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[Mission 2023] SECURE SYNOPSIS:30 August 2022

 

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

 

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

1. Caste discrimination makes our democracy fraught. In many places in the country, even today caste determines a person’s occupation. Examine the ill effects of caste discrimination on the contemporary society. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Indian ExpressInsights on India

Why the question:

In many places in the country, even today caste determines a person’s occupation. Labour is an obligation, not a choice. As Ambedkar pointed out, caste is the division of labourers, not labour.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the ill effects of caste discrimination, reasons for its prevalence and ways to overcome it.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must investigate the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving background about the caste discrimination in modern India.

Body:

First, write about the reasons for the prevalence of caste discrimination in India and factors behind it.

Next, mention the impact of caste discrimination and how it is affecting contemporary society. Substantiate with facts and examples.

Next, write about the steps that are needed to overcome the above issues and empower weaker sections.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a way forward.

 

Introduction

Caste system refers to a broad hierarchical institutional arrangement along which basic social factors like birth, marriage, food-sharing etc are arranged in a hierarchy of rank and status. These sub-divisions are traditionally linked to occupations and decide the social relations with respect to other upper and lower castes.

Indian society has been bearing the brunt of this social evil since the post-Vedic times and continues to bear despite Constitutional and Legal measures.

Body

Caste system is the bane for the Indian society:

  • Segmental division of society: It means that social stratification is largely based on caste. Membership to a caste group is acquired by birth, on the basis of which people are ranked in relative to other caste groups.
  • Hierarchy: It indicates that various castes are categorized according to their purity and impurity of occupations.
  • Civil and religious disabilities: Example, lower caste groups had no access to wells, they were restricted from entering temples etc.
  • Endogamy: Members of a particular caste have to marry within their caste only. Inter caste marriages are prohibited.
  • Untouchability: It is the practice of ostracizing a group by segregating them from the mainstream by social custom.
  • Hindered national unity:The caste system and religion developed a parochial feeling and made the people unduly conscious of their own castes/religion.
    • Many a time caste/communal interests were given priority over national interest.
    • Thus the whole system stood against the very concept of national unity.
  • Hinders democracy:Democracy presupposes human equality, but the caste system believed in inequality and there was a hierarchical arrangement.
    • Today caste has manifested into a subject to gain political benefits, like reservation in educational colleges, government jobs etc.
  • Lowered women’s status: The practice of Sati, child marriage etc  were result of caste system. Women were treated as second-class citizens. This patriarchal behaviour is still prevalent today.
  • Violence and conflict: Dalit atrocities, sexual assault on lower caste women etc are result of such discrimination and exploitation which are in turn a result of caste and communal identities deeply entrenched in Indian society

The evil face of Caste System:

  • Manual scavenging: Manual scavenging eventually became a caste-based occupation, which involves the removal of untreated human excreta from bucket toilets or pit latrines. It has been officially abolished by the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act 2013.
  • Caste based violence in India: Increasing trend of caste based violence are related to instances of inter-caste marriage and assertion of basic rights by Dalits including landrights, freedom of expression, access to justice, access to education etc.
  • Dalit violence: Increasing trend of caste-based violence are related to instances of inter-caste marriage and assertion of basic rights by Dalits including land rights, freedom of expression, access to justice, access to education etc.
    • A group of Dalits were attacked in Una, Gujarat when they had participated in the movement for demand of land ownership for the Dalits.
    • Hathras Gang rape of a Dalit womanwas touted as caste based violence.
  • Jati Panchayat: The status of each caste is carefully protected, not only by caste laws but also by the conventions. These areopenly enforced by the community through a governing body or board called Jati Panchayat.
  • The Concept of Purity and Pollution: The higher castes claimed to have ritual, spiritual and racial purity which they maintained by keeping the lower castes away through the notion of pollution. The idea of pollution means a touch of lower caste man would pollute or defile a man of higher caste.
  • Restriction on Food and Drink: Usually a caste would not accept cooked food from any other caste that stands lower than itself in the social scale, due to the notion of getting polluted.
  • The caste system is a check on economic and intellectual advancement and a great stumbling block in the way of social reforms
  • It undermines the efficiency of labour and prevents perfect mobility of labour, capital and productive effort
  • It perpetuates the exploitation of the economically weaker and socially inferior castes, especially the untouchables.
  • Inflicted untold hardships on women through its insistence on practices like child-marriage, prohibition of widow-remarriage, seclusion of women
  • Caste conflicts are widely prevalent in politics, reservation in jobs and education, inter-caste marriages etc.

