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How to read the latest Human Development Report

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Economy: Human Development

 

Source: Indian Express 

Direction: This is in continuation to the article on HDI and came in the ‘Explained’ section of Indian Express. Go through the six indices and understand what each represents. 

Context: The Human Development Report for 2022 details six different human development indices that were released recently by UNDP.

 

Status:

  • India ranks 132 out of 191 countries in the Human Development Index (HDI) 2021, after registering a decline in its score over two consecutive years for the first time in three decades.
    • China 79th positions
  • For the first time in its history — the HDR has been compiled since 1990 — the global HDI value has declined two years in a row, erasing the gains of the preceding five years

 

HDR compiles:

  • HDI

  • Inequality-adjusted HDI (The IHDI “looks beyond the average achievements of a country in longevity, education and income to show how these achievements are distributed among its residents)
      • India’s HDI fell by 25% when adjusted for inequality. That’s because the share of income held by the richest 1% of the population is more than the income held by the poorest 40%.

  • Gender Development Index: The GDI essentially estimates HDI values for women and men and then looks at the ratio.
      • India is significantly behind the world average as well
  • Gender Inequality Index: The GII looks at the issue of gender inequality by preparing a composite measure using three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market.
      • India is behind major countries and is unequal for its female citizens.
  • Multidimensional Poverty Index: The Multidimensional Poverty Index captures the multiple deprivations that people in developing countries face in their health, education and standard of living.
        • India lags here too.
  • Planetary pressures-adjusted Human Development Index: Planetary pressures-adjusted Human Development Index, adjusts the HDI for planetary pressures in the Anthropocene to reflect a concern for intergenerational inequality — similar to the Inequality-adjusted HDI adjustment — which is motivated by a concern for intragenerational inequality.

 

Insta Links

Human Development Index

Mains Links:

Q. HDI and other measures are important to cite in your argument. Sometimes direct Qn has been asked mainly on HDI and Multi-dimensional poverty index.

 

Q. Despite the Consistent experience of high growth, India still goes with the lowest indicators of human development. Examine the issues that make balanced and inclusive development elusive. (2016)

 

Prelims link

The Multi-dimensional Poverty Index developed by Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative with UNDP support covers which of the following? (2012)

  1. Deprivation of education, health, assets and services at the household level
  2. Purchasing power parity at the national level
  3. Extent of the budget deficit and GDP growth rate at the national level

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

 

Ans: A