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Only 16% of human trafficking cases in 2021 saw convictions

GS paper 2

Syllabus: Government policies and interventions for the development of various social sectors, Issues of human trafficking etc


Source: Indian Express

Directions: The data can be used as an example in mains in the overburdened judiciary. This is in continuation of the previous article two days back on NCRB data.



  • The conviction rate in human trafficking cases across the country continues to be low, according to the latest report of the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB).


Key Highlights:

      • Only 16 per cent saw convictions against cases registered under the Anti-Human Trafficking Units (AHTUs).
      • Data not available: The data on convictions was not available for 11 states and as many as eight states and three Union territories saw no convictions at all.
      • Top performer: The top performer was Jharkhand, which saw convictions in 84.2 per cent (Eighty-four point two) of the 92 cases that were registered in 2021.
      • Zero conviction: 11 states and Union territories reported zero convictions in 2021.
      • Highest trafficking cases: The highest number of trafficking cases was registered in Telangana (347 cases), Maharashtra (320 cases), and Assam (203 cases).
      • General dip in cases: Barring Telangana, all states saw a dip in cases in 2020, the first year of the pandemic which saw lockdowns.
      • Previous years: In 2020, only 10.6 per cent (ten point six) of the total cases saw convictions and in 2019 there were convictions in 22 per cent.


Human trafficking:

It is a form of modern-day slavery involving the illegal transport of individuals by force or deception for the purpose of labour, sexual exploitation, or activities in which others benefit financially.


Constitutional & legislative provisions related to Trafficking in India:

      • Article 23: Trafficking in Human Beings or Persons is prohibited under the Constitution of India under Article 23 (1).
      • The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 (ITPA): It is the premier legislation for the prevention of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.
      • Section 370 and 370A of IPC: It provides for comprehensive measures to counter the menace of human trafficking including the trafficking of children for exploitation in any form including physical exploitation or any form of sexual exploitation, slavery, servitude, or the forced removal of organs.


Insta Links:

Human trafficking



Mains Link:

Q. Though the Human Rights Commission have contributed immensely to the protection of human rights in India, yet they have failed to assert themselves against the mighty and powerful. Analyzing their structural and practical limitations, suggest remedial measures. (UPSC 2021)


Prelims Links:

      • Human trafficking
      • Article 23
      • NCRB
      • The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 (ITPA)

Consider the following statements:

    1. Human trafficking is prohibited under the constitution of India.
    2. There is no law for prevention of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (a)


Refer to the article above