How casteism can be removed?

  • Emotional and intellectual appeal to economic determinism, as was advocated by Karl Marx
  • Awareness about Constitutional values, ethics, ill effects of castiesm etc. by debates, nukkad natak, puppetry,
  • Promote and incentivise inter caste marriages as is already done for marrying a SC ST women in some parts of India.
  • Evaluate the existing customs, rituals etc. on thetouchstone of Human Rights. Here judiciary can play a positive role but with due respect to religious feelings.
  • Implement laws and agreements like ICCPR, Protection of human rights, Prevention of atrocities against SC ST etc. with full letter and spirit.
  • Dalit capitalism, check on extra judicial bodies like Khaps etc.
  • Economic empowerment of Dalit through education and ownership of land and capital.

Conclusion

caste system is a terrible anomaly of society which became more prevalent over time. It is the strong enemy of the concept of social justice mentioned in the Indian Constitution and causes economic, social damage to the country from time to time. Undoubtedly, along with the government, it is the responsibility of the common man, religious leaders, politicians, and civil society to resolve this discrepancy as soon as possible.

 

 

Topic: Social empowerment

2. What is social entrepreneurship? Social entrepreneurship seeks out novel and distinctive concepts that are strongly tied to society and offer solutions on the cultural and social levels. Comment. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

While addressing the nation on the occasion of India@75, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said, “India must become a developed nation before it marks the Centenary of Independence.” In his address, the Prime Minister called upon the people to move forward with five pledges to fulfil the dreams of freedom fighters by 2047—a theme that President Droupadi Murmu had also underscored in her speech on the eve of Independence Day.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about entrepreneurship and the benefits it offers to the society.

Directive:

Comment- here we must express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by defining social entrepreneurship.

Body:

First, in detail, describe the features of social entrepreneurship and what it seeks to achieve.

Next, write about the benefits offered by social entrepreneurship – strategies that provide solutions for cultural, social, or environmental issues along with making a profit for the organization. Substantiate with facts and examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude by commenting on the efficacy of social entrepreneurship on social empowerment of Indian society.

 

Introduction

Social Entrepreneurship is a construct that blends the idea of a commercial enterprise with the tenets of a charitable non-profit organization. It is about creating business models revolving around low-cost products and services to resolve social inequities. It helps to succeed in economic initiatives, and all the investment focuses on the social and environmental mission.

Social entrepreneurs are also called social innovators. They are the agents of change and create significant change using innovative ideas. They identify the problems and build the difference by their plan.

Body

Features of social entrepreneurship

  • While most entrepreneurs are motivated by the potential to earn a profit, the profit motive does not prevent the ordinary entrepreneur from having a positive impact on society.
  • Examples of social entrepreneurship include microfinance institutions, educational programs, providing banking services in underserved areas and helping children orphaned by epidemic disease.
  •  Their efforts are connected to a notion of addressing unmet needs within communities that have been overlooked or not granted access to services, products, or base essentials available in more developed communities.
  •  A social entrepreneur might also seek to address imbalances in such availability, the root causes behind such social problems, or social stigma associated with being a resident of such communities.
  •  The main goal of a social entrepreneurs not to earn a profit, but rather to implement widespread improvements in society.
  •  However, a social entrepreneur must still be financially savvy to succeed in his or her cause.

Benefits offered by social entrepreneurship

  • Social entrepreneurship is a crucial driver in the economy as it opens up new prospects. This is mainly through its impact on economic sustainability, social integration and the cause of a fair society.
  •  It is not just about processes of creation, change and sustainable development; it is also a significant social problem-solving mechanism.
  • Agricultural social entrepreneurship holds enormous potential for fostering an enabling ecosystem for farmers.
  • Value chain management, organic farming, Agri-decision support systems, and input and product management are some of the prospects for development driven by agricultural social entrepreneurship in India.

Conclusion

If India’s youth unfurl their wings, we will be able to achieve our vision of India@2047. Start-ups, social enterprises, businesses, civil society organizations, public-private partnerships, academia and government institutions can collectively support the nation on a progressive path to socioeconomic independence (not just at the national level but even at the global level) by taking an active participatory approach.

