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[MISSION 2023] Insights SECURE : Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 2 September 2022

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

1. Indian family structures have evolved to accept personal preferences and social realities. Comment in the context of changing family structures in India. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live MintInsights on India

Why the question:

The remarks of India’s top court, in a dispute over maternity benefits, make a powerful intervention. They expand the idea of the ‘family’ beyond the narrow heterosexual nuclear unit. The case involved a nurse in a government hospital who was denied maternity leave because she had taken time off earlier to care for her husband’s children from a previous marriage. The court rejected the argument that her “atypical” family doesn’t qualify for what others are accorded under the law.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about modern Indian family and bring out how it has grown embrace individual choices and social realities.  You need to analyse the present family structures and notions in India.

Directive:

Comment– here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving context.

Body:

First, Discuss in points as to how the modern family system in India has  developed in India and how it has strengthened individual choices and changed the social realities. E.g The Indian family is changing. There’s no ‘ideal family’ defined by children or lineage.

Next, the concept of ‘family’ has always been fluid, even in traditional set-ups, but today “the new generation is seeing much more of the world; they’re exposed to Western norms of individualism and autonomy.

Next, write about the impact of the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

2. Election-related corruption prevents citizens from exercising their right to vote freely, leads to pay-outs, and has unjustified repercussions. Examine the efficacy of electoral offences under the Representation of People’s Act, 1951 in having free and fair elections.  (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about Representation of People’s Act, 1951 and its role in preventing electoral offences.

Directive word: 

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving the aims and objectives of Representation of People’s Act, 1951.

Body:

First, write about the various corrupt practises in elections, its extent and its impact.

Next, discuss about the provisions under Representation of People’s Act, 1951 in order to deal with corrupt electoral practises.  

Next, write about efficacy on Representation of People’s Act, 1951 to deal with the above. Mention its successes and limitations. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising and changes needed to empower Representation of People’s Act, 1951.

 

Topic: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

3. In a democracy like India, accountability of the ruling class is an important aspect of polity and governance. The office of CAG has been mandated by the Indian Constitution to be the auditors of the nation and, thus, an agent for maintaining answerability. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the powers, functions and responsibilities of Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) in India.

Directive word: 

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by stating that the Constitution of India provides for an independent office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG). CAG helps the parliament/state legislatures hold their respective governments accountable.

Body:

In brief discuss the following points – The coming of CAG office into existence – The role of the CAG evolved in British India with Lord Canning initiating a major administrative drive before the Mutiny of 1857.

Next, in detail, discuss the Constitutional provisions of the CAG. Cite statistics and examples. Explain the duties and powers, with limitations.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. The fiscal year 2021–22 ended with a somewhat mixed picture on the trade deficit front. What are its implications on the Indian economy? Enumerate the measures that are needed to bridge the trade deficit. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

Data for the first four months of 2022–23 allow us to make initial assessments about India’s merchandise trade patterns. At first sight, the numbers for April to July 2022 do not look promising as exports have expanded by 20%, but imports have grown by over 48%.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the trade deficit, reasons for its increase and its impact on the Indian economy, steps that are needed to bridge it.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by defining trade deficit.

Body:

Frist, write about the factors that have led to increasing trade deficit in the recent past.

Next, write impact increased trade deficit will have on the Indian economy. Substantiate with facts and examples.

Next, write about ways to mitigate impact of negative impact of increasing trade deficit and bridge the growing deficit.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. In keeping with the spirit of the ‘Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav’, the country is taking steps to curb littered and unmanaged plastic waste pollution. Elaborate upon the efforts to eliminate single-use plastics in the country. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: The HinduInsights on India

Why the question:

The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India, notified the Plastic Waste Management Amendment Rules, 2021 on August 12, 2021.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about concerns associated single use plastic and ways to successfully phase it out.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the context. You must be defining key terms wherever appropriate and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining single use plastic and give statistic related to plastic waste generation in India.

Body:

First, write about the concerns associated with single use plastic – usually goes into a landfill where it is buried or it gets into the water and finds its way into the ocean, releases toxic chemicals, affects Endocrine system which can cause cancer, infertility, birth defects, impaired immunity and many other ailments etc

Next, write about the ways in which singe use plastic can be phased out in the country and ensure its successful ban.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

6. Do you think that Urban flooding which is being witnessed in metropolitan cities across the nation is a man-made disaster? Critically analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

It was near apocalypse beyond the western outskirts of Bengaluru last weekend, as the government’s marquee project—the Bengaluru-Mysuru 10-lane express highway, to be readied in time for Dasara in October—was flooded. So were the districts of Mandya, Ramanagara and regions lying along the highway route.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the various causes of urban floods and ways to mitigate them

Directive word: 

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a balanced judgment on the topic.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by explaining what is urban flood.

Body:

Next, Mention the man-made causes of urban floods such as lake bed encroachments, deforestation etc.

Next, write about the natural causes of urban floods.

Next, mention the need for a city wise strategic approach and recourse in the building codes and by-laws of cities to ensure proper drainage channels and provision for perforation of rainfall into ground water to avoid urban floods.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Case Study

7. Suppose you are an officer in-charge of implementing a social service scheme to provide support to old and destitute women. An old and illiterate woman comes to you to avail the benefits of the scheme. However, she has no documents to show that she fulfills the eligibility criteria. But after meeting her and listening to her you feel that she certainly needs support. Your enquirers also show that she is really destitute and living in a pitiable condition. You are in a dilemma as to what to do. Putting her under the scheme without necessary documents would clearly be violation of rules. But denying her the support would be cruel and inhuman. a) Can you think of a rational way to resolve this dilemma? b) Give your reasons for it. (250 Words) (20 M) (UPSC 2016)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving the context. Bring out the key stakeholders in the above case study and major ethical dilemmas present.

Body:

In the body, write about the rational course of action available for you as the officer in charger.

Next, give valid arguments for the both the above-mentioned courses of action that you can take. Evaluate its pros and cons in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing on the importance of rationality in decision making.


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