial:

  • India has joined three out of four pillars related to supply chains, tax and anti-corruption and clean energy, but didn’t join the “Fair and resilient trade” pillar as it was apprehensive of commitments required on the environment, labour, digital trade and public procurement.

First time, avian flu is seen in cetaceans

Source: Indian Express

 Context: A bottlenose dolphin found dead in a Florida canal in the spring tested positive for a highly virulent strain of bird flu (Eurasian H5N1).

It has also been found in other marine mammals such as Porpoises and whales (called Cetaceans)

  • Cetaceans are called sentinels of ocean health as it provides insights into marine ecosystem health.

While experts emphasize that the risk to humans remains low, the spread of the virus to new species poses potential risks to wildlife and provides the virus with new chances to mutate and adapt to mammalian hosts.


Third stealth frigate of project 17A ‘Taragiri’ launched

Source: The Hindu

Direction: Go through once. No need to go into details.

 About Taragiri

The vessel is being launched with an approximate launch weight of 3510 Tons.

This is the third in the line of four frigates to be made by Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Ltd. (MDL)

Designed by the Indian Navy’s in-house design organisation – the Bureau of Naval Design.

About Project 17A:

  • Started in 2015, it involves the building of seven stealth frigates at an estimated cost of Rs 50,000 crore.
  • Of these seven, the contract for three frigates was awarded to GRSE (Kolkata) while the contract for another four frigates was awarded to Government-owned Mazagon Docks Limited (MDL) which is based in Mumbai.

Frigates and Destroyers:

Frigates are usually used as escort vessels to protect sea lines of communication or as an auxiliary component of a strike group whereas destroyers are generally integrated into carrier battle groups as the air defence component or utilised to provide territorial air and missile defence.


Exercise Parvat Prahar

Source: The Hindu

Direction: No need to overthink on such exercises. 

Context: The exercise, which was held in the Ladakh plateau at an altitude of 14,000 feet, used newly inducted all-terrain vehicles transported by Chinook heavy lift helicopters and K9-Vajra howitzers, among others.

Simultaneously on the western front, Exercise Gagan Strike culminated with a fire power display of attack helicopters supporting deep operations by Strike Corps.

Don’t get confused: Special Forces of India and the USA conducted the joint military exercise ‘VAJRA PRAHAR’.



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