Value addition

Case studies

  • Pravah and ComMutiny: The two organizations that train the youth for leadership roles, Pravah and ComMutiny, have won the Social Entrepreneur of the Year (SEOY) 2020 award instituted by the Schwab Foundation and Jubilant Bhartia Foundation.
    • Established in 1993, Pravah has been facilitating the development of a generation of empathetic, sensitive youth change-makers in India through psycho-social interventions, helping them build more inclusive identities and societies.
    • ComMutiny which was formed in 2008, works on the idea of making collectives out of organizations like Pravah.
  • Dr. Govindappa Venkataswamy’s Aravind Eye Hospitals: Its business model is highly social, yet sustainable. It runs on its own revenue. The founder’s mission was to eradicate blindness amongst the poor in India, especially in rural India living with a minimum daily wage and who can’t afford medical treatment.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government;

3. For the protection of fundamental rights, a remedy is given under Article 32 of the Indian Constitution, which empowers the Supreme Court to issue writs when the fundamental rights of any citizen are violated. Discuss. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the role of SC in safeguarding fundamental rights under article 32.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Start by giving a brief about article 32.

Body:

First, in detail, about the role of the SC as the “guarantor” and “defender” of the fundamental rights.

Next, write in detail about the various types of writs and the purposes behind it. Substantiate using examples and SC case to show how writs are used to protect fundamental rights.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarising and giving views of various scholars regarding it.

Introduction

Article 32 falls under Part III of the Constitution that includes the fundamental rights of individuals. It allows an individual to approach the Supreme Court if she or he believes that her or his fundamental rights have been violated or they need to be enforced.

Dr B.R. Ambedkar had once said, “If I was asked to name any particular article in this Constitution as the most important — an article without which this Constitution would be a nullity — I could not refer to any other article except this one (Article 32). It is the very soul of the Constitution and the very heart of it.”

Body

Rationale behind Article 32 called the heart and soul of the constitution:

  • Right to constitutional remedies works on the Doctrine “Ubi Jus Ibi Remedium” which means when there is a right there is a remedy.
  • It gives the power to the citizens of India to go directly to the Supreme Court of India, rather than by way of appeal, if they feel that any of their Fundamental Rights have been violated. Article 32 makes the Supreme Court the defender and guarantor of the fundamental rights.
  • Article 32 came out to be the greatest safeguard that could be provided to protect the fundamental rights of the citizens and “It is a right fundamental to all the other Fundamental Rights”.
  • Courts, as the judicial sentinel of the fundamental rights, are equipped with constitutional weapons i.e., WRITS.
  • Writs which are being performed both by The Supreme Court and The High Court under Article 32 and 226 are for the violation and enactment of the Fundamental Rights.
  • Both the courts have the power to issue directions, orders, and writs, including writs of Habeas corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo warranto, and Certiorari, for the enforcement of any of the rights.
  • On the other hand, Parliament has the right to empower any other court with such authority so that it can act as “Protector and guarantor” of such rights.
  • Supreme Court in basic structure doctrine made clear that right to move to Supreme Court cannot be suspended except otherwise provided by the Constitution. This implies that this right suspended during a national emergency under article 359

Conclusion

The constitutional remedies provided to the citizens are the most powerful orders with immediate effects and results and that is why it has always been considered as the most important fundamental right engrafted in the Constitution of India. The Constitution of our country isn’t rigid and the various cases and court proceedings keep on challenging the basic structure of the Constitution. Article 32 still ensures that the fundamental rights of the citizens will always be protected and enforced by the Judiciary of India. And no citizen will be left unheard and deprived of his/her rights being the citizens of an independent country.

Value addition

Landmark cases of Article 32:

  • In a judgment in the L. Chandra Kumar vs. Union of India and Others case and P. Sampath Kumar vs. Union of India case, it was declared that Article 32 was an integral and essential feature of the Constitution and constituted its basic structure.
  • During the 1975 Emergency, in the ADM Jabalpur vs. Shivakant Shukla case, SC had ruled that the right to constitutional remedies under Article 32 would remain suspended during a national emergency. People were unable to seek redressal when their fundamental rights were being hampered.
  • The most recent incidents where Article 32 was discussed, was when Kerala-based journalist Siddique Kappan languished in jail, and debate around the relevance of Article 32 continued inside and outside the Indian courts, the reason being that the Supreme Court may no longer entertain bail petitions under Article 32 of the Constitution.
  • The court had then said that “The right to approach the Supreme Court under Article 32 is itself a fundamental right and that there is no doubt that if a citizen of India is deterred in any case from approaching this Court in exercise of his right”.
  • In the recent case of Arnab Goswami, where PIL’s were filed against him under Article 32 of the Constitution, Hon’ble Chief Justice had said that Supreme Court wouldn’t exercise its powers for matters under Article 32 and also contended that it should be solely done by the High Court with appropriate jurisdiction so as to protect the interest and rights of individuals.
  • The impact of article 32 has been huge with landmark cases like Shreya Singhal v Union of India where supreme court struck down Section 66A of the Information Technology Act, 2000, Meera Santosh Pal and Others v Union of India and Others where Supreme Court gave judgment on medical termination of pregnancy of a 24-week foetus etc.

 

 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government;

4. There are several Vacancies in the Indian judiciary at various levels (the Supreme Court, High Courts, and subordinate courts). There aren’t enough judges to hear and decide cases, which leads to delays and a rise in the number of pending cases. Analyse. (250 words)

Difficulty level: Moderate

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 2 and mentioned as part of Mission-2023 Secure timetable.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about various causes for pendency of cases in India, its impact and suggest measures to overcome this issue.

Directive:

Analyse – When asked to analyse, you must examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving vital statistics to substantiate on the judicial pendency of cases.

Body:

First, write the causes for it – The cumulative effect of persisting vacancies, strained budgets, inadequate infrastructure combined with the continuous inflow of cases inevitably impacts mounting pendency and the time taken for cases to resolve.

Next bring out the impact of it – faith in the justice system, under trial prisoners their due of justice, impact on Economic reforms and foreign investors, Judiciary becomes overworked and lose its efficiency.

Suggest measures to overcome the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude writing a way forward.

Introduction

The Indian Judiciary plays an increasingly important role in the life and the governance of this country. A measure of the justice delivery system is the pendency of cases in courts across the country. There has been a significant deterioration in this aspect. The problem of pendency of cases is “intensifying” due to a lack of the sufficient number of judges, the erstwhile Chief Justice of India N V Ramana had said the government is yet to clear 23 names recommended for various high courts (HCs).

Body

Vacancies in the Indian Judiciary at various levels

  • The courts are operating at a fraction of their authorised capacity.
  • According to an answer in the Rajya Sabha on August 4, 2022 – the Supreme Court has three seats vacant (out of 34), High Courts have 380 seats vacant (out of 1,108) and district and subordinate courts have 5,342 vacant seats (out of 24,631).
  • Out of 1,100 judges in various high courts in the country, there are about 400 to 500 posts vacant all the time.
  • The lower judiciary presently has around 5,300 seats vacant – over 20% of its capacity.
  • These vacancies are important as around 4.1 crore pending cases are before these courts.
  • One of the main problems is the lack of data about vacancies in district courts.
  • While the Union Ministry of Law and Justice publishes a comprehensive dataset every month noting vacancies in the Supreme Court and High Courts, it has no similar mechanism for the lower courts.

Rise in number of judges alone will not help reduce the pendency:

  • From 1950 to 1921, the number of Supreme Court judges has increased nearly four times. Even then, case pendency has steadily kept rising.
  • The key reason for the mounting of pending cases can be attributed to shifting the role of the Supreme Court from adjudicating cases of constitutional significance into a regular court of appeals.
  • According to legal experts, most of the cases that the Supreme Court was handling daily are either appeals from various high courts or cases of gross violation of individual’s fundamental rights. But this role was never meant for the apex court.
  • It is because of frivolous PILs and various government policies which are challenged by the people that takes up most of judiciary’s time

Other measures needed to reduce pendency of cases:

  • Improving infrastructure for quality justice:
    • The Parliamentary Standing Committeewhich presented its report on Infrastructure Development and Strengthening of Subordinate Courts, suggested:
    • States should provide suitable land for construction of court buildings etc. It should undertake vertical construction in light of shortage of land.
    • Timeline set out for computerization of all the courts, as a necessary step towards setting up of e- courts.
  • Addressing the Issue of Vacancies:
    • Ensure the appointments of the judges be done in an efficient way by arriving at an optimal judge strength to handle the cases pending in the system.
    • The 120th Law Commission of India report for the first time, suggested a judge strength fixation formula.
    • Supreme Court and High Courts should appoint efficient and experienced judges as Ad-hoc judges in accordance with the Constitution.
    • All India Judicial Service, which would benefit the subordinate judiciary by increasing quality of judges and help reduce the pendency.
  • Timeframe to dispose of cases:
    • Having a definite time frame to dispose the cases by setting annual targets and action plans for the subordinate judiciary and the High Courts. The judicial officers could be issued a strict code of conduct, to ensure that the duties are adequately performed by the officials.
    • Strict regulation of adjournments and imposition of exemplary costs for seeking it on flimsy grounds especially at the trial stage and not permitting dilution of time frames specified in Civil Procedure Code.
  • Better Court Management System & Reliable Data Collection:
    • For this categorization of cases on the basis of urgency and priority along with bunching of cases should be done.
  • Use of Information technology (IT) solutions:
    • The use of technology for tracking and monitoring cases and in providing relevant information to make justice litigant friendly. A greater impetus should be given to
  • Process reengineering:
    • Involves redesigning of core business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in productivity and quality by incorporating the use of technology in court rules. It will include:
    • Electronic filing of cases:e-Courts are a welcome step in this direction, as they give case status and case history of all the pending cases across High courts and Subordinate courts bringing ease of access to information.
    • Revamping of National Judicial Data Gridby introducing a new type of search known as elastic search, which is closer to the artificial intelligence.
  • Alternate dispute resolution (ADR):
    • As stated in the Conference on National Initiative to Reduce Pendency and Delay in Judicial System- Legal Services Authorities should undertake pre-litigation mediation so that the inflow of cases into courts can be regulated.
    • The Lok Adalatshould be organized regularly for settling civil and family matters.
    • Gram Nyayalayas, as an effective way to manage small claim disputes from rural areas which will help in decreasing the workload of the judicial institution.
    • Village Legal Care & Support Centrecan also be established by the High Courts to work at grass root level to make the State litigation friendly.

Conclusion:

The fundamental requirement of a good judicial administration is accessibility, affordability and speedy justice, which will not be realized until and unless the justice delivery system is made within the reach of the individual in a time bound manner and within a reasonable cost. Therefore, continuous formative assessment is the key to strengthen and reinforce the justice delivery system in India.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security

5. Critically examine the reasons behind the India’s opposition to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of nuclear weapons (NPT). Do you think it is time to revisit and redefine India’s credible minimum deterrence strategy of its nuclear doctrine? (250 words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Indian ExpressInsights on India

Why the question:

An international conference to review the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty concluded at the United Nations in New York last week without a consensus document. Given the growing great power conflict today, that was not unexpected. Surprisingly, though, the NPT review elicited little interest in Delhi. India, one of the world’s nuclear weapon powers, ought to be paying a lot more attention to the international nuclear discourse that is acquiring new dimensions and taking a fresh look at its own civilian and military nuclear programmes.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the reasons for India’s opposition of NPT and if time is to redefine credible minimum deterrence.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin by giving the aims and objectives of NPT and context of its inception.

Body:

First, write about the reasons as to why India has not signed the NPT and objectively examine its stand.

Next, define credible minimum deterrence strategy of India’s nuclear doctrine. Write about the reasons behind its place. Write if there is a needed to revisit the strategy given the geopolitical compulsions of the age.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing a balanced opinion regarding revisiting credible minimum deterrence strategy.

 

Introduction

The Nuclear non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to foster the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of disarmament. Nuclear-weapon states parties under the NPT are defined as those that manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device before January 1, 1967.

An international conference to review the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty concluded at the United Nations in New York last week without a consensus document. Given the growing great power conflict today, that was not unexpected. Surprisingly, though, the NPT review elicited little interest in Delhi. India, one of the world’s nuclear weapon powers, ought to be paying a lot more attention to the international nuclear discourse that is acquiring new dimensions and taking a fresh look at its own civilian and military nuclear programmes.

Body

India’s stand on NPT

Today, India is one of the only five countries that either did not sign the NPT thus becoming part of a list that includes Pakistan, Israel, North Korea (withdrew later), and South Sudan.

  • Till date, the NPT recognises only the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (US, Russia, UK, France and China) as nuclear weapon powers and mandates that other countries can be a party to the NPT only as a non-nuclear weapon state.
  • This is not acceptable to India and hence the issue of India joining the NPT does not arise.
  • India’s stated position on the NPT is that it “cannot accept externally prescribed norms or standards on matters within the jurisdiction of its Parliament or which are not consistent with India’s constitutional provisions and procedures, or are contrary to India’s national interests or infringe on its sovereignty.”
  • India’s refusal to accede to the Treaty is on grounds that it is a biased legal instrument that divided the world into “nuclear haves” and “nuclear have-nots”.
  • Perceived security threats from Pakistan and Pakistan’s all weather friend China, on the one hand, and from the United States, on the other (U.S. inaction in 1965 war and active support for Pakistan in the 1971 war are cases in point) provide a strong security-driven rationale.
  • Despite being a non-party, India abides by the principles and objectives of the NPT, including its nuclear disarmament aspirations.
  • India’s hostile neighbor Pakistan is increasingly talking about tactical nuclear weapons. India’s geographical position between China and Pakistan is a huge security threat. Hence there is no question of giving up nuclear weapons under NPT.
  • India has always reiterated for complete and verifiable global disarmament.
  • India has ruled out the possibility of joining the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a non-nuclear weapon state but said it remains “committed” to a unilateral voluntary moratorium on nuclear explosive testing.

Credible minimum deterrence does not imply indefinite expansion of the nuclear arsenal; rather it is built on an assured second-strike capability. This implies that in the event of another nation carrying out a first nuclear strike of any magnitude against India, India’s nuclear forces shall be so deployed as to ensure survivability of the attack and the capability to carry out a massive, punitive nuclear retaliation aimed at inflicting damage that the aggressor will find “unacceptable”. Additionally, CMD requires a robust command and control system; effective intelligence and early warning capabilities; comprehensive planning and training for operations in line with the strategy; and the will to employ nuclear forces and weapons.

Should India revisit the Credible Minimum Deterrence

  • The concept of “credible minimum deterrence” is the cornerstone of India’s nuclear doctrine.
  • It, used in conjunction with the concepts of “No First Use” (NFU) and “Non Use” against nuclear weapon states, clearly indicates that India envisages its nuclear weapons as only a deterrent merely for defensive purposes and not as a means to threaten others, that it is not in the business of building up a huge arsenal and that it will not engage in arms racing.
  • The concept, however, also recognizes that for deterrence to be effective it must be “credible”.
  • When China was conventionally stronger, India felt somewhat protected due to difficult terrain on the Himalayan border. Now, China’s impressive infrastructure and massive military modernisation have effectively eroded the Himalayan buffer. This is putting immense pressure on India’s CMD policy.
  • India’s conventional advantage has been impacted by Pakistan through a clever use of terrorists and threat of using tactical nuclear weapons against any Indian conventional response to a 26/11 type of an attack. India’s nuclear doctrine, that professes massive retaliation even against use of small nuclear weapon, does not help.
  • Pakistan is rapidly increasing its arsenal size and improving the survivability of its nuclear weapons.
  • NFU is not good for war like situation, because it requires India to first absorb a nuclear attack before responding. It may result in unacceptably high initial casualties and damage to Indian population, cities, and infrastructure.

Conclusion

               Delhi must ask itself if its nuclear weapons can deter China’s expanding atomic arsenal. After 1998, India premised its strategy on building “credible minimum deterrence”. The time has come to reflect on the “credible” side of that strategy and redefine what the ‘minimum’ might be. Thus, there is a need to relook at the Credible Minimum Deterrence strategy of Indian Nuclear Doctrine.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker- sections.

6. To deal with these challenging circumstances prevailing across the world in the recent past, the world requires compassion, cooperation and complete solidarity. Discuss. (150 Words)

Difficulty level: Easy

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the importance compassion, cooperation and complete solidarity in dealing with contemporary challenges.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you must debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You must give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving context.

Body:

First, write about the challenging circumstances prevailing across the world in recent past – pandemic, extreme weather events, wars, social strife etc.

Next, write how compassion, cooperation and solidarity can play a part in overcoming the above-mentioned challenges. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Complete by summarising.

 

Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships.

7. Do you think the concept of moonlighting is ethical in your opinion? (150 Words)

Difficulty level: Tough

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4 and part of ‘Conceptual Tuesdays’ in Mission-2023 Secure.

Key Demand of the question:

To form an opinion on ethicality of moonlighting.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by defining the concept of moonlighting.

Body:

First, give reasons as to why there is need of moonlighting and cite reasons as to why it maybe considered ethical.

Next, given reasons as to why moonlighting maybe considered unethical.

Conclusion:

Conclude by giving a balanced opinion the issue.

Introduction

Compassion, cooperation and solidarity are the guiding stars of humanitarianism. Today in a world mired by wars, terrorism, trafficking, hunger and poverty, the three saviours will be amalgamation of compassion, cooperation and solidarity.

The tragic war between Russia and Ukraine is now almost in its seventh month. The assault and humiliation faced by Ukrainian citizens in this period will be remembered as the stigma of the 21st century.

Body

Compassion is our first guiding star to advance humanity in crisis settings. Without compassion, which literally means ‘suffering together,’ we would not be able to put ourselves into each other’s shoes, or see a crisis through the eyes of a child and realise that other human lives are worth saving, sometimes by taking risks.

Solidarity comes next. Countless times I have seen solidarity shape into a collective force to do good. Solidarity does not always have to be heroic: sometimes, it can mean giving voice to the powerless, protesting injustice, or not letting others suffer alone. Other times, it can make the difference between life and death.

Eg: In India, people came together to go the extra mile and lend a hand during covid-19 pandemic. Several initiatives- from distributing food to migrant workers to buying protective gear for healthcare workers – brought a sense of solidarity among the society.

Cooperation is needed to provide a mindset and solid anchor to compassion and solidarity; it is also what enables us to ‘make things happen’. In wars, disasters and emergencies, there are a hundred jobs to be done, and it is natural that we may get paralysed. Only cooperation can save the day and humanity.

More than ever, it is imperative to stand up against stigma, hate speech, xenophobia, racism, war and all forms of discrimination that are an affront to universal human values and rights

Conclusion

“If we want societies to be inclusive, cohesive and peaceful, this is the time to foster an alliance between cultures, civilizations, and people”. Global fraternity and global village must become a reality to save human kind from an impending apocalypse which is man-made.

  • Do you think the concept of moonlighting is ethical in your opinion? (150 Words)

Introduction

The practice of working for one organisation while also taking up extra responsibilities and jobs, typically without the employer’s knowledge, is referred to as moonlighting. It is called so the side employment is typically performed at night or on the weekends. The phrase became well-known when Americans began looking for second jobs in addition to their regular 9-to-5 jobs to supplement their income.

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Need for moonlighting and its ethical basis

  • While moonlighting is often considered wrong, “Ethical moonlighting” is a win-win concept in which individuals are able to monetize their skills in more than one place or role and in the most ethical manner within the data governing principles of such a practice.
  • This helps in creating a positive position for all three parties involved: the individual, the primary employer, and the secondary employer that takes the additional services.
  • As the pandemic hit in 2020, many gainfully employed professionals lost their jobs at every level—the layoffs were not restricted to fresher’s and middle management, but impacted CxO level roles too.
    • Companies downscaled their working staff and even rolled out pay cuts as severe as 60%-75%.
    • This left many highly-skilled, experienced and talented professionals with a meager primary source of income and bills to pay that were aligned with their original salaries.
    • The only way to bridge the gap and meet their expenses was to take up a second job.

Ethical issues that may arise

  • A person may work more than one job in India without breaking the law.
    • However, a person with a similar set of jobs could give rise to concerns about a violation of confidentiality because many employers include such restrictions in their employment agreements in addition to prohibitions against holding down multiple jobs.
    • Eg: Same person working for google and Microsoft and risk of sharing trade secret.
  • Moonlighting could be considered cheating if an employee’s contract calls for non-compete and single employment, which is the situation with the majority of conventional employment contracts.
    • However, it is not cheating if the employment contracts do not have such a clause or provide relaxations.

Conclusion

No longer a stop-gap measure, many companies and employees have embraced the benefits of moonlighting, as long as it is done ethically. There must be a water-tight contract hiring which can alleviate problems related to confidentiality. This can lead to gig economy for organised sectors too.


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